Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 28
Filter
Add filters








Type of study
Year range
1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-127969

ABSTRACT

Since molecular biology studies began, researches in biological science have centered on proteins and genes at molecular level of a single cell. Cancer research has also focused on various functions of proteins and genes that distinguish cancer cells from normal cells. Accordingly, most contemporary anticancer drugs have been developed to target abnormal characteristics of cancer cells. Despite the great advances in the development of anticancer drugs, vast majority of patients with advanced cancer have shown grim prognosis and high rate of relapse. To resolve this problem, we must reevaluate our focuses in current cancer research. Cancer should be considered as a systemic disease because cancer cells undergo a complex interaction with various surrounding cells in cancer tissue and spread to whole body through metastasis under the control of the systemic modulation. Human body relies on the cooperative interaction between various tissues and organs, and each organ performs its specialized function through tissue-specific cell networks. Therefore, investigation of the tumor-specific cell networks can provide novel strategy to overcome the limitation of current cancer research. This review presents the limitations of the current cancer research, emphasizing the necessity of studying tissue-specific cell network which could be a new perspective on treating cancer disease, not cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Biological Science Disciplines , Human Body , Humans , Molecular Biology , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Recurrence
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83631

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection is a major cause of respiratory infection in school-aged children. Extrapulmonary manifestations of MP infection are common, but liver involvement has been rarely reported. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of MP-associated hepatitis. METHODS: This prospective study included 1,044 pediatric patients with MP infection diagnosed serologically with MP IgM at one medical center from January 2006 to December 2012. Eighty of these patients had elevated levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), each greater than 50 IU/L, without any other specific liver disorder and were compared with the 964 children without liver disorders. RESULTS: In total, 7.7% of patients with MP infection had a diagnosis of hepatitis, especially in fall and winter. The ratio of male to female patients was 1.7:1, and the mean age of the patients was 5 years and 5 months. The most common symptoms were cough, fever, and sputum. Anorexia was the most common gastrointestinal symptom, followed by nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Mean levels of AST and ALT were 100.65 IU/L and 118.73 IU/L, respectively. Serum AST/ALT level was normalized within 7.5 days on average without complications. The mean duration of hospitalization (11.3 days) was longer for children with hepatitis than for those without hepatitis (P=0.034). CONCLUSION: MP-associated hepatitis is not uncommon and has a relatively good prognosis. Therefore, clinicians should be concerned about liver involvement in MP infection but avoid further unnecessary evaluation of hepatitis associated with MP.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Alanine Transaminase , Anorexia , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Child , Cough , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , Female , Fever , Hepatitis , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Liver , Macrolides , Male , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Sputum
3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-204527

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and outcome of febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by community-acquired extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (CA-ESBL)-producing and -nonproducing bacteria. METHODS: We analyzed febrile UTIs in children hospitalized at Gachon University Gil Medical Center from January 2011 to December 2013 through retrospective data collection from their medical records. RESULTS: Among pathogens causing 374 episodes of UTIs, the proportion of ESBL-producing bacteria was 13.1% (49/374). The proportion of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. was 13.6% (48/354) and 5.0% (1/20), respectively. There was no significant difference between the CA-ESBL and CA non-ESBL groups in duration of fever (4.2+/-2.7 vs.3.7+/-2.1 days, P=0.10) and bacterial eradication rate with empirical antibiotics (100% vs. 100%). The risk of cortical defects on renal scan significantly depended on existence of vesicoureteral reflux rather than ESBL production of pathogen. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference between the CA-ESBL and CA non-ESBL groups in renal cortical defects and clinical outcome. Careful choice of antibiotics is important for treatment of community-acquired UTI in children.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteria , beta-Lactamases , Child , Data Collection , Escherichia coli , Fever , Humans , Klebsiella , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Urinary Tract Infections , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727717

ABSTRACT

Notch1 has been reported to be highly expressed in triple-negative and other subtypes of breast cancer. Mutant p53 (R280K) is overexpressed in MDA-MB-231 triple-negative human breast cancer cells. The present study aimed to determine whether the mutant p53 can be a potent transcriptional activator of the Notch1 in MDA-MB-231 cells, and explore the role of this mutant p53-Notch1 axis in curcumin-induced apoptosis. We found that curcumin treatment resulted in an induction of apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells, together with downregulation of Notch1 and its downstream target, Hes1. This reduction in Notch1 expression was determined to be due to the decreased activity of endogenous mutant p53. We confirmed the suppressive effect of curcumin on Notch1 transcription by performing a Notch1 promoter-driven reporter assay and identified a putative p53-binding site in the Notch1 promoter by EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. Overexpression of mutant p53 increased Notch1 promoter activity, whereas knockdown of mutant p53 by small interfering RNA suppressed Notch1 expression, leading to the induction of cellular apoptosis. Moreover, curcumin-induced apoptosis was further enhanced by the knockdown of Notch1 or mutant p53, but it was decreased by the overexpression of active Notch1. Taken together, our results demonstrate, for the first time, that Notch1 is a transcriptional target of mutant p53 in breast cancer cells and suggest that the targeting of mutant p53 and/or Notch1 may be combined with a chemotherapeutic strategy to improve the response of breast cancer cells to curcumin.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Axis, Cervical Vertebra , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Chromatin Immunoprecipitation , Curcumin , Down-Regulation , Humans , RNA, Small Interfering
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194081

ABSTRACT

The integrity of blood vessels controls vascular permeability and extravasation of blood cells, across the endothelium. Thus, the impairment of endothelial integrity leads to hemorrhage, edema, and inflammatory infiltration. However, the molecular mechanism underlying vascular integrity has not been fully understood. Here, we demonstrate an essential role for A-kinase anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12) in the maintenance of endothelial integrity during vascular development. Zebrafish embryos depleted of akap12 (akap12 morphants) exhibited severe hemorrhages. In vivo time-lapse analyses suggested that disorganized interendothelial cell-cell adhesions in akap12 morphants might be the cause of hemorrhage. To clarify the molecular mechanism by which the cell-cell adhesions are impaired, we examined the cell-cell adhesion molecules and their regulators using cultured endothelial cells. The expression of PAK2, an actin cytoskeletal regulator, and AF6, a connector of intercellular adhesion molecules and actin cytoskeleton, was reduced in AKAP12-depleted cells. Depletion of either PAK2 or AF6 phenocopied AKAP12-depleted cells, suggesting the reduction of PAK2 and AF6 results in the loosening of intercellular junctions. Consistent with this, overexpression of PAK2 and AF6 rescued the abnormal hemorrhage in akap12 morphants. We conclude that AKAP12 is essential for integrity of endothelium by maintaining the expression of PAK2 and AF6 during vascular development.


Subject(s)
A Kinase Anchor Proteins/genetics , Animals , Blood Vessels/abnormalities , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , Down-Regulation , Embryo, Nonmammalian/abnormalities , Gene Deletion , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Hemorrhage/embryology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Intercellular Junctions/genetics , Kinesins/genetics , Myosins/genetics , Zebrafish/embryology , p21-Activated Kinases/genetics
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-153766

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cancer-associated retinopathy is a paraneoplastic retinal degeneration which may primarily result from auto-immune mediated apoptosis. It has been hypothesized that high titer of auto-antibodies are able to cross the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) and to enter retinal cells to activate apoptotic pathway which has been already well-established. However, it still remains to be elucidated whether auto-antibodies could cross BRB in the retina. Herein, we demonstrated that intravenously administrated anti-recoverin antibodies could not pass through BRB and not lead to retinal cell death. METHODS: Anti-recoverin antibody was intravenously injected to C57BL/6 mice, which were sacrificed 1 and 7 days to obtain eye. Vascular endothelial growth factor was intravitreally injected to induce BRB breakdown, which was confirmed by fluorescein angiography and western blotting for zonula occludens (ZO)-1, ZO-2 and occludin. To investigate the location of anti-recoverin antibody in the retina, immunofluorescein was performed. The retinal toxicity of intravenous anti-recoverin antibody was evaluated by histological examination and transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling. Immunofluorescein staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein was done to address glial activation as well. RESULTS: Intravenously administrated anti-recoverin antibodies were exclusively distributed on retinal vessels which were co-localized with CD31, and led to neither increase of glial fibrillary acidic protein expression, as an indicator of retinal stress, nor apoptotic retinal cell death. Moreover, even in the condition of vascular endothelial growth factor-induced BRB breakdown, anti-recoverin antibodies could not migrate across BRB and still remained on retinal vessels without retinal cytotoxicity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that high titer of intravascular anti-recoverin antibodies could not penetrate into the retina by themselves, and BRB breakdown mediated by dysregulation of tight junction might not be sufficient to allow anti-recoverin antibodies to pass through BRB.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies/administration & dosage , Blood-Retinal Barrier/metabolism , Cell Death/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Female , Injections, Intravenous , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Recoverin/immunology , Retina/cytology , Retinal Vessels/metabolism
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-48414

ABSTRACT

Clusterin is a secretory glycoprotein, which is highly up-regulated in a variety of normal and injury tissues undergoing apoptosis including infarct region of the myocardium. Here, we report that clusterin protects H9c2 cardiomyocytes from H2O2-induced apoptosis by triggering the activation of Akt and GSK-3beta. Treatment with H2O2 induces apoptosis of H9c2 cells by promoting caspase cleavage and cytochrome c release from mitochondria. However, co-treatment with clusterin reverses the induction of apoptotic signaling by H2O2, thereby recovers cell viability. The protective effect of clusterin on H2O2-induced apoptosis is impaired by PI3K inhibitor LY294002, which effectively suppresses clusterin-induced activation of Akt and GSK-3beta. In addition, the protective effect of clusterin is independednt on its receptor megalin, because inhibition of megalin has no effect on clusturin-mediated Akt/GSK-3beta phosphoylation and H9c2 cell viability. Collectively, these results suggest that clusterin has a role protecting cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress and the Akt/GSK-3beta signaling mediates anti-apoptotic effect of clusterin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , Cell Line , Chromones/pharmacology , Clusterin/metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3/metabolism , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-2/metabolism , Morpholines/pharmacology , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species/pharmacology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Signal Transduction/drug effects
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-164516

ABSTRACT

Under hypoxia, mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) lose their self-renewal activity and display an early differentiated morphology mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha). Previous studies have demonstrated that PKC-delta is activated by hypoxia and increases the protein stability and transcriptional activity of HIF-1alpha in human cancer cells. Furthermore, activation of PKC-delta mediates cardiac differentiation of ESCs and hematopoietic stem cells. However, the role of PKC-delta in hypoxia-induced early differentiation of mESCs remains largely unknown. Here, we show the inhibition of PKC-delta activity prevents the early differentiation of mESCs under hypoxia using PKC-delta inhibitors, GF 109203X and rottlerin. Reduction of PKC-delta activity under hypoxia effectively decreased HIF-1alpha protein levels and substantially recovered the expression of LIF-specific receptor (LIFR) and phosphorylated-STAT3 in mESCs. Furthermore, PKC-delta inhibitors aid to sustain the expression of self-renewal markers and suppress the expression of early differentiation markers in mESCs under hypoxia. Taken together, these results suggest that PKC-delta inhibitors block the early differentiation of mESCs via destabilization of HIF-1alpha under hypoxia.

9.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 90-93, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199706

ABSTRACT

A-kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are scaffold proteins which compartmentalize protein kinase A (PKA, cAMP-dependent protein kinase) and other enzymes to specific subcellular sites. The spatiotemporal control of these enzymes by AKAPs is important for cellular function like cell growth and development etc. Hence, it is important to understand the basic function of AKAPs and their functional domains. However, diverse names, function, cellular localizations and many members of AKAPs increase difficulties when researchers search appropriate AKAPs for their experimental purpose. Nevertheless, there was no previous AKAPs-related database regardless of their important cellular functions and difficulty of finding appropriate AKAPs. So, we developed AKAPs database (AKAPDB), which contains their sequence information, functions and other information derived from prediction programs and other databases. Therefore, we propose that AKAPDB can be an important tool to researchers in the related fields. AKAPDB is available via the internet at http://plaza3.snu.ac.kr/akapdb/


Subject(s)
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Growth and Development , Internet , Proteins
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-49344

ABSTRACT

The retinal activity for vision requires a precise synaptic connectivity. Shank proteins at postsynaptic sites of excitatory synapses play roles in signal transmission into the postsynaptic neuron. However, the correlation of Shank 2 expression with neuronal differentiation in the developing retina remains to be elucidated regardless of previous evidences of Shank 2 expression in retina. Herein, we demonstrated that with progression of development, Shank 2 is initially detected in the inner plexiform layer at P2, and then intensively detected in inner plexiform layer, outer plexiform layer, and ganglion cell layer at P14, which was closely colocalized to the neurofilament expression. Shank 2 was, however, not colocalized with glial fibrillary acidic protein. Shank 2 expression was increased in the differentiated retinoblastoma cells, which was mediated by ERK 1/2 activation. Moreover, Shank 2 expression was colocalized with neurofilament at the dendritic region of cells. In conclusion, our data suggests that Shank 2 is expressed in the neurons of the developing retina and could play a critical role in the neuronal differentiation of the developing retina.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Animals , Astrocytes/cytology , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Enzyme Activation , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Neurofilament Proteins/metabolism , Neurons/cytology , Retina/cytology , Retinoblastoma/metabolism
11.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 10-18, 2007.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-66396

ABSTRACT

Numerous studies have reported that genes with similar expression patterns are co-regulated. From gene expression data, we have assumed that genes having similar expression pattern would share similar transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). These function as the binding regions for transcription factors (TFs) and thereby regulate gene expression. In this context, various analysis tools have been developed. However, they have shortcomings in the combined analysis of expression patterns and significant TFBSs and in the functional analysis of target genes of significantly overrepresented putative regulators. In this study, we present a web-based A Functional Clustering Analysis Tool for Predicted Transcription Regulatory Elements and Gene Ontology Terms (FCAnalyzer). This system integrates microarray clustering data with similar expression patterns, and TFBS data in each cluster. FCAnalyzer is designed to perform two independent clustering procedures. The first process clusters gene expression profiles using the K-means clustering method, and the second process clusters predicted TFBSs in the upstream region of previously clustered genes using the hierarchical biclustering method for simultaneous grouping of genes and samples. This system offers retrieved information for predicted TFBSs in each cluster using Match(TM) in the TRANSFAC database. We used gene ontology term analysis for functional annotation of genes in the same cluster. We also provide the user with a combinatorial TFBS analysis of TFBS pairs. The enrichment of TFBS analysis and GO term analysis is statistically by the calculation of P values based on Fisher's exact test, hypergeometric distribution and Bonferroni correction. FCAnalyzer is a web-based, user-friendly functional clustering analysis system that facilitates the transcriptional regulatory analysis of co-expressed genes. This system presents the analyses of clustered genes, significant TFBSs, significantly enriched TFBS combinations, their target genes and TFBS-TF pairs.


Subject(s)
Binding Sites , Cluster Analysis , Gene Expression , Gene Ontology , Transcription Factors , Transcriptome
12.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 143-151, 2007.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198215

ABSTRACT

To understand the mechanism of transcriptional regulation, it is essential to detect promoters and regulatory elements. Various kinds of methods have been introduced to improve the prediction accuracy of regulatory elements. Since there are few experimentally validated regulatory elements, previous studies have used criteria based solely on the level of scores over background sequences. However, selecting the detection criteria for different prediction methods is not feasible. Here, we studied the calibration of thresholds to improve regulatory element prediction. We predicted a regulatory element using MATCH, which is a powerful tool for transcription factor binding site (TFBS) detection. To increase the prediction accuracy, we used a regulatory potential (RP) score measuring the similarity of patterns in alignments to those in known regulatory regions. Next, we calibrated the thresholds to find relevant scores, increasing the true positives while decreasing possible false positives. By applying various thresholds, we compared predicted regulatory elements with validated regulatory elements from the Open Regulatory Annotation (ORegAnno) database. The predicted regulators by the selected threshold were validated through enrichment analysis of muscle-specific gene sets from the Tissue-Specific Transcripts and Genes (T-STAG) database. We found 14 known muscle-specific regulators with a less than a 5% false discovery rate (FDR) in a single TFBS analysis, as well as known transcription factor combinations in our combinatorial TFBS analysis.


Subject(s)
Binding Sites , Calibration , Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid , Transcription Factors
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-216283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare the outcome of colorectal stenting with that of performing emergency operation for the patients with malignant left-sided colon obstruction. METHODS: The patients with obstructing left-sided colorectal cancer were treated with 'bridge to surgery stenting' and this was followed by operation (group A, n=20), emergency operation (group B, n=21), palliative stenting (group C, n=16), and emergency palliative operation (group D, n=15). RESULTS: The primary anastomosis rate was significantly higher for group A than for group B (65.0 vs. 33.3%, respectively, p0.05). In regard to palliative treatment, the stoma creation rate was 86.7% for group D, and 2 patients in group D needed intensive care. The mean hospital stay was significantly shorter for group C than for group D (9.3 vs. 20.7 days, respectively, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Stent placement is a useful alternative to emergency surgery for the management of malignant colorectal obstruction.


Subject(s)
Colon , Colorectal Neoplasms , Emergencies , Humans , Critical Care , Length of Stay , Palliative Care , Stents
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146517

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To study the effect of systemic administration of phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) on the degeneration of photoreceptor cells in rd mice. METHODS: PBN was injected intraperitoneally into FVB/rd mice on postnatal days (P) 5 to 14 (group A), and P10 to 18 (group B). At days P14, 16, 18, 20 and 27, morphological changes and apoptosis were analyzed by staining with hematoxylin and eosin or DAPI. The effect of PBN on apoptosis was analyzed in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells by the measurement of caspase-3 activity. RESULTS: In control and group B mice, the outer nuclear layer (ONL) of the retina was composed of 8-10 rows at P12, and rapidly decreased to one row at P18. In group A mice, the ONL was preserved with 5-7 rows at P18, and decreased to one row at P22. PBN inhibited caspase-3 activity in cultured RPE cells. CONCLUSIONS: PBN delayed, but did not block, the degeneration of photoreceptor cells in rd mice. PBN may exert its inhibitory effect during the early phase of photoreceptor cell degeneration.


Subject(s)
Retinal Degeneration/drug therapy , Pigment Epithelium of Eye/drug effects , Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate/drug effects , Nitrogen Oxides/administration & dosage , Neuroprotective Agents/administration & dosage , Mice , Male , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Free Radical Scavengers/administration & dosage , Follow-Up Studies , Female , Enzyme Precursors/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Cells, Cultured , Caspases/metabolism , Caspase 3 , Apoptosis/drug effects , Animals
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-172733

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the relationship between the heat shock protein 70 from hsps70.1 and 70.3 on retinal photic injury after systemic hyperthermia. METHODS: Eight-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were kept at a constant temperature of 41~42 degrees C for 25~30 minutes. After dark-adaptation for 8 hours, intense light of 11000 lux was maintained for 6 hours. Histology and immunohistochemistry for the inducible heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), the constitutive heat shock protein 70 (hsc70), and western blot analysis, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for hsp70.1 and hsp70.3 were performed just before photic injury and after 1, 4, 7, and 14 days. RESULTS: Light-induced retinal degeneration was prevented by thermotolerance. After hyperthermia, hsp70 was densely expressed in the inner segment of the photoreceptor layer on the photic injury. Hsp70 expression increased for 4 days after photic injury and slowly decreased thereafter. mRNA from hsp70.3 was induced earlier than that of hsp70.1. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal photic injury was prevented by hyperthermia-induced hsp70. Hsp70 from hsp70.3 may be a rapid and short-lived responder, and that from hsp70.1 is a slower and more sustained responder. Hsp70 from hsp70.3 may be an initial retinal chaperone while hsp70 from hsp70.1 may be a sustained chaperone.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Fever/metabolism , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , In Vitro Techniques , Light/adverse effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Radiation Injuries/prevention & control , Retina/radiation effects
16.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 36-44, 2004.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160477

ABSTRACT

Astrocytes play supportive roles for neurons in the brain. Recently, they have been accepted to have various functions in the vascular system as well as in the nervous system. We investigated the differential gene expression in rat astrocytes according to the oxygen tension, which is a crucial factor for angiogenesis. A cDNA microarray was performed to find the genes whose expression was sensitive to oxygen tension. We found 26 genes in the astrocyte were found and classified into 4 groups. In order to show the genes' relevancy to angiogenesis, seven of the 26 genes were investigated to see whether they have capabilities of interaction with angiogenesis-related factors in AngioDB. Through this investigation, we found interactions of three proteins with angiogenesis-related factors. These genes were further investigated with a new focus on the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in an astrocyte based on our hypothesis that astrocytes can have effects on endothelial angiogenesis via the release of VEGF. Collectively, we identified several genes whose expressions were dependent on the oxygen concentration of the astrocyte. Furthermore, the relevancy of astrocytes to angiogenesis was investigated using preexisting information of AngioDB, and suggested a possible signaling pathway for VEGF expression in the aspects of brain endothelial angiogenesis by astrocytes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Astrocytes , Brain , Computer Simulation , Gene Expression , Mass Screening , Nervous System , Neurons , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Oxygen , Rats , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-32247

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic relapsing and angiogenic skin disease characterized by variable clinical features. But the pathogenetic process resulting in vascular morphological changes remains to be proven. It is reported that the potent angiogenic factor VEGF is overexpressed in psoriatic epidermis and the level of IGF-II is significantly elevated in tissue fluid and serum of the psoriatic lesion. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: To find the mechanism of VEGF induction in pathogenesis of psoriasis, we adopt IGF-II as a paracrine inducer of VEGF in psoriasis. To investigate the signaling pathway of IGF-II-induced VEGF, we determined ERK1/2 activity in IGF-II-treated psoriatic cells. RESULT: In this report, we demonstrated that IGF-II induced the expression of VEGF in lesional keratinocytes of psoriasis. And IGF-II stimulated the expression of its receptor, IGFR-I in psoriatic cells. Treatment of anti-IGFR-I neutralizing antibody diminished VEGF mRNA level induced by IGF-II, indicating that VEGF induction by IGF-II may be mediated through IGFR-I. By the treatment of PD98059, specific inhibitor of upstream ERK activator MAP kinase/ERK kinase (MEK), the expression of VEGF induced by IGF-II was dramatically reduced. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results suggest that IGF-II might regulate angiogenesis by the induction of VEGF through the MAP kinase pathway mediated by IGFR-I in the lesion of psoriasis.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inducing Agents , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Epidermis , Insulin-Like Growth Factor II , Keratinocytes , Phosphotransferases , Psoriasis , RNA, Messenger , Skin Diseases , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-145917

ABSTRACT

Hypoxia plays a major role in the induction of angiogenesis during tumor development. One mechanism by which tumor cells respond to a reduced oxygen level is via the activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). HIF-1 is an oxygen-dependent transcriptional activator that plays crucial roles in the angiogenesis of tumors and mammalian development. HIF-1 consists of a constitutively expressed HIF-1beta subunit and the highly regulated HIF-1 alpha subunits. The stability and activity of HIF-1alpha are regulated by various post-translational modifications, hydroxylation, acetylation, phosphorylation and sumoyaltion. Therefore, HIF-1alpha interacts with several protein factors including PHD, pVHL, ARD-1, SUMO and p300/ CBP. Under normoxia, the HIF-1alpha subunit is rapidly degraded via the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene product (pVHL)-mediated ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. The association of pVHL and HIF-1alpha under normoxic conditions is triggered by the hydroxylation of prolines and the acetylation of lysine within a polypeptide segment known as the oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain. On the contrary, under the hypoxia condition, the HIF-1alpha subunit becomes stable and interacts with coactivators such as p300/CBP to modulate its transcriptional activity. Under hypoxic conditions, HIF-1 eventually acts as a master regulator of numerous hypoxia-inducible genes. The target genes of HIF-1 are especially related to angiogenesis, cell proliferation and survival, and to glucose and iron metabolism. Moreover, it was reported that the activation of HIF-1alpha is closely associated with a variety of tumors and oncogenic pathways. Hence, the blocking of HIF-1alpha itself or the blocking of HIF-1alpha interacting proteins inhibits tumor growth. Based on these findings, HIF-1 can be a prime target for anticancer therapies. Therefore, this review summarizes the molecular mechanism of HIF-1alpha stability, the biological functions of HIF-1 and its potential applications for cancer therapies.


Subject(s)
Acetylation , Hypoxia , Cell Proliferation , Genes, Tumor Suppressor , Glucose , Hydroxylation , Iron , Lysine , Metabolism , Oxygen , Phosphorylation , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Transcription Factors
19.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 134-141, 2004.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-105279

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and a typical hypervascular tumor. Therefore, it is important to find factors related to angiogenesis in the process of HCC malignancy. In order to find angiogenesis-related factors in HCC, we used combined methods of in silico prediction and an experimental assay. We analyzed 1457 genes extracted from cDNA microarray of HCC patients by text-mining, sequence similarity search and domain analysis. As a result, we predicted that 16 genes were likely to be involved in angiogenesis and then the effects of these genes were confirmed by hypoxia response element(HRE)-luciferase assay. For instant,we classified osteopontin into a potent angiogenic factor and coagulation factor XII into a significant anti-angiogenic factor. Collectively, we suggest that using a combination of in silico prediction and experimental approaches, we can identify HCC-specific angiogenesis-related factors effectively and rapidly.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inducing Agents , Hypoxia , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Factor XII , Humans , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Osteopontin
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-190980

ABSTRACT

Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is an oxygen-dependent transcriptional activator, which plays crucial roles in the angiogenesis of tumors and mammalian development. HIF-1 consists of a constitutively expressed HIF-1beta subunit and one of three subunits (HIF-1alpha, HIF-2alpha or HIF-3alpha). The stability and activity of HIF-1alpha are regulated by various post-translational modifications, hydroxylation, acetylation, and phosphorylation. Therefore, HIF-1alpha interacts with several protein factors including PHD, pVHL, ARD-1, and p300/CBP. Under normoxia, the HIF-1alpha subunit is rapidly degraded via the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene product (pVHL)- mediated ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The association of pVHL and HIF-1alpha under normoxic conditions is triggered by the hydroxylation of prolines and the acetylation of lysine within a polypeptide segment known as the oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain. On the contrary, in the hypoxia condition, HIF-1alpha subunit becomes stable and interacts with coactivators such as p300/CBP to modulate its transcriptional activity. Eventually, HIF-1 acts as a master regulator of numerous hypoxia-inducible genes under hypoxic conditions. The target genes of HIF-1 are especially related to angiogenesis, cell proliferation/survival, and glucose/iron metabolism. Moreover, it was reported that the activation of HIF-1alpha is closely associated with a variety of tumors and oncogenic pathways. Hence, the blocking of HIF-1a itself or HIF-1alpha interacting proteins inhibit tumor growth. Based on these findings, HIF-1 can be a prime target for anticancer therapies. This review summarizes the molecular mechanism of HIF-1a stability, the biological functions of HIF-1 and its potential applications of cancer therapies.


Subject(s)
Alternative Splicing , Gene Expression Regulation , Genetic Therapy , Growth Substances/metabolism , Humans , Protein Isoforms/chemistry , Protein Subunits/genetics , Signal Transduction/physiology , Transcription Factors/chemistry , Transcription, Genetic
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL