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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990053

ABSTRACT

Food allergy is one of the most common chronic non-infectious diseases in many countries and regions, which affects 2%-4% of children and adults.Its prevalence is on the rise worldwide.In 2022, the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA 2LEN) proposed recommendations on managing food allergy to people at different age groups.This review aims to interpret the recommendations, clinical practice, precautions, evidence gaps and research priorities of food allergy management based on the GA 2LEN guideline 2022, thus providing reference for clinical management of food allergy.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990036

ABSTRACT

Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a very important pathogenic organism, especially for children.Chinese experts′consensus statement on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Group A Streptococcus infection related diseases in children was developed in November 2022 by pediatric experts in the fields of respiration, infection, immunology, testing, cardiovascular, kidney, critical care and prevention in China, aiming to further standardize the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with GAS infections and to promote and maintain the health of children.Its main contents are now explained, including disease burden, prevention, diagnosis, antimicrobial resistance and therapy.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990034

ABSTRACT

Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) comprises a group of rare primary immunodeficiencies, which are characterized by extremely high serum IgE levels, eczema, recurrent skin and pulmonary infections.Signal transduction and activator of transcription 3( STAT3)-HIES is the most common type, which is caused by dominant-negative mutations in STAT3.STAT3-HIES confers broad innate and acquired immune defects, defects in skeletal, connective tissue, and vascular functions, causing a clinical phenotype including eczema, staphylococcal and fungal skin and pulmonary infections, scoliosis and minimal trauma fractures, vascular tortuosity and aneurysm.In this article, the advance in diverse clinical manifestations and management strategies of STAT3-HIES was summarized.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990029

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the clinical characteristics of pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) in children, and to explore its treatment and prognostic factors.Methods:The clinical data of 19 children with PVS treated in Beijing Children′s Hospital, Capital Medical University from October 2016 to March 2022 were analyzed retrospectively.There were 16 males and 3 females.The median age at diagnosis was (2.81±1.95) years.A descriptive analysis of clinical characteristics of children was made.Results:Of the 19 children, 14 cases (73.7%) had primary PVS and 5 cases (26.3%) had secondary PVS after surgery of anomalous pulmonary venous connection (APVC). Thirteen children (68.4%) had hemoptysis.In the hemoptysis children, 5 cases had life-threatening massive hemoptysis, and 11 cases (57.9%) had a history of recurrent respiratory tract infection or pneumonia.Other manifestations of hemoptysis included failure to thrive (6 cases), cyanosis (5 cases), and dyspnea (3 cases). Complications were pulmonary hypertension (6 cases) and right heart failure (3 cases). There were 16 cases (84.2%) of unilateral PVS and 3 cases of bilateral PVS.Interlobular septal thickening, grid shadow and ground glass opacities were found on CT of all PVS cases.Ten cases underwent surgery, and 2 cases of them received angioplasty, but restenosis occurred in both of them.Eight children underwent pulmonary lobectomy, and their clinical symptoms were all relieved after operation.Nine patients were treated conservatively, and 3 cases of them died of bilateral PVS secondary to APVC.The remaining 6 alive cases still had intermittent clinical symptoms during follow-up.Conclusions:Hemoptysis and recurrent respiratory tract infection are the main clinical manifestations of PVS in children, and life-threatening massive hemoptysis can occur.Lobectomy is an effective treatment for unilateral PVS.The prognosis of secondary PVS after APVC is poorer and its mortality is higher, compared with primary PVS.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990023

ABSTRACT

The global morbidity of invasive fungal diseases (IFD) tends to increase, especially in immunocompromised people.Due to the atypical symptoms, unclear etiological mechanism, and emerging antifungal resistance, IFD challenge current clinical diagnosis and treatment.The World Health Organization (WHO) developed the first WHO fungal priority pathogens list in 2022.The most concerning fungal pathogens were listed and summarized to promote further understanding of the epidemiology of IFD and antifungal drug resistance.It is hoped to provide a basis for the prevention and interventions of IFD.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990022

ABSTRACT

Asthma is the most common chronic respiratory disease in children, and its prevalence has shown an obvious upward trend in recent years.Adolescence is a critical stage when adolescents undergo rapid psychological and physical developmental changes.The management of asthma in adolescents is different from that in childhood and adulthood.Further attention should be paid to the diagnosis and management of asthma in adolescents.The Global Initiative for Asthma 2022 (GINA 2022) had updated the content of evaluation and treatment of severe asthma in adolescents.In this article, the contents related to the diagnosis, assessment, initial treatment and adjustment, severe asthma management and self-management of adolescent asthma in GINA 2022 were interpreted, in order to provide reference for the diagnosis and treatment of adolescent asthma and improve the management of asthma in adolescents.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990009

ABSTRACT

Good sleep is essential for children′s physical and mental health, growth, and development.Adequate and high-quality sleep positively impacts children′s quality of life, memory, learning, attention, mood, and behavior.Children of different ages have different sleep needs.Children have various sleep problems in different cultures.Therefore, it is significant to guide children to get healthy sleep by popularizing the sleep problems of Chinese children of all ages and in all dimensions.Based on China′s social and cultural background, this paper summarizes the contents related to children′s sleep physiology, good sleep habits, common sleep problems, sleep apnea disorders, hypnagogic sleep, narcolepsy, insomnia, and other issues that interfere with children′s sleep.Chinese sleep experts summarize and interpret the 100 sleep health problems of children that medical workers and parents are most concerned about.To promote children′s sleep health and popularize solutions to sleep problems.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989992

ABSTRACT

Objective:To assess the clinical effectiveness and safety of Omalizumab for treating pediatric allergic asthma in real world in China.Methods:The clinical data of children aged 6 to 11 years with allergic asthma who received Omalizumab treatment in 17 hospitals in China between July 6, 2018 and September 30, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed.Such information as the demographic characteristics, allergic history, family history, total immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels, specific IgE levels, skin prick test, exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels, eosinophil (EOS) counts, and comorbidities at baseline were collected.Descriptive analysis of the Omalizumab treatment mode was made, and the difference in the first dose, injection frequency and course of treatment between the Omalizumab treatment mode and the mode recommended in the instruction was investigated.Global Evaluation of Treatment Effectiveness (GETE) analysis was made after Omalizumab treatment.The moderate-to-severe asthma exacerbation rate, inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) dose, lung functions were compared before and after Omalizumab treatment.Changes in the Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT) and Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ) results from baseline to 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, and 52 weeks after Omalizumab treatment were studied.The commodity improvement was assessed.The adverse event (AE) and serious adverse event (SAE) were analyzed for the evaluation of Omalizumab treatment safety.The difference in the annual rate of moderate-to-severe asthma exacerbation and ICS reduction was investigated by using t test.The significance level was set to 0.05.Other parameters were all subject to descriptive analysis.A total of 200 allergic asthma patients were enrolled, including 75.5% ( n=151) males and 24.5% ( n=49) females.The patients aged (8.20±1.81) years. Results:The median total IgE level of the 200 patients was 513.5 (24.4-11 600.0) IU/mL.Their median treatment time with Omalizumab was 112 (1-666) days.Their first dose of Omalizumab was 300 (150-600) mg.Of the 200 cases, 114 cases (57.0%) followed the first Omalizumab dosage recommended in the instruction.After 4-6 months of Omalizumab treatment, 88.5% of the patients enrolled ( n=117) responded to Omalizumab.After 4 weeks of treatment with Omalizumab, asthma was well-controlled, with an increased C-ACT score [from (22.70±3.70) points to (18.90±3.74) points at baseline]. Four-six months after Omalizumab administration, the annual rate of moderate-to-severe asthma exacerbation had a reduction of (2.00±5.68) per patient year( t=4.702 5, P<0.001), the median ICS daily dose was lowered [0 (0-240) μg vs. 160 (50-4 000) μg at baseline] ( P<0.001), the PAQLQ score was improved [(154.90±8.57) points vs. (122.80±27.15) points at baseline], and the forced expiratory volume in one second % predicted (FEV 1%pred) was increased [(92.80±10.50)% vs. (89.70±18.17)% at baseline]. In patients with available evaluations for comorbidities, including allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis or eczema, urticaria, allergic conjunctivitis and sinusitis, 92.8%-100.0% showed improved symptoms.A total of 124 AE were reported in 58 (29.0%) of the 200 patients, and the annual incidence was 0(0-15.1) per patient year.In 53 patients who suffered AE, 44 patients (83.0%) and 9 patients (17.0%) reported mild and moderate AE, respectively.No severe AE were observed in patients.The annual incidence of SAE was 0(0-1.9) per patient year.Most common drug-related AE were abdominal pain (2 patients, 1.0%) and fever (2 patients, 1.0%). No patient withdrew Omalizumab due to AE. Conclusions:Omalizumab shows good effectiveness and safety for the treatment of asthma in children.It can reduce the moderate-to-severe asthma exacerbation rate, reduce the ICS dose, improve asthma control levels, and improve lung functions and quality of life of patients.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989986

ABSTRACT

China has classified the Corona Virus Disease 2019(COVID-19) as a statutory category B infectious disease and managed it according to Category B since January 8, 2023.In view that Omicron variant is currently the main epidemic strain in China, in order to guide the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) infection in children with the times, refer to the Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for Novel Coronavirus Infection (Trial 10 th Edition), Expert Consensus on Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Novel Coronavirus Infection in Children (Fourth Edition) and the Diagnosis and Treatment Strategy for Pediatric Related Viral Infections.The Expert Consensus on the Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Novel Coronavirus Infection in Children (Fifth Edition) has been formulated and updated accordingly on related etiology, epidemiology, pathogenic mechanism, clinical manifestations, auxiliary examination, diagnosis and treatment, and added key points for the treatment of COVID-19 related encephalopathy, fulminating myocarditis and other serious complications for clinical reference.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989985

ABSTRACT

Recently, there have been outbreaks of Group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection in foreign countries.The reasons are varied.With the relaxation of control for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) infection, it is very likely that concurrent or secondary GAS infection peaks will occur at the same time as the number of Corona Virus Disease 2019(COVID-19) cases increases dramatically.Children are generally susceptible to GAS and are more vulnerable.In response to possible outbreaks, early identification of GAS infections and rational use of antibiotics are particularly important.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989984

ABSTRACT

Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is a subtype of acute encephalopathy presented with disturbance of consciousness and symmetric bilateral thalamic necrosis in neuroradiology.Patients with ANE had a high mortality or severe neurological sequela.ANE usually secondary to virus infectious disease, in which influenza is a common etiology.During the 3 years of the worldwide pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2)infection, ANE has become a severe complication and cause of death in children, which has aroused much concern.Here is a review of the research progress of epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatments and prognosis of ANE, in order to improve the knowledge of clinicians on this disease.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989983

ABSTRACT

Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) implemented during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) epidemic have been proven to be effective in blocking the spread of the epidemic.While reducing SARS-CoV-2 transmission, NPIs also reduce children exposure to other pathogens, leading to a decline in the incidence of many viral and bacterial infections.The reduction in contact with viruses and bacteria and the delay or interruption of routine immunization during SARS-CoV-2 epidemic have resulted in insufficient immune stimulation of pathogens on the population, leading to an increase in susceptible populations and a decline in herd immunity, forming the immune debt during SARS-CoV-2 epidemic.After reducing or lifting NPIs, the incidence of some viral or bacterial infectious diseases was significantly higher than pre-epidemic.In this review, the definition, source, impact and strategies of immune debt during epidemic period were expounded, inorder to improve clinicians′ attention and understanding of immune debt and optimize the prevention of children′s infectious diseases.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989121

ABSTRACT

Asthma is a common chronic respiratory disease in children.Adolescent asthma is characterized by high prevalence rate, high mortality and poor disease control.The optimal adolescent asthma management is crucial to improve asthma control, as well as reduce the burden of asthma including mortality.The key of the management in adolescents with asthma is the self-management, which involves individual, family and social aspects.The imbalance between physical development and psychological development in adolescents leads to many challenges in the self-management in adolescents with asthma.This review elaborates the current situation, influence factors and promotional strategies of self-management in adolescents with asthma so as to achieve the optimal asthma self-management.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-954838

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of pulse oximetry among pediatric healthcare providers in China and analyze the factor influencing the KAP.Methods:A self-developed questionnaire was used for an online research on the KAP of 11 849 pediatric healthcare providers from 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities of China from March 11 to 14, 2022.The factors influencing the KAP of pulse oximetry among pediatric healthcare providers were examined by Logistic regression. Results:The scores of KAP, of pulse oximetry were 5.57±0.96, 11.24±1.25 and 11.19±4.54, respectively.The corresponding scoring rates were 69.61%, 74.95%, and 55.99%, respectively. Logistic regression results showed that the gender and working years of pediatric healthcare providers, the region they were located, and whether their medical institution was equipped with pulse oximeters were the main factors affecting the knowledge score (all P<0.05). Main factors influencing the attitude score of pediatric healthcare providers included their knowledge score, gender, educational background, working years, region, medical institution level, and whether the medical institution was equipped with pulse oximeters (all P<0.05). For the practice score, the main influencing factors were the knowledge score, gender, age, and whether the medi-cal institution was equipped with pulse oximeters (all P<0.05). Conclusions:Chinese pediatric healthcare providers need to further improve their knowledge about and attitudes towards pulse oximetry.Pulse oximeters are evidently under-used.It is urgent to formulate policies or guidelines, strengthen education and training, improve knowledge and attitudes, equip more institutions with pulse oximeters, and popularize their application in medical institutions.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-954830

ABSTRACT

Hypoxemia is a common complication of pneumonia, asthma, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in children.Rapid identification of hypoxemia is of great significance for the disposal and management of critical children.Pulse oximetry is recognized by the World Health Organization as the best way to monitor hypoxemia in children, and it can monitor pulse oxygen saturation noninvasively and continuously.Based on the related literature at home and abroad, combined with the clinical needs of pediatrics, the " Expert consensus on clinical application of pulse oximetry in children" is formulated to improve the understanding of pediatricians and nurses on the application in pediatric clinical practice, principle, operation techniques, and limitations of pulse oximetry.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-954819

ABSTRACT

The clinical data of a cystic fibrosis (CF) child with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and hemoptysis in the Department of Respiratory Disease Ⅰ, Beijing Children′s Hospital, Capital Medical University in May 2021 were retrospectively analyzed.Meanwhile, relevant literature was reviewed to analyze the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of CF patients with ABPA.This patient was a 15 years and 4 months old boy and complained of recurrent cough with sputum.The test showed increased blood eosinophils, total serum IgE higher than 500 IU/mL, positive aspergillus fumigatus specific IgE and IgG antibodies.Chest CT revealed central bronchiectasis and high-density mucus thrombus, and the patient was initially diagnosed with ABPA.Further examinations suggested the sweat chloride concentration was 89 mmol/L, and the genetic results showed a compound heterozygous mutation of CFTR (c.2909G>A from his father, c.3310G>T from his mother). Then, he was diagnosed with CF complicated with ABPA and treated with glucocorticoid and antifungal therapy.The disease was repeated after drug withdrawal.Due to hemoptysis, the right upper lobe lobectomy was performed.Unfortunately, ABPA occurred again 2 years later.The child is being followed up at present.CF is a rare monogenetic disease with poor prognosis.It is difficult to treat CF patients with ABPA and the disease repeats easily.Early identification and treatment will improve the prognosis.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-954817

ABSTRACT

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-threatening autosomal recessive hereditary disease, involving multiple organs and systems such as respiratory and digestive systems.Malnutrition caused by various factors is common in CF children.CF children with pancreatic dysfunction suffer from malabsorption and/or growth disorder at birth or 1 year old.Nutritional status is associated with lung function and prognosis of CF patients, so nutritional management is extremely important to CF children.However, there is inadequate nutritional management for CF children in clinical practice in China, and Chinese CF children has shorter survival time than CF children in European and American countries.Thus, in this study, the importance of nutritional management, nutritional management methods, nutritional assessment and monitoring of CF patients were introduced.The aim is to enhance clinical attention to the nutritional status of CF children and clinical understanding of nutritional management.Early identification and intervention can improve prognosis and prolong the life of pediatric CF patients.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-954816

ABSTRACT

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multisystem disease caused by CFTR gene mutations, affecting the lungs, digestive system, and reproductive tract.Infectious lung disease is the major cause of exacerbation and mortality in most patients.There are specific pathogen spectrums in infectious lung disease and antibiotics application principles in CF patients.In this article, the application of antibiotics in clinical guidelines for care of children with CF in Royal Brompton Hospital (2020) was introduced.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-954815

ABSTRACT

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monogenetic disease involving multiple organs.Malnutrition is common in children with CF, and it is closely related to the prognosis and survival of children.Malnutrition is caused by various factors and individualized plans should be made for children with CF at different stages.Besides, it is essentially important to monitor and assess the nutritional status of CF patients in a long term.In 2020, the 8 th edition of the clinical guidelines for the care of children with CF in Royal Brompton Hospital was updated, in which the nutritional management of children with CF was recommended and guided.This part of the guidelines was interpreted in the present paper, including nutritional management and evaluation, tips for pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy, types of nutrition supplement and how to solve the feeding difficulties of children with CF.The aim of this paper is to guide early clinical nutritional management of CF patients and improve their prognosis.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-954799

ABSTRACT

Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a very important pathogen, especially for children.On a global scale, GAS is an important cause of morbidity and mortality.But the burden of disease caused by GAS is still unknown in China and also has not obtained enough attention.For this purpose, the expert consensus is comprehensively described in diagnosis, treatment and prevention of GAS diseases in children, covering related aspects of pneumology, infectiology, immunology, microbiology, cardiology, nephrology, critical care medicine and preventive medicine.Accordingly, the consensus document was intended to improve management strategies of GAS disease in Chinese children.

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