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1.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 405-410, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896621

ABSTRACT

At present, there is no photographic evidence of splitting of the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCMs), which share a common anlage that extends caudally toward the limb bud in the embryo at a length of 9 mm. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify which structures divide the caudal end of the common anlage at the first sign of splitting into two muscles. In 11 mm-long specimens, the SCM and trapezius muscles were identified as a single mesenchymal condensation. In 15 and 18 mm-long specimens, the SCM and trapezius muscles were separated and extended posteriorly and lymphatic tissues appeared in a primitive lateral cervical space surrounded by the SCM (anterior). In 21 mm-long specimens, the lymphatic vessels were dilated and the accompanying afferents were forming connections with the subcutaneous tissue through a space between the SCM and trapezius muscles. In 27 mm-long specimens, cutaneous lymphatic vessels were evident and had entered the deep tissue between the SCM and trapezius muscles. Vascular dilation may be viewed as a result of less mechanical stress or pressure after muscle splitting.

2.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 405-410, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888917

ABSTRACT

At present, there is no photographic evidence of splitting of the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCMs), which share a common anlage that extends caudally toward the limb bud in the embryo at a length of 9 mm. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify which structures divide the caudal end of the common anlage at the first sign of splitting into two muscles. In 11 mm-long specimens, the SCM and trapezius muscles were identified as a single mesenchymal condensation. In 15 and 18 mm-long specimens, the SCM and trapezius muscles were separated and extended posteriorly and lymphatic tissues appeared in a primitive lateral cervical space surrounded by the SCM (anterior). In 21 mm-long specimens, the lymphatic vessels were dilated and the accompanying afferents were forming connections with the subcutaneous tissue through a space between the SCM and trapezius muscles. In 27 mm-long specimens, cutaneous lymphatic vessels were evident and had entered the deep tissue between the SCM and trapezius muscles. Vascular dilation may be viewed as a result of less mechanical stress or pressure after muscle splitting.

3.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 278-285, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762235

ABSTRACT

The human nervus terminalis (terminal nerve) and the nerves to the vomeronasal organ (VNON) are both associated with the olfactory nerves and are of major interest to embryologists. However, there is still limited knowledge on their topographical anatomy in the nasal septum and on the number and distribution of ganglion cells along and near the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone. We observed serial or semiserial sections of 30 fetuses at 7–18 weeks (crown rump length [CRL], 25–160 mm). Calretinin and S100 protein staining demonstrated not only the terminal nerve along the anterior edge of the perpendicular lamina of the ethmoid, but also the VNON along the posterior edge of the lamina. The terminal nerve was composed of 1–2 nerve bundles that passed through the anterior end of the cribriform plate, whereas the VNON consisted of 2–3 bundles behind the olfactory nerves. The terminal nerve ran along and crossed the posterior side of the nasal branch of the anterior ethmoidal nerve. Multiple clusters of small ganglion cells were found on the lateral surfaces of the ethmoid's crista galli, which are likely the origin of both the terminal nerve and VNON. The ganglions along the crista galli were ball-like and 15–20 µm in diameter and, ranged from 40–153 in unilateral number according to our counting at 21-µm-interval except for one specimen (480 neurons; CRL, 137 mm). An effect of nerve degeneration with increasing age seemed to be masked by a remarkable individual difference.


Subject(s)
Humans , Calbindin 2 , Ethmoid Bone , Fetus , Ganglion Cysts , Individuality , Masks , Nasal Septum , Nerve Degeneration , Neurons , Olfactory Nerve , Vomeronasal Organ
4.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 266-273, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718953

ABSTRACT

The ganglion cardiacum or juxtaductal body is situated along the left recurrent laryngeal nerve in the aortic window and is an extremely large component of the cardiac nerve plexus. This study was performed to describe the morphologies of the ganglion cardiacum or juxtaductal body in human fetuses and to compare characteristics with intracardiac ganglion. Ganglia were immunostained in specimens from five fetuses of gestational age 12–16 weeks and seven fetuses of gestational age 28–34 weeks. Many ganglion cells in the ganglia were positive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; sympathetic nerve marker) and chromogranin A, while a few neurons were positive for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS; parasympathetic nerve marker) or calretinin. Another ganglion at the base of the ascending aorta carried almost the same neuronal populations, whereas a ganglion along the left common cardinal vein contained neurons positive for chromogranin A and NOS but no or few TH-positive neurons, suggesting a site-dependent difference in composite neurons. Mixtures of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons within a single ganglion are consistent with the morphology of the cranial base and pelvic ganglia. Most of the intracardiac neurons are likely to have a non-adrenergic non-cholinergic phenotype, whereas fewer neurons have a dual cholinergic/noradrenergic phenotype. However, there was no evidence showing that chromogranin A- and/or calretinin-positive cardiac neurons corresponded to these specific phenotypes. The present study suggested that the ganglion cardiacum was composed of a mixture of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons, which were characterized the site-dependent differences in and near the heart.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aorta , Calbindin 2 , Chromogranin A , Fetus , Ganglia , Ganglion Cysts , Gestational Age , Heart , Neurons , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Phenotype , Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve , Skull Base , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase , Veins
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-182773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assessed the effects of customized in-hospital, in-person education provided by an education-specialized nurse in ischemic stroke patients. METHODS: All ischemic stroke patients who were hospitalized between April 2015 and December 2015 were included. They were provided with education about stroke by an education-specialized nurse during their hospital stay. The knowledge of stroke warning signs and appropriate responses was examined both before the in-hospital education and 3 months after discharge in 127 patients. RESULTS: The awareness of the following stroke warning signs increased significantly at 3 months after discharge compared to before receiving the education (all p values <0.001): sudden difficulty in speaking or in understanding speech (74.0→93.7%), sudden numbness or weakness (72.4→92.1%), sudden dizziness (71.7→89.8%), sudden severe headache (44.9→82.7%), and sudden visual impairment (38.6→69.3%). The proportion of patients with a good knowledge of stroke warning signs (defined as providing at least five correct answers) increased significantly, from 38.6% to 81.9%. Almost half of them (46.5%) correctly answered that they should call an ambulance first when someone shows stroke symptoms before receiving the education, with this proportion increasing to 68.5% at 3 months after discharge (p<0.001). The proportions of patients who understood the need for prompt treatment of stroke and the golden time window increased from 80.3% to 96.9% and from 66.1% to 86.6%, respectively (both p<0.001). The proportion of patients with knowledge of thrombolytic therapy for stroke also increased significantly after the in-hospital education, from 11.0% to 76.4% (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In-hospital, in-person education was effective at increasing the understanding that patients have of stroke, even at 3 months after discharge. In-hospital education provided by an education-specialized nurse would be an effective intervention for increasing the likelihood of stroke patients reacting appropriately to stroke recurrence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ambulances , Dizziness , Education , Headache , Hypesthesia , Length of Stay , Recurrence , Stroke , Thrombolytic Therapy , Vision Disorders
6.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 132-137, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-26901

ABSTRACT

The frontal nerve is characterized by its great content of sympathetic nerve fibers in contrast to cutaneous branches of the maxillary and mandibular nerves. However, we needed to add information about composite fibers of cutaneous branches of the nasociliary nerve. Using cadaveric specimens from 20 donated cadavers (mean age, 85), we performed immunohistochemistry of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). The nasocilliary nerve contained abundant nNOS-positive fibers in contrast to few TH- and VIP-positive fibers. The short ciliary nerves also contained nNOS-positive fibers, but TH-positive fibers were more numerous than nNOS-positive ones. Parasympathetic innervation to the sweat gland is well known, but the original nerve course seemed not to be demonstrated yet. The present study may be the first report on a skin nerve containing abundant nNOS-positive fibers. The unique parasympathetic contents in the nasocilliary nerve seemed to supply the forehead sweat glands as well as glands in the eyelid and nasal epithelium.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cadaver , Eyelids , Forehead , Immunohistochemistry , Mandibular Nerve , Nasal Mucosa , Nerve Fibers , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Skin , Sweat Glands , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase , Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assessed the effects of stroke community-based education and advocacy on the time from stroke onset to hospital arrival in ischemic stroke patients. METHODS: Stroke community-based education and advocacy were implemented between May 2014 and December 2014 in Iksan, Jeollabukdo. The extent of ambulance utilization, time from stroke onset to hospital arrival, and proportions of arrivals within certain golden-time windows were compared with those of patients admitted from May to December 2013 (before vs. after intervention). RESULTS: The demographic and clinical characteristics did not differ significantly between the patients admitted in 2013 and 2014, nor did the proportion of ambulance utilization (33.6% and 39.4%, respectively; p=0.195). The median time from stroke onset to hospital arrival changed from 582 min in 2013 to 367 min in 2014, although not statistically significant (p=0.062). The proportion of hospital arrivals within 3 hours from stroke onset increased significantly from 28.5% in 2013 to 42.3% in 2014 (p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive community-based stroke intervention may increase the probability of hospital arrival within the golden-time window, thereby leading to a better prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ambulances , Education , Health Education , Prognosis , Stroke , Time-to-Treatment
9.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 114-123, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23345

ABSTRACT

To determine the proportion of nerve fibers in the hypogastric nerve (HGN) and pelvic splanchnic nerve (PSN), small tissue strips of the HGN and PSN from 12 donated elderly cadavers were examined histologically. Immunohistochemistry for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was performed. More than 70% of fibers per bundle in the HGN were positive for TH at the level of the sacral promontory. In addition, NOS- (negative) and/or VIP+ (positive) fibers were observed in small areas of each nerve bundle, although the proportion of each was usually less than 10%. In the PSN near the third sacral nerve root, the proportion of nerve fibers positive for NOS and/or VIP (or TH) was below 30%. In both the HGN and PSN, the number of VIP+ fibers was usually greater than that of NOS+ fibers, with frequent co-localization of NOS and VIP. More fibers in both nerves were positive for TH than for these other markers. In contrast to pelvic plexus branches, there were no differences in the proportions of NOS+ and VIP+ fibers between nerve bundles in each of the tissue strips. Thus, target-dependent sorting of nerve fibers was not apparent in the HGN at the level of the sacral promontory or in the PSN near the third sacral nerve root. The NOS+ and/or VIP+ fibers in the HGN were most likely ascending postganglionic fibers to the colon, while those in the PSN root may be preganglionic fibers from Onuf's nucleus.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Cadaver , Colon , Hypogastric Plexus , Immunohistochemistry , Nerve Fibers , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Splanchnic Nerves , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase , Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-209774

ABSTRACT

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system characterized by optic neuritis and longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis. The clinical course can be either polyphasic (relapsing-remitting) or monophasic. The relapsing-remitting course is observed in more than 80% of NMO cases, and relapse generally occurs within 1 year in 60% of patients, and within 3 years in 90%. We report a rare case of long spontaneous remission in untreated NMO.


Subject(s)
Humans , Central Nervous System , Demyelinating Diseases , Myelitis, Transverse , Neuromyelitis Optica , Optic Neuritis , Recurrence , Remission, Spontaneous
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-145207

ABSTRACT

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a fatal complication most often caused by an adverse reaction to neuroleptic or antipsychotic drugs, and is mostly brought out in the initial stage of medication. Late onset NMS after long term intake of neuroleptics is uncommon, and the neurochemical mechanism is undiscovered. We report a patient of late onset NMS after a long term intake of haloperidol who was successfully treated with dantrolene and bromocriptine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antipsychotic Agents , Bromocriptine , Dantrolene , Haloperidol , Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-10200

ABSTRACT

Kimura's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease producing subcutaneous tumor-like nodules chiefly in the head and neck region. It is characterized histologically by lymphoid follicles, intense aggregations of eosinophils, vascular proliferation and fibrosis combined with peripheral blood eosinophilia. We report a 56-year-old man who presented with dysarthria and right hemiparesis. On physical examination, a non-ender mass 5 x 6 cm was identified in the right submandibular area. He was diagnosed with Kimura's disease by biopsy. One month after admission, he complained of paresthesia in the left lower extremity. CT angiography revealed thromobosis in the left femoral vein and bilateral pulmonary embolism. To our knowledge, the concomitant occurrence of acute cerebral infarction, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in patients with Kimura's disease has never been reported. Eosinophil-derived cytotoxic proteins are presumed to be fundamental to the pathogenesis of these disorders in Kimura's disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Angiography , Biopsy , Cerebral Infarction , Dysarthria , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Femoral Vein , Fibrosis , Head , Lower Extremity , Neck , Paresis , Paresthesia , Physical Examination , Proteins , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thrombosis
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-10375

ABSTRACT

Three external quality assesment trials which composed of 16 control materials(12 chemical materials and four sets of microscopic photograph of urinary sediment) for interlaboratory quality control assesment in urinalysis were performed with 796, 823, and 841 participants, in each, in the year of 2009. The response rate were 97.1% (796/820), 95.5% (823/862) and 97.1% (841/866), in the first, the second and the third trials, in each. The test items include pH, glucose, protein, ketone, bilirubin, blood, urobilinogen, nitrite, leukocyte estrase, specific gravity and four microscopic photographs of urinary sediment. The survey results are summarized as follows: 1. The chemical quality control test in urinalysis revealed generally good concordance. 2. The percentage of using urinalysis analyzer was slightly decreased as 82.3% and the distribution of using reagent strip was similar to the previous year. 3. The percentage of response rate of microscopic photographs of urinary sediment was 83.5% (702/841) and the percentage of good performance of these tests ware 83.6% to 99.1%.


Subject(s)
Bilirubin , Equidae , Glucose , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Korea , Leukocytes , Quality Control , Reagent Strips , Specific Gravity , Urinalysis , Urobilinogen
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-54349

ABSTRACT

Three external quality assesment trials which composed of 16 control materials (12 chemical materials and four sets of microscopic photograph of urinary sediment) for interlaboratory quality control assesment in urinalysis were performed with 699, 718, and 732 participants, in each, in the year of 2008. The response rate were 95.4% (699/733), 96.6% (718/743) and 95.3% (732/767), in the first, the second and the third trials, in each. The test items include pH, glucose, protein, ketone, bilirubin, blood, urobilinogen, nitrite, leukocyte estrase, specific gravity and four microscopic photographs of urinary sediment. The survey results are summarized as follows: 1. The chemical quality control test in urinalysis revealed generally good concordance. 2. The percentage of using urinalysis analyzer was slightly decreased as 83.0% and the distribution of using reagent strip was similar to the previous year. 3. The percentage of response rate of microscopic photographs of urinary sediment was 81.3% (571/732) and the percentage of good performance of these tests ware 32.9% to 80.5%.


Subject(s)
Bilirubin , Equidae , Glucose , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Korea , Leukocytes , Quality Control , Reagent Strips , Specific Gravity , Urinalysis , Urobilinogen
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-7150

ABSTRACT

The density of intestinal endocrine cells, in Balb/c mice with colon 26 (CT-26) carcinoma cells, were examined immunohistochemically at 28 days after implantation. After CT-26 cell administration there was a significant decrease in most of the intestinal endocrine cells (p < 0.01) compared with the control group. The significant quantitative changes in the intestinal endocrine cell density might contribute to the development of the gastrointestinal symptoms commonly encountered in cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Enteroendocrine Cells/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Glucagon/metabolism , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Neoplasm Transplantation , Neoplasms, Experimental/metabolism , Pancreatic Polypeptide/metabolism , Serotonin/metabolism , Sincalide/metabolism , Somatostatin/metabolism
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115392

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate the clinical significance of flow diversion (FD) of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) or posterior cerebral artery (PCA), a transcranial doppler (TCD) was used in patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusive disorders. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 51 patients from 1999 to 2001. FD was determined using TCD. Leptomeningeal collateral channels (LMCs) were identified by conventional angiography. The author analyzed the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictability of FD of ACA or PCA to predict the LMCs, and also evaluated the relationship between FD and leptomeningeal collateral circulation. RESULTS: LMC was noted in 41% of patients with M1 (MCA) occlusive disorders. It showed a tendency of increasing prevalence with an increasing degree of M1 MCA stenosis (rho=0.605, p<0.001). FD was noted in 47% of patients with MCA occlusive diseases. It also had a tendency of high prevalence with an increasing degree of M1 MCA stenosis (rho=0.382, p=0.006). To predict the presence of LMCs, FD of ACA or PCA had a sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 76%, positive predictive value of 71% and negative predictive value of 85%. FD of ACA or PCA had a good correlation with LMCs in patients with MCA occlusive disorders (rho=0.568, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that FD had good sensitivity and specificity to predict the LMCs, and demonstrated that FD was a reliable source of evidence of LMCs in patients with M1 MCA occlusive disorders. Patients with M1 MCA stenosis had heterogeneous hemodynamics in the development of collateral circulation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Angiography , Anterior Cerebral Artery , Collateral Circulation , Constriction, Pathologic , Hemodynamics , Middle Cerebral Artery , Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis , Posterior Cerebral Artery , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-163244

ABSTRACT

A 24-year-old man was treated with anti-tuberculous therapy after being diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis. However, he developed abrupt onset of weakness in the lower extremities. Thoracic spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a soft tissue mass, a compressed posterior spinal cord. A total resection of the intradural extramedullary mass was performed. A histological examination revealed the infiltration of inflammatory cells with granulomatous lesions. Intradural extramedullary tuberculous granuloma is rare, but must be considered in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord compression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Young Adult , Diagnosis, Differential , Granuloma , Lower Extremity , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Compression , Tuberculosis, Meningeal
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