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Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-211192


Background: A part of the anthropometry that measures and studies the dimensions of the head and the faces is called cephalometric, the results of which are used in various medical branches. The standard of this measurement is different in each country because different racial factors and geographic impact on it, so the values obtained by researchers in other countries cannot be a criterion for determining the normal growth of head in other countries. The aim of this study was to determine the head standard index and the prevalence of head anatomic types in children younger than 6 years old in Kabul ministry of higher education Kindergartens in order to determine the head standard index in 2018.Methods: This descriptive study was conducted for all male and female children less than 6 years old at the ministry of higher education in Kabul, which had no specific physical and mental problems in 2018. The measurements of the length and width of the head were measured by the Martin Calliper Cephalometry, and according to the protocol, the head index and the prevalence of different phenotypes was determined.Results: Based on the present study, it was found that most of the male and female head are in the form of brachicephalic with a total percentage of 56.82%, as well as 31.81% of the heads hyper brachicephalic and 9.09% of the mesosafalic head and the lowest number of heads the were dolgossific species with a total percentage of 2.28%. Also, the study of the head index based on age showed that in less than one-year olds, the heads were most the type of hyper brachicephalic and in other age groups, the head index was lower and the brachicephalic.Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that the dominant phenotypes in children under the age of six years in kindergartens at the ministry of higher education in Kabul are of brachicephalic in both males and females.

Cell Journal [Yakhteh]. 2019; 20 (4): 513-520
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-199620


Objective: In vitro transplantation [IVT] of spermatogonial stem cells [SSCs] is one of the most recent methods in transplantation in recent decades. In this study, IVT and SSCs homing on seminiferous tubules of host testis in organ culture have been studied

Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, human SSCs were isolated and their identities were confirmed by tracking their promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger [PLZF] protein. These cells were transplanted to adult azoospermia mouse testes using two methods, namely, IVT and in vivo transplantation as transplantation groups, and testes without transplantation of cells were assigned in the control group. Then histomorphometric, immunohistochemical and molecular studies were done after 2 weeks

Results: After two weeks, histomorphometric studies revealed that the number of subsided spermatogonial cells [SCs] and the percentage of tubules with subsided SCs in IVT and in vivo groups were significantly more than those in the control group [P<0.05]. Immunohistochemical studies in the transplantation groups confirmed that the PLZF protein was expressed in the cells subsided on the seminiferous tubule. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction [qRT-PCR] demonstrated that the PLZF gene expression was only positive in the transplantation groups, but it was not significantly different between the IVT group and the in vivo group [P>0.05]

Conclusion: Testicular tissue culture conditions after SSC transplantation can help these cells subside on the seminiferous tubule basement membrane

Cell Journal [Yakhteh]. 2018; 19 (4): 634-639
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189855


Objective: low intensity ultrasound [continues and pulsed] is a form of energy. Spermatogonial stem cells [SSCs] are at the base of male fertility. This study investigated the effects of low intensity ultrasound stimulation [LIUS] and low intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulation [LIUPS] on the expression of germ cell-specific and pluripotency genes in SSCs in vitro

Materials and Methods: in this experimental study, isolated SSCs from neonatal male mice were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium [DMEM] with 10% fetal bovine serum [FBS]. In addition, to confirm identification of SSCs, PLZF protein was detected positively in SSCs derived colonies. SSCs were stimulated by LIUS and LIUPS for 5 days, followed by assessment of expression of integrin-alpha6 [Itga6] and beta1 [Itgbeta1], as two germ cell-specific genes, and Oct- 4, as a pluripotency gene, on day 21st by quantitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction [qRT-PCR]. To investigate the proliferation rate and colonization of SSCs in different groups, counting whole number of the cells and colonies as well as analysis of the respective diameters were performed on days 7[th], 14[th] and 21[st]. Data was analyzed by ANOVA test

Results: LIUS and LIUPS treatment of mouse SSCs increased expression of Itga6 and Itgbeta1 genes in the experimental groups, compared to the control group [P<0.05], whereas there was no significant difference between the groups, regarding the expression of Oct-4 gene. These treatments maintained survival rate, while they increased proliferation rate and colonization of SSCs during the first week of culture. However, within the second week, proliferation rate and colonization were decreased in the experimental groups

Conclusion: these results suggested that LIUS and LIUPS treatment had good effect on SSCs proliferation and colonization, based on the gene-specific marker expression during 21 days culture in vitro

Modares Journal of Medical Sciences, Pathobiology. 2013; 16 (2): 85-94
in Fa | IMEMR | ID: emr-133257


This study presents an efficient, cost-effective method to improve proliferation and colonization of spermatogonial stem cells [SSCs] in vitro. Isolated SSCs from neonate mice were cultured in DMEM culture medium with 10% fetal bovine serum [FBS]. In the first phase of the study, the temperature was controlled by low intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulation [LIPUS] of the plate that contained the culture medium. In the next phase, SSCs were stimulated by LIPUS with 200 mW/cm[2] with 20% and 40% duty cycle for five days. Proliferation and colonization of SSCs were on the seventh day. LIPUS treatment of mouse SSCs increased the proliferation rate and colonization of SSCs in the experimental groups compared to the control group. Average proliferation rate in the 20% duty cycle group was 1.46 +/- 0.06, in the 40% duty cycle group it was 2.00 +/- 0.1 and for the control group, it was 1.26 +/- 0.06. The average number of colonies in the 20% duty cycle group was 24 +/- 7.7, whereas the 40% duty cycle group had 62 +/- 1.4 colonies and the control group had an average of 19 +/- 5.5 colonies. Average colony diameters were as follows: 186.6 +/- 2.07 micro m [20% duty cycle group], 185.3 +/- 4.4 micro m [40% duty cycle group] and 190.0 +/- 2.0 micro m [control group]. Our results showed a significant increase in proliferation rate and number of colonies in the experimental groups compared to the control group [P<0.05], whereas no significant differences were observed between groups in colony diameters. These results suggested that LIPUS treatment can be an efficient, cost effective method to improve proliferation and colonization of SSCs during in vitro culture.