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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-870202

ABSTRACT

In recent years, osteoporosis (OP) has become one of the main diseases affecting the health of middle-aged and elderly people in China, and the prevalence of OP has increased significantly. The clinical diagnosis and treatment guidelines for this disease are also constantly updated. The overall principles speciallyemphasise that doctors and patients need to work together to negotiate the details of the diagnosis and treatment guidelines, in order to improve the OP clinical diagnosis and treatment rate. Therefore, patients′ knowledge of the disease, understanding of clinical guidelines, and cooperation with doctors to implement diagnosis and treatment plans are very important. In this study, from the most concerned issues of the patients, we established the OP patient practice guideline working group. 14 recommendations, as the OP patient practice guidelines, are proposed in accordance with the relevant principles of the "World Health Organization guidelines development manual" and the international normative process.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-870191

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been constantly updated. Among the general principles, it is particularly emphasized that, in order to improve the ratio of treat to target(T2T) of RA, doctors and patients should work together to negotiate the details of the guidelines. Therefore, it is important for patients to further understand the disease and clinical guidelines of RA, and to better cooperate with doctors. This study was based on the most concerned issues of RA patients and international standard procedure of guideline study, we organized the working group and introduce the following 16 recommendations constituting the RA patients′ practice guidelines.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-870169

ABSTRACT

Hyperuricemia/gout is a common metabolic disease in China, which is a serious threat to people′s health. In clinical practice, the standardization of prevention and diagnosis and the rate of treat-to-target need to be improved. There is still a lack of education for the patients about the understanding of clinical guidelines, the disease knowledge and the importance of cooperating with doctors to carry out diagnosis and treatment. From the most concerned issues of the patients, we established the hyperuricemia/gout patient practice guideline working group with multidisciplinary physicians and patients. Seventeen opinions, as the hyperuricemia/gout patient practice guidelines, are proposed in accordance with the relevant principles of the "WHO guidelines development manual" , and with the international normative process, aiming to improve the patients compliance, improve the level of health management of the disease.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-870167

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the clinical experts consensuses or guidelines of ankylosing spondylitis (AS)/spondyloarthritis (SpA) have been constantly updated, but to better understand and practice, patient self-participation management is one of the key points to improve the level of diagnosis and treatment. Through questionnaire survey of these patients, we screened out the most concerned issues, and established the AS/SpA patient practice guideline working group with multidisciplinary physicians and patients. Fifteen opinions, as the AS/SpA patient practice guidelines, are proposed in accordance with the relevant principles of the "WHO guidelines development manual" , and with the international normative process.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-865205

ABSTRACT

Objective To systematically evaluate the correlation between vitamin D deficiency in early pregnancy and the outcome of preterm birth.Method PubMed,Embase,the Cochrane Library,Web of Science,Ebsco,CBM,CNKI and Wanfang Data databases were searched to collect cohort studies and case-control studies on the correlation between vitamin D deficiency in early pregnancy and preterm birth outcomes,and the retrieval time was from the establishment of the database to June 2019.Two researchers independently reviewed the literature,extracted the data and evaluated the risk of bias in the included studies.RevMan 5.3 software was used for Meta analysis.Result A total of 6 cohort studies and 3 nested case-control studies were included.A total of 30 891 newborns were included,including 1 912 premature infants.3 Chinese articles and 6 English articles were reviewed including three studies from China,three from North America,two from Europe and one from Australia.The diagnostic criteria for vitamin D deficiency and preterm birth were similar in these studies.After adjusting for age,race and other confounding factors,Meta-analysis results showed that vitamin D deficiency in early pregnancy did not increase the risk of preterm birth (OR =1.04,95% CI 0.90 ~ 1.20,P =0.63).Subgroup analysis were conducted according to the study type,measurement method and regional population,and the results were consistent with the overall results.No significant publication bias was found in the meta-analysis results.Conclusion Current evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency in early pregnancy has no significant influence on preterm birth.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-822551

ABSTRACT

@#Objective    To systematically evaluate the efficacy of tubular stomach and whole stomach reconstruction in the treatment of esophageal cancer. Methods    We searched PubMed, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, EMbase, CNKI, Wanfang Data, VIP and CBM databases to collect the randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies on the efficacy comparison between tubular stomach and total gastric reconstruction of esophagus in esophagectomy from their date of inception to May 2019. Then meta-analysis was performed by using RevMan 5.3 software. Results    A total of Twenty-nine RCTs were included, and 3 012 patients were involved. The results of meta-analysis showed that the postoperative complications such as anastomotic fistula [RR=0.64, 95%CI (0.50, 0.83), P=0.000 6], anastomotic stenosis [RR=0.65, 95%CI (0.50, 0.86), P=0.002], thoracic gastric syndrome [RR=0.19, 95%CI (0.13, 0.27), P<0.001], reflux esophagitis [RR=0.23, 95%CI (0.19, 0.30), P<0.001], gastric emptying disorder [RR=0.39, 95%CI (0.27, 0.57), P<0.001] and pulmonary infection [RR=0.44, 95%CI (0.31, 0.62), P<0.001] were significantly reduced, and the postoperative quality of life score and satisfaction were higher at 6 months and 1 year in the tubular stomach group (P<0.05). In terms of intraoperative blood loss and postoperative hospital stay, they were better in the tubular stomach group than those in the whole stomach group (P<0.05). However, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in operation time, postoperative gastrointestinal decompression time, postoperative closed drainage time, postoperative 1-year, 2-year and 3-year survival rate, postoperative quality of life score at 3 weeks and 3 months, and postoperative life satisfaction at 3 weeks. Conclusion    The tubular stomach is more advantageous than the whole stomach in the reconstruction of esophagus after esophagectomy.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-797508

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To systematically review the barriers and facilitators affecting the implementation of clinical pathways for the clinical pathways.@*Methods@#PubMed, Embase, CNKI, CBM, Wanfang, Cvip databases were searched to collect articles about clinical pathways implementation barriers and facilitators from inception to January 4th, 2019. The tool of confidence in the evidence from reviews of qualitative research(CERQual)was used to grade the confidence of each study.@*Results@#A total of 43 articles from 12 countries were included.There were 8 main categories and 31 subcategories of the barriers about clinical pathways, including content of the clinical pathways, negative outcomes of clinical pathways, physicians knowledge, physicians attitude, resource availability, implementation of activities, patients factors and social factors. The first three barriers of high confidence were lacking of time, capital, equipment, staff and other resources(15 articles, 34.9%), increasing workload(14 articles, 32.6%), unrecognizing pathways(12 articles, 27.9%). There were 6 main categories and 28 subcategories of the facilitators about clinical pathways, including pathways content related, physician related, resource factor and implementation activity. The first three facilitators of high confidence were communication, education and training(25 articles, 58.1%), supporting from managers and colleagues(21 articles, 48.8%)and establishing a clinical pathway facilitation committee(17 articles, 39.5%).@*Conclusions@#The successful implementation of clinical pathways connects with its development process, aftereffect evaluation and feedback. It will be implemented effectively only by the completely and environmentally acceptable pathways design, adequate resources, effective organizational activities, continuous audit, evaluation and feedback and physicians active cooperation.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-792204

ABSTRACT

Objective To systematically review the barriers and facilitators affecting the implementation of clinical pathways for the clinical pathways.Methods PubMed, Embase, CNKI, CBM, Wanfang, Cvip databases were searched to collect articles about clinical pathways implementation barriers and facilitators from inception to January 4th, 2019. The tool of confidence in the evidence from reviews of qualitative research ( CERQual) was used to grade the confidence of each study. Results A total of 43 articles from 12 countries were included.There were 8 main categories and 31 subcategories of the barriers about clinical pathways, including content of the clinical pathways, negative outcomes of clinical pathways, physicians knowledge, physicians attitude, resource availability, implementation of activities, patients factors and social factors. The first three barriers of high confidence were lacking of time, capital, equipment, staff and other resources (15 articles, 34.9% ), increasing workload (14 articles, 32.6% ), unrecognizing pathways(12 articles, 27.9% ). There were 6 main categories and 28 subcategories of the facilitators about clinical pathways, including pathways content related, physician related, resource factor and implementation activity. The first three facilitators of high confidence were communication, education and training(25 articles, 58.1% ), supporting from managers and colleagues ( 21 articles, 48.8% ) and establishing a clinical pathway facilitation committee(17 articles, 39.5% ).Conclusions The successful implementation of clinical pathways connects with its development process, aftereffect evaluation and feedback. It will be implemented effectively only by the completely and environmentally acceptable pathways design, adequate resources, effective organizational activities, continuous audit, evaluation and feedback and physicians active cooperation.

9.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 915-919, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-703740

ABSTRACT

Objective To systematically evaluate the effect of different administration methods of hydrocortisone on blood glucose in patients with septic shock. Methods The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, CNKI, CBM, Wanfang, and VIP databases were searched from foundation to December 31st, 2017 for the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about hydrocortisone on blood glucose of different drug-deliver ways in patients with septic shock. In addition, the citation retrievals were performed by the literature references. Then the quality evaluation and data extraction was conducted by two researchers independently according to the Cochrane systematic review methods. RevMan 5.3 software was utilized to perform meta-analysis on the influences of the two different administration methods of the continuously pumping hydrocortisone group (experimental group) vs. the intermittently dripping hydrocortisone group (control group) on the mean blood glucose (MBG), largest amplitude of glycemic excursion (LAGE), glucose variability (GV), hyperglycemia time window in patients with septic shock. Results 1 203 relevant articles were preliminarily searched. Then the duplications were removed, reviews, and non-RCTs and articles evidently not accordant with the inclusion criteria were excluded by titles and abstracts. Eventually a total of 5 well-designed RCTs (404 cases) were incorporated, including 201 cases in the experimental group and 203 cases in the control group. The results of meta-analysis showed that compared with the control group, MBG was significantly decreased in the experimental group [mean difference (MD) = -0.99, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = -1.53 to -0.45, P < 0.05], LAGE was decreased (MD = -5.66, 95%CI =-6.92 to -4.41, P < 0.05), GV was reduced (MD = -0.67, 95%CI = -0.82 to -0.53, P < 0.05), and hyperglycemia time window was shortened (MD = -7.68, 95%CI = -9.03 to -6.33, P < 0.05). The funnel chart revealed that there was publication bias in the MBG, hyperglycemia time window of the articles, and the publication bias was lower in the LAGE and GV. Conclusion Compared with intermittent administration method, the continuous pumping hydrocortisone method can stabilize the blood glucose of septic shock patients, shorten the duration of hyperglycemia and reduce the peak value of blood glucose.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-503056

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present research was to investigate and analyze the hunting intentions of medical students for rural grassroots in Gansu and to provide a reference for decision-making on rural health human resource . A questionnaire is the research tool which was used to investigate the views of the senior students from six medical schools , and we studied their employment willingness to rural healthcare institutions .Chi-square test and non-condi-tional logistic regression analyses were used for data analysis .A sample of 600 medical graduates was involved in this investigation.The results of this study show that more than a half (55.6%) of the students would like to work in ru-ral, but only 13.8%of which were “very willing” to work at the rural healthcare institutions .According to the out-comes of this investigation , the number of junior college students who would like to work at the grassroots was 2.3 times the number of the undergraduate students .Medical students whose monthly salary expectations were not high ,with the household registration in rural areas , and having a better understanding of the policy of rural grass-roots em-ployment were more likely to work at the rural healthcare institutions .Based on the findings of this investigation , it can be concluded that the grassroots medical career intention of medical students is not only influenced by its own fac -tors, such as education and household registration , but also the policy of the government , school employment guid-ance and social atmosphere play an important role .The above-mentioned factors should be considered by decision-making and management departments of public healthcare .The departments should introduce a reasonable recruit-ment policy and strengthen the construction of grass-roots medical technology , equipment , and infrastructure , im-prove the grass-roots of employment environment and career development opportunities and strengthen the medical students'employment guidance work to make medical students more willing to work at rural healthcare institutions .

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-464173

ABSTRACT

Objective To provide the evidence for cooperation in research on Kashin-Beck disease in China by ana-lyzing the research competence of authors in papers on Kashin-Beck disease and their cooperation .Methods Papers on Kashin-Beck disease were retrieved from 4 commonly used Chinese perodical databases .Key words Information was collected and organized using BICOMS to produce a co-words matrix,atlas of co-words was plotted using NetDraw, the data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0.Results Of the 3454 authors engaged in research of Kashin-Beck disease from 1957 to 2012,81 published 15 or more than 15 papers.Cluster analysis showed that these 81 authors were from Institute of Endemic Diseases,Xi'an Jiaotong University Medical School; Institute of Kashin-Beck Disease,Chinese Center for Endemic Disease Prevention and Control;Jilin No.2 Center for Endemic Disease Prevention and Control;Centers for Disease Prevention and Control of China Academy of Sciences , Henan Province and Gansu Province .Conclusion A large number of researchers are engaged in research of Kashin-Beck disease .Their research interest and charac-teristics are clear.However, the cooperation between different institutions is weak and should be strengthened.

12.
Journal of Practical Radiology ; (12): 1278-1282, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-477088

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the reliability and validity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)using the liver imaging reporting and data system (LI-RADS).Methods By using the LI-RADS v2013.1,two radiologists evaluated 1 62 patients with cirrhosis or with a risk of HCC according to an inclusion criteria.The Kappa value was used to evaluate the consistency between two different diagnoses and was compared with pathological and follow-up results.The accuracy of the LI-RADS was assessed including sensitivi-ty,specificity,positive predictive value,negative predictive value,positive likelihood ratio,negative likelihood ratio and accuracy rating.Results In all 1 62 patients,there were HCCs in 97 patients including 7 patients belonging to the LR3,benign diseases in 50,and other kinds of malignancy in 1 5.The Kappa value was 0.882 (P =0.000)between two observers on LI-RADS grading. The sensitivity,specificity and accuracy rating of LI-RADS grading in diagnosing HCC was 100.00%,91.30%,and 97.06%,re-spectively.Conclusion The LI-RADS has high consistency and stability in evaluation and diagnosis of HCC by enhanced CT.LR3 di-agnosis should be cautious because of a susceptible development to HCC,which can be improved through the combination of clinic and laboratory examination.

13.
Neurology Asia ; : 335-342, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-625183

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the implementation effects of clinical pathways, compared with usual care, among patients with stroke. Methods:Two investigators independently searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database and Wanfang Database for studies published before December 2014. Jadad methodological approach was applied to assess the quality of included studies and RevMan software (version 5.2.7) was used for meta-analysis. Results: A total of 11 RCTs involving 913 patients were included in this meta-analysis. The overall results showed that a shorter average length of stay [MD = -2.92; 95% CI (-4.06, -1.78); P < 0.001] and a lower inpatient expenditures [SMD = -1.64; 95% CI (-1.80, -1.48); P < 0.001] in clinical pathways group comparing with the usual care group. The higher score of patient satisfaction was also seen in clinical pathways group. Conclusion: clinical pathways may reduce the average length of stay, reduce the inpatient expenditures, increase patient satisfaction and improve the quality of care in stroke management.


Subject(s)
Stroke
14.
Neurology Asia ; : 335-342, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-629045

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the implementation effects of clinical pathways, compared with usual care, among patients with stroke. Methods:Two investigators independently searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database and Wanfang Database for studies published before December 2014. Jadad methodological approach was applied to assess the quality of included studies and RevMan software (version 5.2.7) was used for meta-analysis. Results: A total of 11 RCTs involving 913 patients were included in this meta-analysis. The overall results showed that a shorter average length of stay [MD = -2.92; 95% CI (-4.06, -1.78); P < 0.001] and a lower inpatient expenditures [SMD = -1.64; 95% CI (-1.80, -1.48); P < 0.001] in clinical pathways group comparing with the usual care group. The higher score of patient satisfaction was also seen in clinical pathways group. Conclusion: clinical pathways may reduce the average length of stay, reduce the inpatient expenditures, increase patient satisfaction and improve the quality of care in stroke management.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-454455

ABSTRACT

Objective To reveal the main interests in studies of Kashin-Beck disease by analyzing the key words in Chinese papers on Kashin-Beck disease .Methods Chinese papers on Kashin-Beck disease were retrieved from CNKI, CBM, VIP, and Wanfang digital journal full-text database.A co-word matrix was generated by abstracting their key words which were analyzed by gCLUTO clustering .Results The studies on Kashin-Beck disease were centered on the role of fusarium metabolic toxins and fulvic acid in pathology of Kashin-Beck disease, etiology of Kashin-Beck disease, functional change in Kashin-Beck disease patients, relation between Kashin-Beck disease and geological envi-ronment, monitoring and X-ray diagnosis of Kashin-Beck disease, surgical treatment of Kashin-Beck disease, preven-tion and treatment efficiency analysis of Kashin-Beck disease.Social network figure showed that etiology of Kashin-Beck disease, relation between Kashin-Beck disease and geological environment, monitoring and X-ray diagnosis of Kashin-Beck disease, surgical treatment of Kashin-Beck disease, prevention and treatment efficiency analysis of Kashin-Beck disease were the hot spots in studies of Kashin-Beck disease at present.Conclusion The research subjects determined by co-word clustering analysis are consistent with the interests in studies of Kashin-Beck disease in China at present.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-442088

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the efficiency and safety of alendronate for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP).Methods The electronic databases of PubMed,EMBASE,Cochrane Library,Web of Science,Chinese BioMedical Literature Database (CBM) and Wanfang Data were searched for all randomized controlled trials (RCT) of alendronate vs.placebo.Two reviewers independently selected trials for inclusion,assessed trial quality using Jadad's scale and extracted the data.RevMan 5.1 software was used for data synthesis and Meta-analysis.Results Seven studies with 1111 patients were included.Compared with placebo,alendronate significantly increased bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine[MD =3.35,95%CI (2.67-4.02),P =0.000] and the femoral neck[MD =1.90,95% CI (0.89-2.92),P =0.000] after 12 months of therapy.After 24 months of therapy,alendronate significantly increascd BMD at the lumbar spine [MD =3.91,95% CI (2.37-5.45),P =0.000],but not at the femoral neck [MD =1.91,95% CI (-1.15-5.02),P =0.22].Compared with placebo,no significant reduction was found by the use of alendronate in the incidence of vertebral fractures [RR =1.00,95% CI (0.49-2.07),P =0.99] or nonvertebral fractures[RR = 1.02,95% CI (0.49-2.14),P =0.95].No difference was shown with the adverse event between the two groups[RR =0.97,95% CI (0.90-1.05),P =0.47].Conclusions Alendronate is effective for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced bone loss at the lumbar spine and the femoral neck with relatively good safety profile.Yet,there is no significant difference between the two groups in reducing the incidence of vertebral fractures and non-vertebral fractures.Large-scale RCT designed to observe whether different lengths of alendronate therapy will influence the efficiency should be conducted in the future and to further explore whether it can reduce the incidence of fractures.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-418075

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of gefitinib versus docetaxel in previously treated non-small cell lung cancer.Methods Literatures were searched on database like PubMed,EMBASE,Cochrane Library,Chinese Biomedical Literature Database,China Journal Full Text Database,and Chinese Scientific Journals Full Text Database and Wanfang Database.All the relevant randomized controlled trials that gefitinib versus docetaxel in non-small cell lung cancer patients who have previously received chemotherapy were collected,and the quality of the included trials was assessed by Cochrane Systematic Review Handbook 5.0.2. Meta-analyses were conducted by RevMan 5.0 software. Results Four studies were involved and 2 257 patients were included.Meta-analysis showed that gefitinib can improve objective response rate and quality of life in local advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients who have previously received chemotherapy compared with docetaxel ( P < 0.05) ; and it's low in the 3-4 level adverse reaction rate (P < 0.05 ).But there was no significant difference in overall survival rate,symptoms improving rate and progression-free survival rate (P > 0.05).ConclusionsGefitinib is superior to docetaxel in the objective response rate with local advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer patients who have previously received chemotherapy.The quality of life of the patients is improved significantly.Because of it has high drug tolerance and high safety,gefitinib can be actively promoted application as a kind of current effective second-line drugs at present,but the survival aspect needs to be studied further.

19.
Chinese Journal of Nephrology ; (12): 687-691, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-423855

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the characteristics and risk factors of anemia in renal transplant recipients over 60 years old.Methods Clinical data of one hundred and sixty-eight renal transplant recipients over 60 years old were retrospectively analyzed.Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors of anemia.Results In 168 cases of renal transplant recipients,the incidence of anemia was 45.2%(76/168).Forty cases were normocyte and normochromic,26 cases were microcytic hypochromic,10 cases were hemolytic anemia.In these anemic recipients,51 cases were short of erythropoietin (EPO),25 were EPO resistance.The incidence of malnutrition and cardia-cerebrovascular complication was higher in recipients with anemia than those without anemia (P<0.01).The incidence of anemia in CsA+Aza+Pred treatment was 57.1%,which was significantly higher as compared to other three treatments (P<0.01).Unconditional multivariate Logistic regression analysis revealed that male,creatinine level,acute reject reaction,delayed graft function (DGF) were the independent predictors of anemia,the corresponding OR values were 1.089,5.156,6.345,1.876.Conclusions Anemia is a common and serious complication in renal transplant recipients over 60 years old.Male,creatinine level,acute reject reaction,DGF are the independent risk factors of anemia in renal transplant recipients over 60 years old.

20.
Chinese Journal of Nephrology ; (12): 765-768, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-429282

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the incidence and risk factors of acute kidney injury (AKI) after craniocerebral injury.Methods A single cohort of 791 patients who suffered from craniocerebral injury from January 2008 to January 2010 in the Second Hospital of Lanzhou University were prospectively analyzed.Craniocerebral injury was defined according to definite medical history of craniocerebral injury,the verification of CT and Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score.AKI was defined as a relative 50% increase or an absolute increment of 26.4 μmol/L in Scr within 48 hours and/or urine volume <0.5 ml·kg-1·h-1 up to 6 h.Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate possible risk factors associated with post-craniocerebral injury AKI.Results Of the 791 patients,the incidence of AKI was 39.4%.In hospital mortality of AKI patients was 27.9%,which was 5.065 times of non-AKI patients (P<0.01).The incidence of AKI in patients with lower GCS score (≤8 score,heavy group)was 69.7%,which was significantly higher as compared to moderate and mild groups (P<0.01).Unconditional multivariate Logistic regression analysis revealed that lower GCS score (≤ 8 score),hypotension (systolic pressure<90 mm Hg),elderly and male were the independent predictors of AKI episodes,the corresponding OR values were 2.932,2.176,1.789,1.544 respectively.Conclusions AKI is a common complication after craniocerebral injury.Lower GCS score,hypotension,elderly and male are the independent risk factors of AKI in patients after craniocerebral injury.

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