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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-171397


OBJECTIVE: This open-label study examined the effects of ramelteon on cognitive functions in 10 outpatients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Ramelteon (8 mg/day) was administered to 10 patients with schizophrenia for six months. The verbal fluency test, Trail-Making Test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Stroop Test, the Digit Span Distraction Test, Iowa Gambling Task, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test were evaluated at baseline and 6 months after treatment with ramelteon. RESULTS: Ramelteon improved significantly the scores of Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Additionally, ramelteon exerted improvements in the verbal fluency and Iowa Gambling Task in 4 patients. CONCLUSION: Ramelteon could be a potential therapeutic drug, in adjunctive treatment of learning and memory deficits seen in patients with schizophrenia.

Gambling , Humans , Iowa , Learning , Memory Disorders , Outpatients , Schizophrenia , Stroop Test , Verbal Learning , Wisconsin
Innovation ; : 21-30, 2007.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-631202


A potential role for lysophosphatidie acid (LPA) in the regulation of malignant diseases has been widely considered. Migratory response to LPA in glioma cells was almost completely inhibited by either pertussis toxin, LPA1 receptor antagonists including Ki 16425, or an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) wortmannin. LPA action on migration was also suppressed, though incompletely by several specific inhibitors for intracellular signaling pathways such as Racl, p38 mitogen- activatcd protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and c-Jun terminal kinase (JNK), but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Nearly complete inhibition of the migration response to LPA, however, required simultaneous inhibition of both the p38MAPK and JNK pathways. Inhibition of Racl suppressed JNK but not p38MAPK, and dominant-negative form of Cdc42 abrogated p38MAPK activity. These findings suggest that, in glioma cells, the PI3K/Cdc42/ p38MAPK and PI3K/Racl/JNK pathways arc equally important for LPA1 receptor- mediated migration.

Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-367134


Though preoperative autologous donation is not acceptable for all cases partly because some are preoperatively in a severe condition, intraoperative predonation is possible in almost all cases. We retrospectively evaluated the major factors related to the prevention of homologous blood transfusion by intraoperative predonation in 25 cases <i>following valvular surgery</i> without preoperative autologous donation. Homologous blood was not transfused in 18 cases {Group-(-)} but in 7 cases only after CPB {Group-(+)}. The male/female ratio, type of operation, body weight, CPB dilution, CPB duration, and perioperative change in hematocrit were comparable in the 2 groups. However, the autologous blood pooled before CPB in Group-(-) was significantly more than in Group-(+) (11.3±2.5 vs 7.3±1.8ml/kg, <i>p</i><0.001). In conclusion, homologous blood transfusion may be prevented by appropriate intraoperative predonation during surgery for valvular disease.

Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-366691


The activated clotting time (ACT) is used to assess adequacy of anticoagulation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, ACT values during CPB do not correlate with heparin concentration and are affected by variations of such factors as hypothermia and hemodilution. ACT is also used to estimate protamine doses, because excess protamine may result in hypotension and an increase in bleeding after CPB. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of heparin and protamine administration that were administered based on whole blood heparin concentration using Hepcon/HMS (HC group) on the incidence of bleeding and blood transfusion after CPB. We treated 32 of adult cases and 36 pediatric cases. For the control group (NC group), an initial fixed dose of 300U/kg heparin was administered and if the ACT was less than 400s an additional fixed dose of 100U/kg heparin was administered. Heparin was neutralized with an initial fixed dose of protamine. For the HC group, the initial dose of heparin and the additional dose of heparin were based on an automated heparin dose response assay. The initial dose of protamine was based on the residual heparin concentration. The patients in the HC group received greater doses of heparin and lower doses of protamine than the patients in the NC group. In the pediatric HC group, the amount of TAT, FTC and D-dimer post CPB were smaller than those in the NC group. Operative time and closure time were similar the two groups. Operative bleeding, mediastinal chest tube drainage in the postoperative period were similar in the two groups. The volume of total blood transfusion was also comparable in the two groups. In conclusion, the monitoring of heparin concentration during CPB in children was effective for the maintenance of coagulation factors.