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1.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-215895

ABSTRACT

Silica based nanoparticles are used in various fields of medical sciences to diagnose, control disease, for genetic disorders, owing to their size, surface area, biocompatibility and low toxicity. In dentistry, silica nanoparticles have been used as dental filler, teeth whitening agent but limited evidence is there regarding antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens. Therefore, the current study was conducted to assess the anti-bacterial activity of mouthwash incorporated with silica nanoparticles against oral pathogens. Tetraethoxysilane, ammonium hydroxide, absolute ethanol were used and centrifuged to obtain the silica nanoparticle pellet. XRD analysis was done to confirm the characterization of the thus obtained silica nanoparticle. The mouthwash was prepared with the synthesized silica nanoparticle as the main constituent. Agar well diffusion method was used to assess the antimicrobial activity against S. mutans, S. aureus and E. faecalis. The XRD analysis confirmed the amorphous nature of the synthesized silica nanoparticles.The zone of inhibition was found to increase as the concentrations increased mainly for S. aureus and E. faecalis. The synthesized nanoparticles incorporated mouthwash showed good potential as antimicrobial agents against strains of gram positive bacteria. Further animal studies/in vivo research should be conducted to validate the above findings

2.
J Environ Biol ; 2020 Jul; 41(4): 745-754
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214538

ABSTRACT

Aim: The present study was aimed to analyze the ecological significance of Ulhas River estuary of the western coast of India using the taxonomic, functional and conservation aspects, and also to record an updated data base on the estuarine community structure.Methodology: Ichthyo faunal diversity was assessed by experimental fishing conducted at 3 selected stations using single day dolnets of code end mesh size of 10mm, from September 2017 to August 2018. The diversity of fish species was recorded considering the most relevant taxonomic classification data and further supplemented by the information pertaining to ecological roles played by the individual species (using guild approach) and the IUCN- conservation status. Results: There were 105 species, belonging to 4 classes, 19 orders, 44 families and 75 genera, recorded from Ulhas River Estuary. The class: Actinopterygii was the most diverse taxa, (including 12 orders, 32 families and 55 genera) among the total ichthyofauna reported. Order Perciformes was the most representative order of the class (40 species, 31 genera and 17 families), followed by Decapoda (21species, 8 genera and 6 families). Based on the estuarine usefunctional guild categorization, 51.42 % of the species were marine migrants, followed by amphidromous species (21.9%). Zoobenthivores (29.41%) was found to be the most dominant feeding guild followed by omnivores (19.6%). Based on the IUCN Red List, 53.33% of the fish species observed from Ulhas River Estuary were categorized as “Not Evaluated”, and 7% were “Data Deficient”, signifying the lack of information on biological aspects of the species along Indian waters. Tenualosa toli marked its presence under threatened category (Vulnerable) from Ulhas River Estuary. Interpretation: The abundance of marine migrants as well as the amphidromous species in the estuary signifies the use of this ecosystem for the nursery function of commercially important marine fisheries resources. Increased proportion of “Not Evaluated” and “Data Deficient” categories in the context of high level of anthropogenic stress demands for more updated documentation of the biodiversity and periodic changes in its ecological structure for formulating and implementing effective ecosystem-based management programs for such sensitive estuarine ecosystems.

3.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205358

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Sometimes etiological diagnosis of pleural fluid is not possible by cytology, biochemical and microbiological examinations and labeled as undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion. Our aim of this study to make an etiological diagnosis in such undiagnosed exudative cases with pleural biopsy. Material and method: In this study patients with undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion, where the diagnosis was not made by laboratory investigations were included. Pleural tissue was obtained by Abram’s Needle and sent for histopathology and culture to find mycobacterium tuberculosis. Result: Out of 45 patients 34 (75.5%) were males and 11 (24.5%) were females. The side of pleural effusion was right-sided in 30 (66.6%) and left-sided in 15 (33.4%). The mean value of polymorphs and lymphocytes count was 7.24% and 92.76% respectively. Pleural fluid was hemorrhagic in 10 (22.22%) patients, straw-colored in 30 (71.11%) patients, and clear in 5 (11.11%) patients. The mean level of glucose was 65.66 mg/dl, the lowest being nil and highest being 110 mg/dl. The mean level of protein was 5.54 gm/dl (range 3.7-7.21 gm/dl). The mean value of the pH of pleural fluid was 65.44. Histopathology showed granulomatous inflammation compatible with tuberculosis in 24 (53.3%) cases, metastatic malignancy in 7 (15.5%) cases, chronic inflammation in 10 (22.3%) cases. In 4 (8.9%) cases pleural tissue was inadequate to give any opinion. Among 7 cases of malignancy, 5 (71.42%) cases showed adenocarcinomas and 2 (28.58%) cases showed squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: This study suggests that tuberculosis and malignancy are the two common etiologies for exudative pleural effusion. The role of pleural biopsy is pivotal as it helps in making the diagnosis in the majority of cases where other laboratory investigations fail to provide a diagnosis.

4.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-212174

ABSTRACT

Background: The incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) is more common in men when compared with women and women after menopause are at high risk of MI. This gender difference in CVD risk might be because of the difference in the circulating estrogen levels in men and women. Dyslipidemia is also one of the major causes of MI. The present study was aimed to estimate the levels of serum estradiol and serum lipids in newly diagnosed male MI cases and to find out any correlation between these two.Methods: The study was conducted on 50 newly diagnosed MI admitted in Cardiology department Narayana general hospital and Medical College, Nellore. Only males were included in the study. Fifty age and sex-matched healthy individuals were selected as controls. Lipid levels are estimated by endpoint colorimetric assay (HUMANSTAR kit) and estradiol was estimated by Chemiluminance immune assay (CLIA).Results: Significantly raised levels of estradiol (p-value <0.0001) and low HDL cholesterol (p-value =0.0085) levels were noticed among the cases compared to controls. No significant correlation was observed between estradiol and lipoproteins (HDL and LDL).Conclusions: The results of the present study in acute MI compared to controls show hyper estrogenemia in Male MI cases, which may be the underlying cause for thrombosis in acute MI. Decreased levels of HDL cholesterol are observed in the MI cases which are known to increase the risk of Atherosclerosis. No significant correlation were noticed between Estradiol and HDL cholesterol in men with acute MI.

5.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205620

ABSTRACT

Background: High levels of stress and psychological morbidity occur in health-care professional students. Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate psychological well-being, perceived stress level, and coping abilities among medical and paramedical students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study carried out in a tertiary care hospital, West Uttar Pradesh, India. The total study period was from September 2019 to November 2019 with a sample of 145 medical students aged 17–25 years and 81 paramedical students aged 19–33 years. Ethical clearance was obtained from the College Ethical Committee. We used self-administered, three different types of validated tools for data collection. Data were analyzed using SPSS Version 20. Results: The median age of paramedical and medical trainees was 22 and 21 years, respectively. Family history of mental illness was 21% and 5.5%, respectively. On general health questionnaire-12 scale, 9% of paramedical trainees reported evidence of distress and 91% of severe problem and psychological distress while 19% of medical trainees having evidence of distress and 81% of severe problem and psychological distress. On perceived stress scale-10 (PSS-10) scale, 15% of paramedical trainees reported average level, 27% moderate level, and 55% high level of perceived stress while 2% of medical trainees having average, 19% moderate level, and 79% high level of perceived stress, respectively. The difference in mean score on PSS-10 and Brief COPE scale between paramedics and medical trainees group was found statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: We concluded the higher level of severe problem and psychological distress in the paramedical and high level of perceived stress in medical trainees. Paramedical trainees practice a better coping mechanism than medical trainees.

6.
Indian Pediatr ; 2020 Mar; 57(3): 258-259
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-199508

ABSTRACT

We observed that 760 (92.1%) out of 825 healthy newborns atour institution had vitamin D deficiency (VDD) at birth. Theseobservations highlight the importance of regular screening andsupplementation of vitamin D in the early years of life.

7.
Indian J Public Health ; 2020 Mar; 64(1): 4-10
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-198190

ABSTRACT

Background: HIV serostatus disclosure plays an important role in reducing the risk of HIV transmission. However, its negative effects may include rejection, assault, separation, divorce, stigma, and discrimination. Objectives: This study was undertaken to find out the proportion of HIV-positive serostatus disclosure to any family member and different factors influencing disclosure among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among all patients aged 18� years with confirmed HIV infection registered at the antiretroviral therapy center of a tertiary care hospital in eastern part of Uttar Pradesh, India, for the duration of 1 year, from July 2017 to June 2018. Results: Most of the respondents were aged 30� years (79.9%), male (63.2%), married (85.4%), rural residents (60.4%), Hindu (96.5%), literate (84%), employed/driver (61.8%), and belonged to lower/lower middle class (62.6%). The rate of disclosure of HIV-positive status to any family member was quite high in this study (238/288 or 82.6%), among which 92.9% (221/238) to the spouse only. The number of sexual partners before disclosure, educational status, and socioeconomic status of the respondents were found to be independent predictors of disclosure of HIV-positive status to any family member (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study indicates the need of giving more emphasis on creating awareness regarding the importance of HIV serostatus disclosure to any family member, especially to spouse, and encourage all PLWHA in the community to disclose their status. Effective strategies also need to be evolved that will target those not likely to disclose their status to anybody.

8.
Indian Pediatr ; 2020 Feb; 57(2): 143-157
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-199479

ABSTRACT

ustification: A number of guidelines are available for management of congenital heart diseases from infancy to adult life. However,these guidelines are for patients living in high income countries. Separate guidelines, applicable to Indian children, are required whenrecommending an intervention for congenital heart diseases, as often these patients present late in the course of the disease and mayhave co-existing morbidities and malnutrition. Process: Guidelines emerged following expert deliberations at the National ConsensusMeeting on Management of Congenital Heart Diseases in India, held on 10th and 11th of August 2018 at the All India Institute of MedicalSciences, New Delhi. The meeting was supported by Children’s HeartLink, a non-governmental organization based in Minnesota, USA.Objectives: To frame evidence based guidelines for (i) indications and optimal timing of intervention in common congenital heartdiseases; (ii) follow-up protocols for patients who have undergone cardiac surgery/catheter interventions for congenital heart diseases.Recommendations: Evidence based recommendations are provided for indications and timing of intervention in common congenitalheart diseases, including left-to-right shunts (atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, atrioventricular septal defect, patent ductusarteriosus and others), obstructive lesions (pulmonary stenosis, aortic stenosis and coarctation of aorta) and cyanotic congenital heartdiseases (tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great arteries, univentricular hearts, total anomalous pulmonary venous connection, Ebsteinanomaly and others). In addition, protocols for follow-up of post surgical patients are also described, disease wise.

9.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-206290

ABSTRACT

To synthesize a series of ornidazole thiosemicarbazone analogues on the basis of literature reviews of 2-Methyl-5-nitroimidazoles and thiosemicarbazones and to evaluate all the analogues in vitro for their activity against Aspergillus niger and fumigatus. Thiosemicarbazone analogues were synthesized from oxidising ornidazole with potassium dichromate and refluxing the oxidised product with substituted thiosemicarbazide using ethanol as solvent in the acidic medium overnight. All the synthesized analogues of ornidazole showed good antifungal action against fumigatus and niger except compound C-4. Unsubstituted amine analogue C-2 has shown highest percentage inhibition (96.6%, 500 μg/ml) against fumigatus while aromatic amine with or without electronegative atom analogues C-3 and C-5 has shown highest activity against Aspergillus niger which is two times than standard drug ornidazole (100%, 1000 μg/ml).

10.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-211823

ABSTRACT

Background: Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) is one of the major causes of mortality in the world. Atherosclerosis leading to AMI is the most common and severe clinical manifestation observed. Dyslipidemia is one of main traditional risk factor for MI, but in more than 50% of CHD events dyslipidemia was absent.  Atherosclerosis is considered as both a chronic inflammatory condition and a disorder of lipid metabolism. The present study was aimed to estimate the levels of serum lipids (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol) and hs-CRP an inflammatory marker in newly diagnosed AMI cases and to find out any correlation between these two.Methods: The study was conducted on 50 newly diagnosed myocardial infarction cases, admitted in Cardiology Department Narayana Medical College, Nellore. Both the sexes were included. Fifty age and sex matched healthy individuals were selected as controls. Lipid levels are estimated by end point colorimetric assay (HUMANSTAR kit) and hs-CRP was estimated by immunofluorescence technique (Boditechkit).Results: Significant raised levels of hs-CRP (p value <0.0001) and low HDL cholesterol (p value =0.0085) levels among the cases was noticed. A significant positive correlation was observed between LDL cholesterol and hsCRP (r=0.109, p=0.040). A non-significant positive correlation between hsCRP and HDL cholesterol  (r=0.291, p=0.453) was observed.Conclusions: The results of the study implicate the role of inflammatory component in causing atherosclerosis or coronary artery disease rather than dyslipidaemias alone to be attributed for atherogenesis. Concomitantly HDL cholesterol levels were found to be low in cases that results from the inflammatory component in atherogenesis.

11.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-210773

ABSTRACT

Bacillus cereus incorporates the most important group of endospore-forming micro organism and can cause emetic and diarrheal food poisoning. A total of 42 B. cereus strains isolated from marketed raw chicken meat and human subjects swab samples were assessed by a triplex and multiplex PCR for the presence of enterotoxin genes. The detection rate of nheB, hblA, hblD, cytK, nheA,CER, hblC and entFM enterotoxin genes among all B. cereus strains was 83.33%, 80.95%, 69.04%, 21.42%, 47.61%, 0%, 61.90%, and 92.85% respectively. Enterotoxigenic profiles were determined in enterotoxin-producing strains showed 19 different patterns. The results offer essential information on toxin genes prevalence and toxigenic profiles of B. cereus from sources of origin. The present study was taken into consideration about extreme fitness danger for public health and insuring extra ability in difficulty to food safety amongst all B. cereus group members. Also, there may be need for extensive and continuous tracking of food products embracing both emetic toxin and enterotoxin genes.

12.
J Environ Biol ; 2019 Nov; 40(6): 1137-1144
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214449

ABSTRACT

Aim: Alternaria blight caused by Alternaria lini is one of the major diseases of linseed which severely affects the yield and productivity. Here, we utilizes F2 mapping population derived from a resistant (JRF-4) and a susceptible (Chambal) genotypes of linseed and SSRs to identify the markers associated with Alternaria blight resistance using bulk segregant analysis approach. Methodology: A population consisting of 154 F2 individuals was developed from the cross between JRF-4 (resistant) and Chambal (susceptible). All 154 F2 individuals were screened with 100 polymorphic SSRs to identify extreme phenotype. Two bulk of extremes phenotypes (disease resistant and disease susceptible) from F2 mapping population were used for the bulked segregant analysis. The SSR primers that distinguished the parental lines were used to amplify the DNA from two bulks and banding pattern was observed to identify the SSRs that can differentiate the resistant and susceptible phenotypes bulk for Alternaria blight. Markers validation was carried out by amplifying DNA from individual plants of each bulk. Results: Out of 100, only 10 markers showed polymorphism among the bulks and of which only three markers viz., LUSc 898_3_12, Lu 2472 and Lu 3078 were able to differentiate the disease resistant and susceptible individuals from F2 population. Further, single marker linear regression approach was used to validate the association of selected polymorphic markers with the disease. The markers LUSc 898_3_12 and Lu 2472 showed significant regression which confirmed their linkage with Alternaria blight resistance. Interpretation: The two markers having significant regression can be used for diseases resistance breeding during marker assisted selection.

13.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205567

ABSTRACT

Background: Depression is a common comorbid condition found in chronic medical illnesses in general and diabetes mellitus (DM) in particular. Worldwide, more than 365 million people are estimated to have Type 2 DM (T2DM), and almost 300 million people have major depression. Depression can be viewed as a Modifiable independent risk factor for the development of T2DM and for progression of complications from either type 1 or T2DM. Objectives: The aim of the study was to find out the distribution and determinants of depression among T2DM patients attending an integrated diabetes and gestational diabetes clinic (IDGDC) of a tertiary care hospital of West Bengal, East India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, observational study was conducted among T2DM patients who attended IDGDC during May 2017–June 2017. Public Health Questionnaire-9 was used to assess depression and its severity. A total of 196 study subjects participated in the study. Results: The prevalence of depression was found to be 54.6%. About 28.1% of the study subjects had mild depression, 17.9%, 6.1%, and 2.6% subjects had moderate, moderately severe, and severe depression, respectively. Women gender, increasing age, rural residence, low literacy, longer duration of diabetes, and overweight/obesity were significantly associated with high frequency of depression. Addiction was significantly higher among depressed T2DM patients. Mean hemoglobin A1c level was significantly lower among non-depressed T2DM patients. Conclusion: More than half of the T2DM patients are suffering from depression of varying severity. There should be a dedicated counselor in diabetes clinics for routine screening of depression among all T2DM patients to identify the high-risk patients requiring urgent psychiatrist consultation.

14.
Indian Pediatr ; 2019 Oct; 56(10): 849-864
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-199404

ABSTRACT

Justification: In view of easy availability and increasing trend of consumption of fast foods and sugar sweetened beverages (fruit juicesand drinks, carbonated drinks, energy drinks) in Indian children, and their association with increasing obesity and related non-communicable diseases, there is a need to develop guidelines related to consumption of foods and drinks that have the potential toincrease this problem in children and adolescents. Objectives: To review the evidence and formulate consensus statements related toterminology, magnitude of problem and possible ill effects of junk foods, fast foods, sugar-sweetened beverages and carbonated drinks;and to formulate recommendations for limiting consumption of these foods and beverages in Indian children and adolescents. Process:A National Consultative group constituted by the Nutrition Chapter of the Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP), consisting of variousstakeholders in private and public sector, reviewed the literature and existing guidelines and policy regulations. Detailed review ofliterature was circulated to the members, and the Group met on 11th March 2019 at New Delhi for a day-long deliberation on framing theguidelines. The consensus statements and recommendations formulated by the Group were circulated to the participants and aconsensus document was finalized. Conclusions: The Group suggests a new acronym ‘JUNCS’ foods, to cover a wide variety ofconcepts related to unhealthy foods (Junk foods, Ultra-processed foods, Nutritionally inappropriate foods, Caffeinated/colored/carbonated foods/beverages, and Sugar-sweetened beverages). The Group concludes that consumption of these foods and beveragesis associated with higher free sugar and energy intake; and is associated with higher body mass index (and possibly with adversecardiometabolic consequences) in children and adolescents. Intake of caffeinated drinks may be associated with cardiac and sleepdisturbances. The Group recommends avoiding consumption of the JUNCS by all children and adolescents as far as possible and limittheir consumption to not more than one serving per week. The Group recommends intake of regional and seasonal whole fruits over fruitjuices in children and adolescents, and advises no fruit juices/drinks to infants and young children (age <2 y), whereas for children aged 2-5 y and >5-18 y, their intake should be limited to 125 mL/day and 250 mL/day, respectively. The Group recommends that caffeinatedenergy drinks should not be consumed by children and adolescents. The Group supports recommendations of ban on sale of JUNCSfoods in school canteens and in near vicinity, and suggests efforts to ensure availability and affordability of healthy snacks and foods. TheGroup supports traffic light coding of food available in school canteens and recommends legal ban of screen/print/digital advertisementsof all the JUNCS foods for channels/magazines/websites/social media catering to children and adolescents. The Group further suggestscommunication, marketing and policy/taxation strategies to promote consumption of healthy foods, and limit availability and consumptionof the JUNCS foods

15.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205528

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypertension (HTN) is one of the most common diagnoses in a primary health care setting and it is one of the important and preventable contributors to disease and death. HTN is considered as an additional risk factor in anesthesia and HTN is of special importance to the anesthetist for various reasons. Tracheal intubation, surgical incision, recovery from anesthesia, and post-operative pain can increase blood pressure (BP). Objectives: This study aims to find out the burden of pre-operative HTN and its risk factors among patients who were admitted for surgical procedures at a tertiary health care facility of Durgapur, West Bengal, India. Materials and Methods: After obtaining permission from the Institutional Ethics Committee, an institution based, observational, and cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2019 to February 2019. A pre-tested, semi-structured schedule was used to collect Clinic Social data. Anthropometric measurements and BP were taken as per the world health organization STEP-wise approach to surveillance guidelines. BP was classified as per “The eighth joint national committee (JNC-8) guidelines. Results: Data were collected from 150 study subjects and were analyzed using SPSS, version 20.0 for windows. The frequency of pre-operative HTN and pre-HTN was found to be 38.0% and 32.0% respectively. As per JNC-8, 34.7% had Stage-1 HTN followed by 32.0% and 3.3% who had pre-HTN and Stage-2 HTN, respectively. Increasing age, male gender, smoking, increasing body mass index, dyslipidemia, and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were significantly associated with a higher frequency of HTN. Conclusion: There is a very high prevalence of pre-operative HTN and pre-HTN. Increasing age, male gender, smoking, overweight, obesity, dyslipidemia, and T2DM were significant risk factors for HTN. Routine screening of HTN should be done in surgical ward to see if there are cases of “white coat” HTN.

16.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205523

ABSTRACT

Background: Unhealthy food handlers have been implicated in occurrence of various foodborne illnesses (FBIs). The benefits acquired by routine medical examination of food handlers are as a strong preventive tool in hands of public health experts in reducing the episodes of FBI. Medical examination of handlers is complementary toward the World Health Day theme of the WHO 2015 “food safety” and Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. Objective: The objective of this study was as follows: (i) To study the sociodemographic profile of the food handlers working in food establishment of tertiary care hospital and (ii) to estimate the parasite load among food handlers working in food establishments of a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study carried over a period of 3 months. Sampling method employed was Simple Random Sampling. The total number of subjects was 86. The Institutional Ethics Committee approval was obtained. They were interviewed face to face using a semi-structured questionnaire and were assessed clinically for personal hygiene and head-to-toe examination. Stool examination was done for all using simple floatation technique. Results: Mean age of food handlers was 29 ± 2 years. Two-thirds (75%) of food handlers were educated <12th standard. Majority (61%) of them had up to 5 years of experience. The overall personal hygiene of subjects was good except for long hair. At the time of study, 59% had symptoms of infectious disease and had not reported. They had not received typhoid vaccination. The prevalence of Ascariasis, Giardia, and Taenia was 22.5%, 2.5%, and 2.5%, respectively. Conclusion: The overall health and personal hygiene of food handlers was good. However, the prevalence of enteropathogenic infections was high. Hence, periodic medical examination of food handlers should be taken seriously.

17.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2019 Sep; 37(3): 430-432
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-198899

ABSTRACT

Melioidosis is an emerging infectious disease in India mostly reported from South-western coastal Karnataka and North-eastern Tamil Nadu. We speculate the existence of another major hidden focus in Odisha, one of the eastern coastal states. The clinico-epidemiological features of 47 culture-confirmed melioidosis at a tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of 2 years are reported. Septicaemia was the most common clinical presentation. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was present in 72.3% of our cases. The geo-climatic conditions of Odisha and other coastal states of India and the rise in the incidence of DM demand a nationwide surveillance of melioidosis and creation of melioidosis registry.

18.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-210852

ABSTRACT

Present study was conducted using purposive sampling technique to identify prevailing marketing practices and consumer preference for pork in Bareilly city. The study revealed that majority of retailers come under middle age group and belong to lower socio-economic strata. Facilities of chiller, deep freezer, disinfectant and packaging and labeling were not available at any retail shops. Majority of respondent sold 30-35kg pork/day with higher frequency of selling at morning within 4-5 hrs of slaughter. Problems faced by retailers were poor financial conditions and lack of marketing chain. Pork retailers required training and aids related to pork business from government. Majority of consumers at Bareilly city belongs to the lower socio-economic strata. Majority of individuals purchased pork at least 1-2 times per week, most of them purchased at morning time. Most of consumer preferred ham cut, purchased meat from road side stalls immediately after slaughter for preparing dishes from pork and preferred stewing. Finally, it can be concluded that pork was sold through unorganized sector, both consumers and retailers were not aware about quality and safety of pork and meager value chain exist for pork business at Bareilly city

19.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205508

ABSTRACT

Background: Globally, about 425 million people are suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM) which will be about 629 million by 2045. India is popularly known as “World Diabetes Capital” and is presently home of about 72.9 million diabetes patients. Poorly managed DM will increase the burden of both microvascular and macrovascular complications. One of the most common complications among them is diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) which affects about 7%–24% of DM patients. Aims and Objectives: This study was planned to determine the burden of DFU and its determinants among Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients attending integrated diabetes and gestational diabetes clinic. Materials and Methods: An institution-based, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted from July to September 2018. A pre-designed, pre-tested, semi-structured schedule was used to collect clinicosocial data. Blood pressure of the study subjects was measured and classified as per Joint National Committee-8 guidelines. Peripheral vascular assessment of the feet was done by calculating “ankle-brachial index (ABI)” in both lower limbs using “Diabetik Foot Care India Pvt. Limited” vascular Doppler instrument having 8 MHz transducer. ABI ≤0.9 and absence of pulse in dorsalis pedis and/or posterior tibial arteries were considered as peripheral artery disease (PAD). Vibration perception threshold for peripheral sensory neuropathy was tested with the help of Diabetik Foot Care Pvt. Limited Digital Biothesiometer using 50 Hz frequency. Results: Data were collected from 338 study participants. The frequency of DFU was found to be 9.5%. Increasing age, longer duration of diabetes, poor educational status, overweight/obesity, poor glycemic control, treatment with insulin, PAD, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and hypothyroidism were significantly associated with DFU. Conclusion: There is high frequency of DFU among T2DM patients. Most of the risk factors are modifiable and if taken care of the occurrence of DFU can be prevented and/or delayed.

20.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-189648

ABSTRACT

The study was designed to isolate predominance contamination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in marketed raw buffalo milk (n=122) samples, collected from private dairy farms from different places of south Gujarat, India. Pre-enrichment of 1 ml of each sample was done with inoculation in 9 ml tryptone soya broth and incubated at 37ºC for 24 hrs. A loopful of culture was taken from broth and streaked on selective Pseudomonas agar F plates and incubated at 37ºC for 24 hrs, after completion of incubation period, the colonies characteristics were studied and further confirmed by various biochemical tests and found 14 samples contaminated with P. aeruginosa, were further more biochemical testes are used and give positive results with IMViC, Motility test, catalase and sugar fermentation confirm at 37ºC for 24 hrs incubation. All biochemically conformed isolates were further subjected for molecular characterization and were also tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by using various antibiotics discs such as vancomycin, penicillin, tylosin, cefixime, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, ceftriaxone, cefixime, tetracycline, streptomycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline and gentamicin, which has shown multi drug resistant ranging from seven to nine antimicrobials and Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index ranges from 0.50 to 0.64.The isolates of P. aeruginosa in the present study are extremely resistant to vancomycin, penicillin, tylosin, cefixime, chloramphenicol and maximum sensitive to ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin followed by gentamicin. Further statistical analysis of antibiotics wise zone diameter interpretative standard (mm) reveled susceptibility phenotypes under significant of difference at P≤0.05 in one way ANOVA using Duncan’s multiple range test and found ciprofloxacin having maximum sensitivity among antibiotic tested and it could be considered as a drug of choice for controlling P. aeruginosa mediated animal and human infections in the studied regions for insuring food safety as well.

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