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1.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 405-416, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903834

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study investigated the effect of intrathecal Sec-O-glucosylhamaudol (SOG) on the p38/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)-related inflammatory responses, and autophagy in a spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced neuropathic pain model. @*Methods@#The continuous administration of intrathecal SOG via an osmotic pump was performed on male Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 50) with SNL-induced neuropathic pain. Rats were randomized into four groups after the 7th day following SNL and treated for 2 weeks as follows (each n = 10): Group S, sham-operated; Group D, 70% dimethylsulfoxide; Group SOG96, SOG at 96 μg/day; and Group SOG192, SOG at 192 μg/day. The paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) test was performed to assess neuropathic pain. Western blotting of the spinal cord (L5) was performed to measure changes in the expression of signaling pathway components, cytokines, and autophagy. Additional studies with naloxone challenge (n = 10) and cells were carried out to evaluate the potential mechanisms underlying the effects of SOG. @*Results@#Continuous intrathecal SOG administration increased the PWT with p38/JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and NF-κB signaling pathway inhibition, which induced a reduction in proinflammatory cytokines with the concomitant downregulation of autophagy. @*Conclusions@#SOG alleviates mechanical allodynia, and its mechanism is thought to be related to the regulation of p38/JNK MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, associated with autophagy during neuroinflammatory processes after SNL.

2.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 405-416, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896130

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study investigated the effect of intrathecal Sec-O-glucosylhamaudol (SOG) on the p38/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)-related inflammatory responses, and autophagy in a spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced neuropathic pain model. @*Methods@#The continuous administration of intrathecal SOG via an osmotic pump was performed on male Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 50) with SNL-induced neuropathic pain. Rats were randomized into four groups after the 7th day following SNL and treated for 2 weeks as follows (each n = 10): Group S, sham-operated; Group D, 70% dimethylsulfoxide; Group SOG96, SOG at 96 μg/day; and Group SOG192, SOG at 192 μg/day. The paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) test was performed to assess neuropathic pain. Western blotting of the spinal cord (L5) was performed to measure changes in the expression of signaling pathway components, cytokines, and autophagy. Additional studies with naloxone challenge (n = 10) and cells were carried out to evaluate the potential mechanisms underlying the effects of SOG. @*Results@#Continuous intrathecal SOG administration increased the PWT with p38/JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and NF-κB signaling pathway inhibition, which induced a reduction in proinflammatory cytokines with the concomitant downregulation of autophagy. @*Conclusions@#SOG alleviates mechanical allodynia, and its mechanism is thought to be related to the regulation of p38/JNK MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, associated with autophagy during neuroinflammatory processes after SNL.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835217

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study examined the effects of gabexate mesilate on spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced neuropathic pain. To confirm the involvement of gabexate mesilate on neuroinflammation, we focused on the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and consequent the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). @*Methods@#Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the study. After randomization into three groups: the sham-operation group, vehicle-treated group (administered normal saline as a control), and the gabexate group (administered gabexate mesilate 20 mg/kg), SNL was performed. At the 3rd day, mechanical allodynia was confirmed using von Frey filaments, and drugs were administered intraperitoneally daily according to the group. The paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) was examined on the 3rd, 7th, and 14th day. The expressions of p65 subunit of NF-κB, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and iNOS were evaluated on the 7th and 14th day following SNL. @*Results@#The PWT was significantly higher in the gabexate group compared with the vehicle-treated group (p < 0.05). The expressions of p65, proinflammatory cyto kines, and iNOS significantly decreased in the gabexate group compared with the vehicle-treated group (p < 0.05) on the 7th day. On the 14th day, the expressions of p65 and iNOS showed lower levels, but those of the proinflammatory cytokines showed no significant differences. @*Conclusions@#Gabexate mesilate increased PWT after SNL and attenuate the pro gress of mechanical allodynia. These results seem to be involved with the antiinflammatory effect of gabexate mesilate via inhibition of NF-κB, proinflammatory cytokines, and nitric oxide.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830332

ABSTRACT

Background@#Cimifugin is one of the components of the root of Saposhnikovia divaricata. The extract derived from S. divaricata is traditionally used as an analgesic. This study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic effect of intrathecal cimifugin in the formalin test. @*Methods@#Male Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 20) were randomized into four groups for intrathecal administration of 70% dimethylsulfoxide and various doses of cimifugin (100 μg, 300 μg, and 1,000 μg). The typical flinch response after the injection of 5% formalin into the hind paw was assessed in two distinct phases: phase 1 until 10 min, and phase 2 from 10 min to 60 min. ED50 values were calculated via linear regression. @*Results@#Intrathecal cimifugin significantly reduced the flinch response in both phases of the formalin test. Significant antinociceptive effects of cimifugin were found with the dose of 300 μg in phase 1 and the dose of 100 μg in phase 2. The ED50 value (95% confidence intervals) of intrathecal cimifugin was 696.1 (360.8–1,342.8) μg during phase 1 and 1,242.8 (42.0–48,292.5) μg during phase 2. @*Conclusions@#Intrathecal cimifugin has an antinociceptive effect against formalin-induced pain. Cimifugin has an anti-inflammatory effect at low concentrations, and non-inflammatory analgesic effect at higher concentrations.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was performed in order to examine the effect of intrathecal sec-O-glucosylhamaudol (SOG), an extract from the root of the Peucedanum japonicum Thunb., on incisional pain in a rat model. METHODS: The intrathecal catheter was inserted in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 55). The postoperative pain model was made and paw withdrawal thresholds (PWTs) were evaluated. Rats were randomly treated with a vehicle (70% dimethyl sulfoxide) and SOG (10 μg, 30 μg, 100 μg, and 300 μg) intrathecally, and PWT was observed for four hours. Dose-responsiveness and ED50 values were calculated. Naloxone was administered 10 min prior to treatment of SOG 300 μg in order to assess the involvement of SOG with an opioid receptor. The protein levels of the δ-opioid receptor, κ-opioid receptor, and μ-opioid receptor (MOR) were analyzed by Western blotting of the spinal cord. RESULTS: Intrathecal SOG significantly increased PWT in a dose-dependent manner. Maximum effects were achieved at a dose of 300 μg at 60 min after SOG administration, and the maximal possible effect was 85.35% at that time. The medial effective dose of intrathecal SOG was 191.3 μg (95% confidence interval, 102.3–357.8). The antinociceptive effects of SOG (300 μg) were significantly reverted until 60 min by naloxone. The protein levels of MOR were decreased by administration of SOG. CONCLUSIONS: Intrathecal SOG showed a significant antinociceptive effect on the postoperative pain model and reverted by naloxone. The expression of MOR were changed by SOG. The effects of SOG seem to involve the MOR.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , Animals , Blotting, Western , Catheters , Dimethyl Sulfoxide , Humans , Hyperalgesia , Male , Models, Animal , Naloxone , Nociceptive Pain , Pain, Postoperative , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Opioid , Spinal Cord
6.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 229-230, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180010

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Neuralgia
7.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 365-366, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76251

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Curcumin
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of the most common complications after gynecological laparoscopic surgery and it appears more frequently after use of inhalation anesthetics than total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA). Palonosetron was introduced as a new-generation potent antiemetic agent, which may reduce PONV more effectively than previous drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether palonosetron could prevent PONV after gynecological laparoscopic surgery, regardless of the anesthetic technique employed. METHODS: Seventy-three patients scheduled for gynecological laparoscopic surgery were randomly assigned into 3 groups according to the anesthetic agent employed (group 1: inhalation anesthesia with desflurane, group 2: inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane, group 3: total intravenous anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil). Palonosetron 0.075 mg was administered intravenously before the induction. Opioids were not used for postoperative pain control. The incidences of nausea, vomiting and side effects were recorded from 2 hr upto 48 hr, postoperatively. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the incidence of PONV, severity of nausea, and the use of rescue antiemetics among the groups, throughout the observation. No differences were observed in the adverse side effects among the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Palonosetron decreased the incidence of PONV after gynecological laparoscopic surgery to a similar level, regardless of the anesthetic technique.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid , Anesthesia, Inhalation , Anesthesia, Intravenous , Anesthetics, Inhalation , Antiemetics , Female , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures , Humans , Incidence , Laparoscopy , Nausea , Pain, Postoperative , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting , Propofol , Vomiting
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has been known that positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) increases the vasoconstriction threshold by baroreceptor unloading. We compared the effect on the thermoregulatory responses according to anesthetic techniques between an inhalation anesthesia with desflurane and a total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with propofol and reminfentanil when PEEP was applied in patients undergoing tympanoplasty. METHODS: Forty-six patients with a scheduled tympanoplasty were enrolled and the patients were divided in two study groups. Desflurane was used as an inhalation anesthetic in group 1 (n = 22), while TIVA with propofol and remifentanil was used in group 2 (n = 24). PEEP was applied by 5 cmH2O in both groups and an ambient temperature was maintained at 22-24degrees C during surgery. The core temperature and the difference of skin temperature between forearm and fingertip were monitored for about 180 minutes before and after the induction of general anesthesia. RESULTS: The final core temperature was significantly higher in group 2 (35.4 +/- 0.7degrees C) than in group 1 (34.9 +/- 0.5degrees C). Peripheral thermoregulatory vasoconstriction was found in 5 subjects (23%) in group 1 and in 21 subjects (88%) in group 2. The time taken for reaching the thermoregulatory vasoconstriction threshold was 151.4 +/- 19.7 minutes in group 1 and 88.9 +/- 14.4 minutes in group 2. CONCLUSIONS: When PEEP will be applied, anesthesia with TIVA may have more advantages in core temperature preservation than an inhalation anesthesia with desflurane.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Anesthesia, Inhalation , Anesthesia, Intravenous , Body Temperature Regulation , Forearm , Humans , Inhalation , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Pressoreceptors , Propofol , Skin Temperature , Tympanoplasty , Vasoconstriction
10.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 365-366, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771078

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Curcumin
11.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 356-360, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nerve injury sometimes leads to chronic neuropathic pain associated with neuroinflammation in the nervous system. In the case of chronic neuropathic pain, the inflammatory and algesic mediators become predominant and result in pain hypersensitivity following nervous system damage. It is well known that urinary trypsin inhibitor (ulinastatin, UTI) has an anti-inflammatory activity. Recently, the neuroprotective action of UTI on the nervous system after ischemic injury has been reported. Thus, we evaluated the neuroprotective effect of ulinastatin in a rat model of neuropathic pain. METHODS: Neuropathic pain was induced with L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100-120 g. The rats were divided into 3 groups, with n = 8 in each group. The rats in the control group (group 1) were administered normal saline and those in group 2 were administered UTI (50,000 U/kg) intravenously through the tail vein for 3 days from the day of SNL. Rats in group 3 were administered UTI (50,000 U/kg) intravenously from the 5th day after SNL. The paw withdrawal threshold was measured using the von Frey test for 3 days starting from the 5th day after SNL. RESULTS: The paw withdrawal thresholds were significantly increased in the rats of group 2 compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Ulinastatin, which was administered for 3 days after SNL, increased the paw withdrawal threshold and it could have a neuroprotective effect in the rat model of neuropathic pain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Glycoproteins , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Ligation , Male , Nervous System , Neuralgia , Neuroprotective Agents , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spinal Nerves , Trypsin , Veins
12.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 125-129, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-31290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3) receptors have been known to be associated with the modulation of nociceptive transmission. However, it is uncertain whether 5-HT3 plays a role in the antinociceptive or pronociceptive pathway for incisional pain. In this study, we evaluated the effects of palonosetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, on incisional pain in rats when administered intrathecally or intraplantarly. METHODS: An intrathecal catheter was implanted through the cisterna magna and placed in the intrathecal space of rats. An incision in the plantaris muscle of the right hind paw was done under anesthesia with sevoflurane. Withdrawal thresholds were evaluated with the von Frey filament after 2 hours. Palonosetron (0.5 and 0.1 microg intrathecally; 0.5 microg intraplantarly) was administered and the thresholds were observed for 4 hours. RESULTS: Mechanical hypersensitivity developed after the incision. Intrathecal palonosetron (0.5 microg and 0.1 microg) did not alter the paw withdrawal threshold. Intraplantar palonosetron (0.5 microg) also did not change the paw withdrawal threshold. CONCLUSIONS: Intrathecal and intraplantar palonosetron (0.5 microg) had no effect on modulating the mechanical hypersensitivity in the incisional pain model of rats.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Animals , Catheters , Cisterna Magna , Hyperalgesia , Hypersensitivity , Isoquinolines , Methyl Ethers , Muscle, Skeletal , Nociceptive Pain , Pain Threshold , Pain, Postoperative , Quinuclidines , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT3 , Serotonin
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155754

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Both ketamine and priming may accelerate the onset time of neuromuscular blocking agents. We investigate the effect of low dose ketamine and cisatracurium priming on the intubating condition and onset time of cisatracurium. METHODS: After Institutional Review Board approval, 120 consecutive patients undergoing general anesthesia were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups. All patients were injected one of normal saline (group C), cisatracurium 0.01 mg/kg (group P), ketamine 0.5 mg/kg (group K) and combination of cisatracurium 0.01 mg/kg, and ketamine 0.5 mg/kg (group PK) diluted into a 5 ml solution, followed 3 minutes later by cisatracurium 0.15 mg/kg in group C and K, and 0.14 mg/kg cisatracurium in priming group. Onset time was recorded the electromyographical responses using single twitch and intubating conditions were evaluated at 60 seconds after cisatracurium administration. RESULTS: The mean onset time was most significantly accelerated in Group PK and was also significantly more accelerated in Group P and K compared with Group C (P < 0.008). It was 112.7 +/- 13.2, 91.4 +/- 17.9, 84.9 +/- 12.7 and 76.4 +/- 8.3 seconds in Group C, P, K, and PK, respectively. Intubating conditions were significantly improved in Group P, K and PK than Group C (P < 0.008). Especially, Group PK showed most significant improvement of intubating conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of the low dose ketamine and cisatracurium priming accelerated the onset time and was improved the intubating conditions.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Atracurium , Ethics Committees, Research , Humans , Intubation , Ketamine , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents
14.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 191-194, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-217522

ABSTRACT

Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion and are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon but sometimes require surgical treatment. A 69-year-old male presented with pain in the buttock. He was diagnosed as having a sacral cyst with magnetic resonance imaging. For the nonoperative diagnosis and treatment, caudal peridurography and block were performed. After the treatment, the patient's symptom was relieved. We suggest a caudal peridural block is effective in relieving pain from a sacral cyst.


Subject(s)
Aged , Buttocks , Ganglia, Spinal , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Peripheral Nerves , Spine , Tarlov Cysts
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194081

ABSTRACT

The integrity of blood vessels controls vascular permeability and extravasation of blood cells, across the endothelium. Thus, the impairment of endothelial integrity leads to hemorrhage, edema, and inflammatory infiltration. However, the molecular mechanism underlying vascular integrity has not been fully understood. Here, we demonstrate an essential role for A-kinase anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12) in the maintenance of endothelial integrity during vascular development. Zebrafish embryos depleted of akap12 (akap12 morphants) exhibited severe hemorrhages. In vivo time-lapse analyses suggested that disorganized interendothelial cell-cell adhesions in akap12 morphants might be the cause of hemorrhage. To clarify the molecular mechanism by which the cell-cell adhesions are impaired, we examined the cell-cell adhesion molecules and their regulators using cultured endothelial cells. The expression of PAK2, an actin cytoskeletal regulator, and AF6, a connector of intercellular adhesion molecules and actin cytoskeleton, was reduced in AKAP12-depleted cells. Depletion of either PAK2 or AF6 phenocopied AKAP12-depleted cells, suggesting the reduction of PAK2 and AF6 results in the loosening of intercellular junctions. Consistent with this, overexpression of PAK2 and AF6 rescued the abnormal hemorrhage in akap12 morphants. We conclude that AKAP12 is essential for integrity of endothelium by maintaining the expression of PAK2 and AF6 during vascular development.


Subject(s)
A Kinase Anchor Proteins/genetics , Animals , Blood Vessels/abnormalities , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , Down-Regulation , Embryo, Nonmammalian/abnormalities , Gene Deletion , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Hemorrhage/embryology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Intercellular Junctions/genetics , Kinesins/genetics , Myosins/genetics , Zebrafish/embryology , p21-Activated Kinases/genetics
16.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 90-93, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199706

ABSTRACT

A-kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are scaffold proteins which compartmentalize protein kinase A (PKA, cAMP-dependent protein kinase) and other enzymes to specific subcellular sites. The spatiotemporal control of these enzymes by AKAPs is important for cellular function like cell growth and development etc. Hence, it is important to understand the basic function of AKAPs and their functional domains. However, diverse names, function, cellular localizations and many members of AKAPs increase difficulties when researchers search appropriate AKAPs for their experimental purpose. Nevertheless, there was no previous AKAPs-related database regardless of their important cellular functions and difficulty of finding appropriate AKAPs. So, we developed AKAPs database (AKAPDB), which contains their sequence information, functions and other information derived from prediction programs and other databases. Therefore, we propose that AKAPDB can be an important tool to researchers in the related fields. AKAPDB is available via the internet at http://plaza3.snu.ac.kr/akapdb/


Subject(s)
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Growth and Development , Internet , Proteins
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104665

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intrathecal opioids in combination with bupivacaine has been shown to provide adequate sensory blockade and early recovery from spinal anesthesia. This study was investigated the added effects of intrathecal fentanyl 10 microgram to bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia. METHODS: Sixty patients undergoing lower extremity surgery were into three groups. Group I received bupivacaine 10 mg (0.5%), gruop II received bupivacaine 5 mg with normal saline 1 ml, and group III received bupivacaine 5 mg with fentanyl 10 microg and normal saline 0.8 ml. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between group I and group III in the peak level and duration of sensory block. But the intensity of motor blockade was decreased in group III compared with group I and side effects of spinal anesthesia with local anesthetics was decreased in group III compared with group I. In Group II, 7 patients were complained the pain during surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Intrathecal fentanyl 10 microgram with bupivacaine 5 mg on spinal blockade provide reliable anesthesia for lower extremity surgery.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, Spinal , Anesthetics, Local , Bupivacaine , Fentanyl , Humans , Lower Extremity
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179775

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study is aimed to investigate the effect of tramadol on the bispectral index (BIS) during anesthesia with desflurane. METHODS: One hundred fifty adults, ASA class 1 and 2 patients, scheduled for general anesthesia for elective surgical procedures were included in this study. None of the patients were premedicated and anesthesia was induced with propofol 2 mg/kg and maintained with air-oxygen (FiO2 0.5) and desflurane, adjusted to keep the BIS between from 50 and 60. Forty minutes before completing surgery, the subjects were randomly allocated into 3 groups to receive saline (control group), tramadol 1.5 mg/kg (T1 group) or 3.0 mg/kg (T2 group) intravenously. Hemodynamics and BIS values were then recorded every 5 minutes until completion of the operation, during which time the concentrations of desflurane were not modified. RESULTS: The mean BIS values after tramadol administration weren't significantly different from the control group throughout the period of observation. No significant changes in the hemodynamics were noted, except systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure in the T1 and T2 groups significantly increased in the first 5 minutes after the tramadol injection. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the administration of tramadol while maintaining anesthesia with desflurane, adjusted to keep the BIS between 50 and 60, does not modified BIS values. So, we propose that tramadol can be safely administered as an immediate postoperative analgesia without concern about intra-operative awareness.


Subject(s)
Adult , Analgesia , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Arterial Pressure , Hemodynamics , Humans , Isoflurane , Propofol , Elective Surgical Procedures , Tramadol
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-648948

ABSTRACT

Arterial canuulation is generally used to monitor blood pressure and sample blood for gas analysis. Radial and dorsalis pedis arteries are commonly used for arterial cannulation. It is a simple, safe, and uncomplicated procedure, but some complications have been reported, including bleeding, hematoma, infection, pseudoaneurysm, and thromboembolism. Although thromboembolism is not common, it could be serious because it can lead to digital ischemia and necrosis. We present a case of foot necrosis following dorsalis pedis artery cannulation in a 65-year-old patient who underwent small bowel resection.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aneurysm, False , Arteries , Blood Pressure , Catheterization , Foot , Hematoma , Hemorrhage , Humans , Ischemia , Necrosis , Organothiophosphorus Compounds , Thromboembolism
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-152769

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intravenous hypnotics are used in pregnancy, labor and delivery. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the relaxant effects of propofol, thiopental, ketamine, and etomidate on isolated rat uterine smooth muscles. METHODS: Uterine smooth muscle preparations were obtained from non-pregnant female rats. The uterus of the rat was dissected and cut into 10 mm strips. The muscle strips were bathed in Krebs solution. After spontaneous uterine contractile activity had been accomplished, propofol, ketamine, thiopental, and etomidate in various concentrations were added cumulatively to the baths and resting tension, active tension, and frequency of contration were recorded at each concentration of agents. EC(5), EC(25), EC(50), EC(75), and EC(95) of each drug on active tension and frequency of contraction were calculated using a probit model. RESULTS: Propofol, thiopental, and etomidate reduced uterine contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. Ketamine concentrations of 10(-7) to 10(-5) M augmented uterine contractions but ketamine concentrations of 10(-4) to 10(-3) M attenuated uterine contractions. The EC(50)'s of propofol, thiopental, ketamine, and etomidate on active tension were 1.56 x 10(-5) M, 4.97 x 10(-5) M, 3.52 x 10(-4) M, and 2.73 x 10(-5) M, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: All four intravenous hypnotics relaxed the uterine smooth muscle of rats except for ketamine in low concentrations (10(-7) to 10(-5) M). Propofol had the greatest relaxant effects on isolated rat uterine smooth muscle among these hypnotics. It seems that ketamine is a suitable obstetric hypnotic agent for hypovolemic parturients and propofol is a useful hypnotic agent for uterine relaxation during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Baths , Contracts , Etomidate , Female , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Hypovolemia , Isotonic Solutions , Ketamine , Muscle, Smooth , Muscles , Pregnancy , Propofol , Rats , Relaxation , Thiopental , Uterine Contraction , Uterus
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