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1.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-376389

ABSTRACT

<b>Objective:</b> <i>Acanthopanax senticosus</i> Harms extract (ASE) is an ingredient of functional foods, such as health supplements, in Japan. We investigated the effects of ASE on CYP2C9 activity.<br> <b>Methods and Results:</b> CYP2C9-catalyzed diclofenac 4′-hydroxylase activities in human intestinal and liver microsomes (abbreviated as HIM and HLM, respectively) were significantly decreased by the addition of ASE in a concentration-dependent manner. Kinetic studies of diclofenac 4′-hydroxylase in HLM revealed that ASE addition significantly decreased <i>V</i><sub>max</sub> but had no effect on <i>K</i><sub>m</sub>. These results suggest that diclofenac 4′-hydroxylase activity is suppressed by ASE addition in a non-competitive manner. Then, we investigated the time courses of diclofenac 4′-hydroxylase activity in rat liver microsomes after ASE oral administration (50 to 400 mg/kg). Diclofenac 4′-hydroxylase activities were significantly lowered by the administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg ASE at 0.5 to 4 hr compared with control (0 hr). Furthermore, we investigated the effects of ASE oral administration on the pharmacokinetics of tolbutamide (substrate for CYP2C9) in rats. The area under the concentration-time curve of tolbutamide after ASE oral administration (400 mg/kg) was enhanced by approximately 1.6 times compared with that without ASE oral administration.<br> <b>Conclusion:</b> These findings indicated that ASE inhibits human intestinal and hepatic CYP2C9 activities.<br>

2.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-376383

ABSTRACT

The inhibitory effects of the freeze-dried powder of the aqueous extract of black tea leaf (JAT) on α-glucosidase activity were investigated. We initially examined the effects of JAT addition on yeast α-glucosidase activity. JAT significantly and dose-dependently inhibited α-glucosidase activity and more strongly inhibited the activity than acarbose, the positive control. Then, we examined the effects of oral administration of JAT on sucrose tolerance in type 2 diabetes mellitus model <i>db/db</i> mice. Both JAT and acarbose administered groups showed a dose-dependent decrease in plasma glucose levels after the sucrose loading compared with the control group. Notable was that the plasma glucose levels of the 500 mg/kg JAT administered group exhibited a significant decrease 30 min or longer after the sucrose loading. On the other hand, no significant difference in plasma insulin levels was seen between the JAT administered group and the control group. We also measured small intestinal sucrase activity in <i>db/db</i> mouse at 30 min after JAT oral administration. Compared to control mice, small intestinal sucrase activity was significantly decreased in the 500 mg/kg JAT administered mice. These findings indicate that JAT may be a useful natural material for the prevention and therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus.<br>

3.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-376382

ABSTRACT

<b>Objective:</b> By using human liver microsomes (HLM), we analyzed the effects of 14 known components of <i>A.senticosus</i> Harms on the activities of CYP2C9 and CYP3A4.<br> <b>Methods and Results:</b> Sesamin and quercetin inhibited both enzyme activities, whereas quercitrin strongly inhibited CYP3A4 activity. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC<sub>50</sub>s) of sesamin and quercetin on CYP2C9 activity were approximately 124- and 59-fold higher and the IC<sub>50</sub>s of sesamin, quercetin, and quercitrin on CYP3A4 activity were approximately 427-, 135-, and 22-fold higher than that of <i>A. senticosus</i> Harms extract (ASE), respectively. All these components inhibited both CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 in a non-competitive manner. However, these components are present in small amounts in ASE.<br> <b>Conclusion:</b> Therefore, the food-drug interactions caused by <i>A. senticosus </i>Harms are presumed to be due to the additive or synergistic interaction of these components or the other existing components, including their metabolites.<br>

4.
Medical Education ; : 205-210, 2012.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-375290

ABSTRACT

  In Japan, few health care professionals have a basic understanding(core competency)of the design of clinical research and statistical analysis. We developed a blended distance–learning program comprising face–to–face lectures with e–learning for busy health care professionals who work in the clinical settings to achieve core competency in clinical research. The purpose of this study was to examine the educational effects of this program.<br>1)Four months after the end of the program, 64% of the participants had started to conduct clinical research.<br>2)This program may increase the number of research colleagues that can discuss clinical research.<br>3)This program could enhance the confidence(self–efficacy)of health care professionals in clinical research.

5.
General Medicine ; : 75-82, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-374873

ABSTRACT

<b>Objective:</b> The present study examined the status of the provision of drug information to hypertensive patients at community-based pharmacies by evaluating patients' satisfaction, understanding, and wishes.<br><b>Design:</b> A cross-sectional study was conducted by surveying patients using a self-administered questionnaire.<br><b>Methods:</b> Three items were evaluated: 1) the level of patient satisfaction with provision of drug information; 2) the level of patient understanding of information provided on antihypertensive drugs; and, 3) patient wishes regarding provision of drug information.<br><b>Results:</b> The level of satisfaction with provision of drug information was high (86.6%). Although patients were found to understand the precautions for use of antihypertensive drugs, their understanding of drug efficacy was insufficient. Also, patients wished to receive more explanation from pharmacists regarding the efficacy of drugs in addition to explanations of associated adverse reactions or precautions for use of the drugs.<br><b>Conclusions:</b> Hypertensive patients were highly satisfied with the provision of drug information at community-based pharmacies, but did not show sufficient understanding of the efficacy of antihypertensive drugs, an issue to be addressed in the future by pharmacists in their instructions to patients on the use of drugs.

6.
Medical Education ; : 333-340, 2009.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-362702

ABSTRACT

Background: In Japan, although clinicians have been extremely interested in conducting clinical research, the shortage of clinical researchers is a serious problem. Therefore, it is important to explore barriers to conducting clinical research.1) We mailed a cross-sectional survey to hospital managers asking about their interest in and barriers to conducting clinical research and training clinical researchers at their hospitals.2) Of 810 eligible hospital managers, 301 completed questionnaires (response rate: 37.2%).3) The managers of university hospitals and national medical centers were more interested in conducting clinical research than were managers of other hospitals.4) Furthermore, 60.6% of managers of university hospital and 18.8% of managers of other hospitals reported the need to employ physicians who specialized in clinical research. However, given public research grants, about 50% of hospital managers were willing to employ research residents.5) Our results suggest there are still barriers to conducting clinical research, such as a lack of time set aside for clinicians and specialists to teach clinical research. A substantial strategy is needed to address the shortage of clinical researchers in Japan.

7.
Palliative Care Research ; : 218-222, 2007.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-374641

ABSTRACT

The external preparation Metronidazole (MTZ) is reported to be useful in controlling the malodor associated with advanced and recurrent breast cancer patients. We prepared two different MTZ external preparations, a 1% MTZ Hydrophilic Ointment and a 0.8% MTZ Carbopol Gel. These preparations were then used to control malodor associated with breast cancer and the results were clinically evaluated. Malodor disappeared within 1 week of administration of either preparation and no adverse reactions were observed. These MTZ external preparations were thus found to be useful in the elimination of malodor as part of the treatment of those patients with advanced and recurrent breast cancer.

8.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-377413

ABSTRACT

Organochlorine insecticides (BHC, DDT, etc) have been used in massive quatities in Japan. But in 1971, the goverment put a ban on their use as insecticides. We continued the residue analyses of organochlorine insecticide in human bodies from 1971 to 1982. This paper deals with the results of our residue analyses from 1980-1982. In paralel, We have also continued to analyze the residue of PCB.<BR>(1) A total of 264 specimens have been analyzed for human mother milk, the adipose tissue, the liver, the kidney and the spleen.<BR>(2) β-BHC and pp'-DDE were detected from all of these specimens.<BR>(3) Over a span 12 years, the decrease of total-DDT was smaller than that of β-BHC.<BR>(4) In the adipose tissue, there were no signs of a decrease in total DDT.<BR>(5) PCB was detected from all specimens of mother milk, the adipose tissue and the liver.<BR>It is conceivable that the pollution of human bodies by BHC, DDT. PCB, and other chemicals will last for a long time.<BR>There is a need to keep constant surveillance over the tendency of these chemicals in the environment and human bodies.

9.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-377391

ABSTRACT

As regards to low back pain of agricultural worker, there are many problems still as to a syndrom of “Nofusho” in rural medicine, a disease in ocupational medicine and clinic of orthopedic.<BR>Agricultural worker who complained of low back pain varies with their country and farm products, and it tend to increase with adding to their age. Further, the female rate of low back pain showed slightly high tendency than the made rate, 8.5-12.5 % of male, 6.5-13.4 % of female always complained of low back pain.<BR>According to the findings of roentogenographic examination of back bone, the deformed vertebrae was found clearly, especially, low back pain caused by a trauma of soft tissue and iscogenic pain showed in farmers. Therefor, it is necessary to be improved working posture and condition.<BR>In comparrison with non-farmer, it is located in order of truck drivers. bus drivers and repairmen.

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