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Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 535-539, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-957423


Objective:To observe the efficacy and safety of radium-223 in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) with bone metastasis.Methods:The clinical data of 48 patients with mCRPC treated with radium-223(55 kBq/kg, once every 4 weeks, planned to use for 6 cycles)from February 2021 to May 2022 were analyzed retrospectively. All patients had symptomatic bone metastasis without visceral metastasis, which the number of bone metastasis was more than one site.They were all classified as IVb stage. The average age was 70.5 (ranging 49-90) years. The median PSA was 44.70(ranging 0.15-1 864.00) ng/ml. The median ALP was 162 (ranging 43-1 589) U/L. The median time from mCRPC diagnosis to radium-223 use was 10 (ranging 3-47) months. 9, 18 and 11 patients had received first-line, second-line and third-line treatment for mCRPC before enrollment respectively, 10 patients had received at least fourth-line treatment. 38 (79.1%), 31 (64.5%), 30 (62.5%) and 7 (14.6%) patients had used abiraterone, enzalutamide, docetaxel and olaparib before enrollment. The probability of PSA level decrease >30%, ALP level decrease >30%, symptom improvement rate, median overall survival (OS), as well as the occurrence of treatment-related adverse reactions and the reasons for withdraw treatment were analyzed.Results:The median follow-up time was 8 (ranging 1-16) months. 11 patients completed all 6 courses of treatment. The median number of completed courses was 4 (ranging 1-6). 27 patients (56.2%) received radium-223 and bone protection drugs (Bisphosphate/ Denosumab). PSA decreased by >30% was recorded in 10 patients (20.8%) and ALP decreased by >30% was recorded in 25 patients (52.1%). 23 cases (47.9%) reported bone pain relief during treatment. Among the 9 patients who had received first-line of mCRPC previously, 6 cases (66%) had relief of bone pain symptoms, and 4 cases (44%) had a decrease of PSA >30%. Among the 18 patients who had previously received second-line mCRPC treatment, 11 cases (61%) had relief of bone pain symptoms, and 4 cases (22%) had a decrease of PSA >30%. Among the 21 patients who had received third-line or more mCRPC treatment in the past, 6 (28.5%) had symptom relief, and 2 (9.5%) had PSA decrease >30%. The median overall survival (OS) was not reached, and the OS was estimated to be 12.5 months using the Kaplan-Meier method. The most common hematological adverse effects were thrombocytopenia (15 cases, 31.2%; grade 3 in 6 cases and grade 4 in 0), followed by leucopenia (11 cases, 22.9%; grade 3 in 4 cases and grade 4 in 1 case) and anemia (8 cases, 16.7%; grade 3 in 3 cases and grade 4 in 0). Non-hematological adverse reactions included fever in 1 case (2.1%), constipation in 4 cases (8.3%), nausea and vomiting in 10 cases (20.8%), diarrhea in 7 cases (14.6%), dizziness in 1 case (2.1%) and fatigue in 11 cases (22.9%). Seven cases were discontinued due to intolerable adverse reactions (median 2 courses), 14 cases were discontinued due to disease progression or death (median 2 courses), and 5 cases were discontinued due to other reasons (median 1 course).Conclusions:Radium-223 has a good performance in symptom control for mCRPC patients who have previously received first-line or second-line therapy. Due to the high incidence of hematological adverse reactions, more attention should be paid to the changes of hemogram during the treatment, and timely treatment should be carried out to improve the drug tolerance of patients.

Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 512-517, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-957419


Objective:To analyze germline genetic testing in Chinese high-to very-high-risk non-metastatic prostate cancer patients.Methods:This study included 249 Chinese patients with high- to very-high-risk non-metastatic prostate cancer for germline genetic testing, in Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, West China Hospital and Cancer Center of Sun Yat-sen University, from January 2018 to December 2022. High risk and very-high risk are termed according to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Prostate Cancer Guideline (2022 V1). The mean age of the patients was (66.7±9.2) years old and median PSA level was 28.50 (ranging 2.43 - 1481.11) ng/ml. Within these 249 patients, 84 (33.7%) were T 1-2, 98 (39.3%) were T 3-4, while 67 (26.9%) were unclear in T stage. Additionally, 51 patients (20.5%) were classified into International Society of Urological Pathology(ISUP) grade group 1-3 group and 198 patients (79.5%) were in ISUP 4-5 group. Focusing on 16 genetic susceptibility genes for prostate cancer, we interpret the germline genetic testing data in accordance with the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) guideline, clarify the germline pathogenic mutation rate and elucidate the clinicopathological characteristics of germline pathogenic mutation carriers. Results:Among Chinese high-to very-high-risk non-metastatic prostate cancer patients, 7.2% (18/249) had germline pathogenic mutations. Patients with mutations had a significantly higher proportion of first-degree relatives with a history of malignancy than those without mutations (50% vs. 13%, P<0.001), but there was no difference in age of onset [(68.2±9.3)years vs. (66.6±9.2) years], PSA level (median: 40.68 ng/ml vs. 28.00 ng/ml), T stage [T 3-4: 38.9%(7/18)vs. 39.4%(91/231)] and ISUP grade [group 4-5: 88.9%(16/18) vs. 78.8%(182/231)]. Germline pathogenic mutations were observed in BRCA2 (7 patients, 38.9%), MSH2 (3 patients, 16.7%), PALB2 (2 patients, 11.1%), ATM (2 patients, 11.1%), RAD51C (1 patient, 5.6%), PMS2 (1 patient, 5.6%), MSH6 (1 patient, 5.6%) and HOXB13 (1 patient, 5.6%). By comparing with normal controls of East-Asian population, germline pathogenic mutations in BRCA2 ( OR=11.1, 95% CI 4.8-25.6, P<0.001) and MSH2 ( OR= 43.5, 95% CI 8.5-200.0, P<0.001) can significantly increase the risk of developing high- to very-high-risk prostate cancer in Chinese males. Conclusions:This study identified a germline pathogenic mutation rate of 7.2% in 249 Chinese patients with high- or very-high-risk non-metastatic prostate cancer. Carrying germline BRCA2 or MSH2 pathogenic mutations can significantly increase the risk of high- or very-high-risk prostate cancer in Chinese men.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-508504


BACKGROUND:Ideal osteochondral tissue-engineered scaffolds should be able to mimic the normal structure ofhuman articular cartilage. OBJECTIVE:To prepare a layered osteochondral composite scaffold based on the anatomical and physiological functions of osteochondral articular cartilage and to observe its repair effect on osteochondral defects in rabbits. METHODS:The poly (lactide-glycolide acid)/β-tricalcium phosphate organic solution was sprayed on the surface of cartilage scaffold using rapid prototyping technology. The layered osteochondral composite scaffold was formed by the“dissolving-adhesion”process. Sixty rabbits were enrol ed, modeled into left knee articular cartilage defects, and then randomly divided into three groups. The layered osteochondral composite scaffold and cartilage scaffold were implanted into experimental and control groups, respectively. Those without any treatment served as controls. Gross and histological observations of the defect region were performed at 12 and 24 weeks after implantation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Gross observation:At 12 weeks after implantation, the defects in the control group were obvious and not repaired at al;the 24-week defect area was decreased, covered by newly formed tissues, but with rough surface. In the experimental group, the defect surface was flat after 12 weeks of implantation, the texture was soft, and the boundary with the surrounding tissues was unclear;at 24 weeks, the defect was covered with transparent cartilaginous tissues and the surface was smooth. Histological observation:At 12 weeks after implantation, the irregular cal us appeared in the control group, but the trabeculae were not formed;in the experimental group, the thickness of the new cartilage was similar with that of the normal cartilage and there was irregular trabecular bone under the cartilage. After 24 weeks of implantation, there were new tissues in the control group, but the thickness was irregular and uneven and the trabecular structure was irregular;while the cartilage surface was smooth and repaired wel in the experimental group. In contrast, repair effect in the control group was poor as assessed by gross and histological observations. These results show that the layered composite scaffold holds a similar structure with human articular cartilage and can promote the repair of articular cartilage defects.