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1.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2018008-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786865

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Consecutive community health assessments revealed that water-pipe smoking in women and impaired growth in children were among the main health concerns in suburban communities in southern Iran. The aim of the present study was to identify the effects of water-pipe smoking during pregnancy on birth weight.METHODS: Data from a population-based prospective cohort study of 714 singleton live pregnancies in the suburbs of Bandar Abbas in southern Iran in 2016–2018 were used in this study. Data about water-pipe smoking patterns and birth weight were collected by questionnaires during and after the pregnancy. Low birth weight (LBW) was defined as a birth weight below 2,500 g. Statistical analyses were performed using generalized linear models, and the results were presented in terms of relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).RESULTS: Fifty (8.2%) of the study subjects smoked water-pipe. The adjusted risk of LBW increased 2-fold in water-pipe smokers (adjusted RR [aRR], 2.09; 95% CI, 1.18 to 3.71), and by 2.0% for each 1-year increase in the duration of water-pipe smoking (aRR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.05).CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that water-pipe smoking during pregnancy was an important risk factor for LBW in this population sample from southern Iran. The introduction of regulations onto prevent water-pipe smoking and the implementation of community health action plans aiming at empowering women and increasing women's knowledge and awareness regarding the health consequences of water-pipe smoking are proposed.


Subject(s)
Birth Weight , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn , Iran , Linear Models , Parturition , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Social Control, Formal , Suburban Population
2.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2018008-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721227

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Consecutive community health assessments revealed that water-pipe smoking in women and impaired growth in children were among the main health concerns in suburban communities in southern Iran. The aim of the present study was to identify the effects of water-pipe smoking during pregnancy on birth weight. METHODS: Data from a population-based prospective cohort study of 714 singleton live pregnancies in the suburbs of Bandar Abbas in southern Iran in 2016–2018 were used in this study. Data about water-pipe smoking patterns and birth weight were collected by questionnaires during and after the pregnancy. Low birth weight (LBW) was defined as a birth weight below 2,500 g. Statistical analyses were performed using generalized linear models, and the results were presented in terms of relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Fifty (8.2%) of the study subjects smoked water-pipe. The adjusted risk of LBW increased 2-fold in water-pipe smokers (adjusted RR [aRR], 2.09; 95% CI, 1.18 to 3.71), and by 2.0% for each 1-year increase in the duration of water-pipe smoking (aRR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that water-pipe smoking during pregnancy was an important risk factor for LBW in this population sample from southern Iran. The introduction of regulations onto prevent water-pipe smoking and the implementation of community health action plans aiming at empowering women and increasing women's knowledge and awareness regarding the health consequences of water-pipe smoking are proposed.


Subject(s)
Birth Weight , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn , Iran , Linear Models , Parturition , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Social Control, Formal , Suburban Population
3.
Journal of Research in Health Sciences [JRHS]. 2015; 15 (4): 256-261
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-179284

ABSTRACT

Background: Work settings provide a unique opportunity for health promotion interventions. Considering the issue of obesity in employees, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the intervention based on new communication technologies and the social cognitive theory [SCT] on weight control in the governmental employees of Hamadan City, western Iran in 2014


Methods: This randomized control trial study was conducted in "telephone- assisted intervention", "web- assisted intervention", and "control" groups comprising 435 employees of Hamadan City with overweight or obesity in 2014 [Ethics Committee Code: 93/D/130/1139]. The educational intervention was performed for 6 months under the title of "lifestyle program". Then, the participants were evaluated in terms of weight and changes in the constructs of the social-cognitive theory 6 and 9 months after the intervention. A researcher-made questionnaire based on the Dishman and Dewar questionnaires was used to evaluate the constructs of social-cognitive theory. The data were collected and analyzed using SPSS-20


Results: The lifestyle intervention resulted in a weight loss of 1.92 and 1.08 kg in the telephone-assisted and web-assisted intervention groups, respectively. The intervention in the telephone-assisted group increased the mean scores of the constructs of self-efficacy [P=0.001], environment [P=0.001], outcome expectations [P=0.040], and outcome expectancies [P=0.001] among participants. In the web-assisted intervention group, the mean scores of the constructs of self-efficacy [P=0.001] and outcome expectancies [P=0.020] increased


Conclusions: Our results showed the effectiveness of the intervention based on new communication technologies and the Social-Cognitive Theory. Future studies with more retention strategies regarding self-efficacy and environment constructs are needed to further explain the application of SCT and technology-based approaches to reduce obese and overweight

4.
Iranian Journal of Public Health. 2014; 43 (3): 316-322
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-159618

ABSTRACT

Renal transplantation is a therapy for end-stage renal disease. During the study of recipients' survival after renal transplantation, there are some events as intermediate events that not only affect the recipients' survival but also events which are affected by various factors. The aim of this study was to handle these intermediate events in order to identify factors that affect recipients' survival by using multi-state models. This retrospective cohort study included 405 renal transplant patients from Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman, Iran, from 2004 to 2010. The survival time of these recipients was determined after transplantation and the effect of various factors on the death hazard with and without renal allograft failure and hazard of renal allograft failure was studied by using multistate models. During 4.06 years [median] of follow-up; 28 [6.9%] recipients died and allograft failure occurred in 51 [12.6%] recipients. Based on the results of multi-state model, receiving a living kidney transplantation decreased the hazard of renal allograft failure [HR=0.38; 95% CI: 0.17- 0.87], pre-transplant hypertension [HR=2.94; 95% CI: 1.54- 5.63] and serum creatinine levels >1.6 upon discharge from the hospital [HR=7.38; 95% CI: 3.87- 7.08] increased the hazard of renal allograft failure. Receiving living kidney transplantation decreased the hazard of death directly [HR=0.18; 95% CI: 0.04- 0.93]. It was concluded that the effect of donor type, pre-transplant hypertension and having serum creatinine >1.6 upon discharge from the hospital was significant on hazard of renal allograft failure. The only variable that had a direct significant effect on hazard of death was donor type

5.
Iranian Journal of Public Health. 2014; 43 (5): 621-629
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-159642

ABSTRACT

Multiple Sclerosis [MS] is a disease with high disabling disorders and considerable social and economic impacts. This study was conducted to analyze the spatial distribution of MS disease in Tehran, Iran during 2001-2012. The existing information in the MS patients' medical files who had registered in Iranian MS Society [IMSS], located in Tehran office, was used for analysis. The relationship between diseases incidences in 22 zones of Tehran based on estimated socio-economic status [SES] of each zone was evaluated. High and low clustering approach was used in order to investigate the disease's distribution pattern meanwhile, Getis Ord's Gi test and Hot Spot analysis approach has been used to detect high risk zones of the disease. A total of 6027 MS patients were registered between 2001- 2012 which 4580 [%75.99] were women. During the study period, zone number 6 figured as the most high risk zone for the disease [P<0.1]. A heterogeneous distribution was shown for the disease. Cumulative incidence of the disease in northern zones [101.73 per 100,000 inhabitants] was two times more of Southern zones [53.79 per 100,000 inhabitants]. There seems to be a direct linear relationship between estimated incidence rate of the disease in each zones with the level of SES [P<0.001]. Heterogeneous geographical distribution of MS and its higher estimated incidence for northern zones in Tehran may be because of higher SES and other factors in mentioned zones. It is recommended to consider the surveillance with long-term and cost-effective interventional strategies along with disease in high risk zones

6.
Iranian Journal of Public Health. 2014; 43 (6): 800-808
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-167598

ABSTRACT

Gastric cancer is the most prevalent cancer among men and the third most prevalent cancer among women in Iran. Its most important reason for death is its belated diagnosis at the advanced stages of the disease. Various factors can be effective on the survival of these patients after surgery, which are the major concern in this study. Data from 330 patients with Gastric cancer who had undergone surgery at Iran Cancer Institute from 1995 to 1999 were analyzed. The Survival Time of patients was determined after surgery and the effect of individual and demographic; clinical and diagnostic; and treatment and post-surgical factors on patients' survival was studied. For data analysis, Kaplan- Meier, Log-Rank test and Proportional Hazards Model were used. The median of survival time was 16.33 months. The one-year, three-year, and five-year survival rates were, 0.66, 0.31, and 0.21. Based on univariate analysis results of age[P<0.001], metastases[P=0.012], disease stage[P=0.016], and number of renewed treatments[P<0.001], as well as multivariate analysis which was used to investigate the simultaneous effect of influencing variables on patients' survival showed that age[61-70:HR=1.40,>70:HR=2.08], marital status[HR=0.39], number of renewed treatments[1:HR=0.54,2:HR=0.30,3:HR=0.22], relapse[HR=1.51], type of gastrectomy [Subtotal: HR=1.12, Distal:HR=0.49, Partial:HR=0.94, Proximal:HR=0.52], liver metastases [HR=1.79], distance metastases[HR=1.84], and disease stage[II:HR=1.28,III:HR=2.12,IV:HR=1.90] variables had a significant effect on patients' survival. Patients who call on doctors in early stages of disease will have a higher survival rate due to early diagnosis whereas disease progression will increase the risk and will decrease the survival. Identifying factors affecting patients' survival and improving diagnostic methods can prevent disease progression and increase survival rate


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Survival Rate
7.
IJPM-International Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2014; 5 (1): 61-68
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-141284

ABSTRACT

Postpartum care at home is a post delivery care method that can be provided by public health nurses, trained health workers, or midwifery nurses. A study conducted to compare effect of two midwife visits at home to usual postpartum care on the healthy behaviors of low-risk Iranian mothers. A randomized controlled trial conducted on 200 mothers at a reference center for screening for infant hypothyroidism in Tehran. Mothers were randomized to either home-based [n =100] or routine-based postpartum care [n= 100]. Each mother and her neonate received two cares. Home-based cares were provided by a midwife in the intervention group. Postpartum cares in the control group were provided by care providers of primary health care system. Healthy behavior was measured using a validated and reliable researcher made instrument. The data were analyzed using independent sample t-tests, paired t-test, and chi[2]-test. The data showed that a significant number of subjects in the control group did not receive their postpartum care [P< 0.001]. The mean score of maternal healthy behaviors in the intervention group increased from 120.5 [SE= 0.76] to 148.9 [SE= 1.02] [P< 0.001] and in the control group from 119.9 [SE= 1.06] to 140.9 [SE= 1.08][P< 0.001]. The mean score of maternal healthy behaviors in the intervention group had significant differences with that in the control group at the end of study [P< 0.001]. Early postpartum care at home by trained midwives can be positively effective for improving maternal healthy behaviors in less developed countries

8.
IJPM-International Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2013; 4 (7): 767-776
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138509

ABSTRACT

Measures of segregation are essential tools for evaluation of social equality. They describe complex structural patterns by single quantities and allow the comparison of inequalities over time or between residential places. In many countries, patterns of residential segregation are well described [e.g., South Africa, Great Britain, United States of America]. In this study, for the first time in Iran, we measured residential segregation for some socioeconomic and health variables and described their pair wise correlation. We measured evenness dimension of segregation by generalized dissimilarity segregation index and information theory index and its ordinal equivalent for some determinants of socioeconomic status and health variables using data of last national census in Iran. Segregation indices were computed for 31 socioeconomic variables and four health indices. All the provinces were in the category of low segregation for individual and family disability and death of at least one offspring of mother, but for infant mortality half of the provinces were moderately or highly segregated. For some of socioeconomic variables, many provinces were in the category of moderate, high, or extreme segregation. There was significant correlation between segregation of health indices and some socioeconomic variables. Correlation of segregation of determinants of socioeconomic status with segregation of health indices is an indicator of existence of hot zones of health problems across some provinces. Further studies using multilevel modeling and individual data in health outcomes at individual level and segregation measures at appropriate geographic levels are required to confirm these relations


Subject(s)
Humans , Socioeconomic Factors , Infant Mortality , Information Theory , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Social Isolation
9.
Journal of Research in Health Sciences [JRHS]. 2013; 13 (1): 32-36
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142688

ABSTRACT

Peritoneal dialysis is one of the most prevalent types of dialysis prescribed to the patients suffering from renal failure. Studies on the factors affecting the survival of these patients have mainly used log-rank test and Cox analysis. The present study aimed to investigate the risk factors affecting short- and long term survival of patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis [CAPD] using cure model. The data obtained retrospectively from 20 medical centers in Iran, between 1996 and 2009. All patients with renal failure who had been treated by CAPD and followed at least 3 months were included in the study. The STATA [11.0] software and CUREREGR module were used for survival analysis using cure model. Totally 2006 patients were included in this study. The major reasons for renal failure were hypertension [35.4%] and diabetes [33.6%]. The median of survival time was 4.8 years with a 95% confidence interval of 4.3 to 5.6 years. The percentage of long-lived patients surviving was 40% [95% CI: 32%, 47%]. The analysis showed that the effect of diabetes, serum albumin level, age, diastolic blood pressure, and medical center was significant on the long-term survival of the patients. In addition, in short-term survival the effects of age, albumin, and medical center were significant By improving the quality of medical care in centers, nutritional status, controlling co-morbidities can help the patients on CAPD with better health and increase their short and long term survival


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Survival Analysis , Survival Rate , Age Factors , Risk Factors , Serum Albumin , Nutritional Status
10.
Medical Sciences Journal of Islamic Azad University. 2013; 23 (2): 148-153
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-130393

ABSTRACT

Diabetes is a serious chronic illness and needs end of life care behavior that its-reflect will be as a physical, mental and social disequilibrium. Also, self-concept is an overall view of him/her-self that encompass all the strengths and weaknesses of individual. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between self-concept and quality of life in people with type 2 diabetes. This descriptive-correlation study was done on 280 patients with type 2 diabetes admitted to clinic of diabetes in Imam Khomeini hospital at Ardebil. Data were gathered by questionnaires, including socio-demographic status, Farrell and Grant questionnaires and Beck's self concept test. The data were analyzed using SPSS by descriptive analysis, Chi-square, and exact Fisher tests. Most patients with type 2 diabetes had low self-concept [98 [34.5%]] and low quality of life level [123 [43.9%]]. Results of chi-square test [P=0.001] and Pearson correlation [r=0.91] indicated that there was statistically significant relationship between quality of life and self-concept. Our study showed that self-concept and quality of life have direct and positive relationships. Then, we can modify and enhance the quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes, increase their self-concept until they have a suitable self-care and be prevented the physical, emotional and psychological complications of diabetes


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Male , Quality of Life , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
11.
Singapore medical journal ; : 336-343, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-334488

ABSTRACT

<p><b>INTRODUCTION</b>Oesophageal cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer mortality in developing countries, including Iran. This study aimed to assess factors affecting survival of patients with oesophageal cancer using parametric analysis with frailty models.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Data on 359 patients with oesophageal cancer was collected from the Babol Cancer Registry for the period 1990-1991. By 2006, the patients had been followed up for a period of 15 years. Hazard ratio was used to interpret the risk of death. To explore factors affecting the survival of patients, log-normal and log-logistic models with frailty were examined. The Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) was used for selecting the best model(s). Cox regression was not suitable for this patient group, as the proportionality assumption of the Cox model was not satisfied by our data (p = 0.007).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Multivariate analysis according to parametric models showed that family history of cancer might increase the risk of death from cancer significantly. Based on AIC scores, the log-logistic model with inverse Gaussian frailty seemed more appropriate for our data set, and we propose that the model might prove to be a useful statistical model for the survival analysis of patients with oesophageal cancer. The results suggested that gender and family history of cancer were significant predictors of death from cancer.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Early preventative care for patients with a family history of cancer may be important to decrease the risk of death in patients with oesophageal cancer. Male gender may be associated with a lower risk of death.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Developing Countries , Esophageal Neoplasms , Mortality , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Iran , Epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors
12.
Medical Sciences Journal of Islamic Azad University. 2011; 21 (2): 133-128
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-137267

ABSTRACT

Definite diagnosis of Candida pneumonia remains a problem in medicine. Although, isolation of'Candida spp. from the bronchoalveolar lavage is not diagnostic by itself, it may be helpful in early diagnosis of pulmonary candidiasis in immunocompromised or critically ill patients and prompt antifungal therapy. In a cross- sectional study, bronchoalveolar lavage was obtained from 144 patients with pulmonary diseases and different predisposing factors. All specimens were examined by direct microscopy and inoculated on CHOROM agar Candida plates. Corn-meal agar medium and API 20C diagnostic kit also were used for identification of different stains of'Candida. Candida spp. was isolated from 74 [51.3%] specimens. The most common isolated species was Candida albicans with frequency of 69.7%, followed by C.glabrata [20.2%], C.kefyr [5.6%], C.krusei [2.25] and C.tropicalis [1.2%]. Hypercolonization [>/= 10[3] CFU/mL] was found in 10 patients. This report implies the high frequency [30.3%] of non- albicans Candida spp. isolated from respiratory tract, necessity the application of other diagnostic methods and following up the patients. Less susceptibility ofnon- albicans Candida spp. to present anti- fungal drugs must be noted and hypercolonization of respiratory tract with Candida spp. should be considered as a initiating factor for invasive candidiasis

13.
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics. 2011; 21 (1): 58-64
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-109557

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory infection [ARI] is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. Human respiratory syncytial virus [HRSV] is main viral agent of ARI in infants and young children in terms of effect and prevalence. The aim of this study was to investigate HRSV genotypes during one season in Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 107 throat swabs were collected from children less than 5 years of age with acute respiratory infection from October to December 2009. The respiratory samples were obtained from several provinces: Tehran, Isfahan, Hamadan, Zanjan, Kordestan, Lorestan and West Azarbayjan, and were tested for G protein gene of HRSV by RT-PCR. Of the 107 respiratory samples, 24 [22.42%] were positive for HRSV, of which 16 [66.6%] belonged to subgroup A and 8 [33.4%] to subgroup B. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that subgroup A strains fell in two genotypes GA1 and GA2, whereas subgroup B strains clustered in genotype BA. This study revealed that multiple genotypes of HRSV cocirculated during the season 2009 in Iran. Also subgroup A strains were more prevalent than subgroup B strains, and genotype GA1 was predominant during the season


Subject(s)
Humans , Genetic Variation , GTP-Binding Proteins/genetics , Child , Genotype , Seasons , Respiratory Tract Infections , Acute Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies
14.
Saudi Medical Journal. 2011; 32 (9): 953-957
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-122734

ABSTRACT

To study the effects of the quality of life [QoL] improvement on their QoL and self-esteem. This was a random controlled clinical trial study on 123 type 2 diabetes patients admitted to the Diabetes Clinic in Imam Khomeini Hospital at Ardebil, Iran from April 2009 to June 2010. The 30-70 years old participants are afflicted with type 2 diabetes, and randomly divided into 2 groups [experimental group n=61, and control group n=62]. The questionnaires were composed of sociodemographic status, Parrel and Grant, and Rosenberg's self-esteem questionnaires and the quality of life [QoL] improvement plan was codified to educate and evaluate them. A p<0.05 was considered significant. Our study showed that subjects in the experimental group had low self-esteem [13%] before QOL training, and they had moderate self-esteem after the intervention [39%], however, the control group had moderate self-esteem [62.5%] in the pretest, and changed to low self-esteem [12.9%] in the post-test, and there was significant difference in the previous and next intervention [p<0.05]. The QoL improvement had positive effects on diabetic's self-esteem, and QOL as improved may help to reduce the side effects of type 2 diabetes process


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Quality of Life/psychology , Self Concept , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Psychological Tests , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy
15.
Acta Medica Iranica. 2011; 49 (7): 451-455
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-113927

ABSTRACT

We assessed the lower urinary tract symptoms [LUTS] in prostatic cancer patients and investigated the sensitivity and specificity of international prostate symptom score [IPSS] in the screening of these patients. A total number of 132 prostatic cancer patients as the case group who were confirmed by the pathologists and 101 noncancerous men as the control group, aged 50 or older, responded to a questionnaire which included seven questions regarding urination, named the International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS]. Then, two groups were assessed and compared with each other and also the sensitivity and specificity of IPSS tool for screening of prostatic cancer patients were calculated. All participants filled out the questionnaire. 60 [59.4%] noncancerous men and 29 [22.0%] cases had mild LUTS, and 41 [40.6%] noncancerous men and 103 [78.0%] cases had moderate to severe LUTS. Moreover, the sensitivity and specificity of the IPSS tool were 78% and 59.4%, respectively. Urination status and problems could be easily assessed by IPSS and it is a sensitive and specific tool for screening of prostatic cancer patients. It appears that IPSS is a cost beneficial, sensitive, specific and easily-used screening tool to diagnose the prostate cancer cases. Therefore, it can be used more extensively by the health care providers as well as by men >/= 50 years old themselves


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Sensitivity and Specificity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Urination
16.
Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences. 2008; 10 (3): 58-64
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-143546

ABSTRACT

Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men and it is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men after lung cancer. Therefore, this study was done to assess of risk factors for prostate cancer in Mazandaran province, Iran. A matched case-control study was conducted on 104 prostate cancer patients and 104 controls in Mazandaran province during 2005. The addresses of the patients were obtained using the cancer registry information existed in Babol research center in Iran. The data were collected using a questionnaire by in-person interview of cases and their controls and were analyzed using STATA [8.0]. Univariate condition logistic regression showed that age, prostatitis, drinking alcohol, using chopoghe, family history of prostate cancer, having other cancer, intensity of activity, time of job activity were found to be the risk factors although higher BMI and execreise were protective for prostate cancer [P<0.20]. In multivariate analysis, after adjusting for the effect of the confounders, prostatitis, age, alcohol consumption and family history of prostate cancer were found to the most important risk factors. This study identified prostatitis, age, alcohol consumption and family history of prostate as the independent risk factors for prostate cancer. We suggest that men after the age of 60 should be screened for prostate cancer annually


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Case-Control Studies , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , Prostatitis/complications , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects
17.
Modares Journal of Medical Sciences, Pathobiology. 2007; 10 (3-4): 59-64
in English, Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-84581

ABSTRACT

Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide [anti-CCP] antibodies are highly specific markers for rheumatoid arthritis [RA] and useful for predicting rheumatoid arthritis [RA] development and progression. We assessed the diagnostic value of anti-CCP antibodies in our patients with RA. Anti-CCP antibodies and rheumatoid factor [RF] titers were determined in 247 serum samples: 128 from RA patients, 119 from control group p48 from healthy controls, 71 from patients with rheumatic disease other than RA or hematologic malignancies. There were 128 [93 females, 35 males] patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 119 [78 females, 41 males ] controls. The sensitivity of Anti-CCP was 66.40% for diagnosis of RA with a specificity of 94.11%. The sensitivity of RF was 69.53% and its specificity was 81.51% In our patients Anti-CCP has a moderate sensitivity but high specificity for diagnosis of RA


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Peptides, Cyclic/immunology , Rheumatoid Factor , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
Strides in Development of Medical Education. 2005; 2 (1): 49-55
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-75131

ABSTRACT

Teaching is a basic strategy in health programs. Concerns on sexually transmitted diseases has dramatically grown in recent years. Teaching can be a proper strategy to prevent these diseases, because these diseases are often acquired through avoidable and changeable behavior. To compare the effect of two educational methods, lecture [using film and pamphlet] and poster, on students' knowledge and attitude about HIV/AIDS. This research was a quasi-experimental study. The sample consisted of 160 students, chosen using stratified - random sampling and divided into equal groups of lecture and poster. A questionnaire including three sections with 54 questions [demographic information, knowledge and attitude] was completed by the subjects in two stages, before and after teaching. Independent and paired t-test were used to analyze the data. The finding indicated a significant difference between pretest and posttest of knowledge scores in both teaching methods [P<0.0001]. The mean of knowledge scores in lecture group improved from 35.18 to 75.7 and in poster from 35.8 to 48.51. A significant difference was observed between pre and post-test the means of attitude scores for lecture [p<0.0001] and poster [p<0.001]. The mean of attitude scores improved from 17.38 to 27.78 in the lecture group and from 15.36 to 18.68 in the poster group. Comparing the two methods, the results showed a significant difference in knowledge [P<0.0001] and attitude level in two groups [P<0.0001]. Lecture teaching had more effect on improving knowledge and attitude of the students about HIV/AIDS. As a result, the effective and codified educational programs are proved as basic strategies to improve knowledge and attitude of the young about HIV/AIDS in order to prevent this disease


Subject(s)
Humans , Students , Knowledge , Attitude , Teaching/methods , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , HIV Infections , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
DARU-Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy Tehran University of Medical Sciences. 2005; 13 (4): 155-159
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-70334

ABSTRACT

Desmoperssin is the drug of choice for treatment of central diabetes insipidus and most commonly it is used as intranasal spray. In this study, efficacy and side effects of oral desmopressin was compared with the intranasal spray. This study was before -after clinical trial on 14 outpatients [9 F, 5 M, age 14 -50 Y] with central diabetes insipidus who had been treated with intranasal spray of desmopressin previously. Weight, pulse rate and blood pressure [sitting -standing], biochemical profile, serum electrolytes, 24h urine volume, specific gravity of urine and LFT was measured before and after 1 month study. Starting dose for each patient was one oral tablet of DDAVP [0.1 mg] per 8 hours. Paired Samples T-Test was used for data analysis. No clinically significant changes were found as regard to weight, pulse rate, blood pressure, blood chemistry, electrolyte and urinalysis. Single reported adverse effect was headache [43%] in tablet group and dyspnea [7%] in spray group. Both dosage forms were able to control diurnal polyuria and nocturnal polyuria. The antidiuretic dose - equivalence ratio for intranasal to oral desmopressin was 1: 18. Spray was superior in terms of rapid onset of action and duration of antidiuretic action in 100% and 78% of cases [not significant], respectively. Tablets were more available and much more easily consumed as reported by patients, in 86% [P=0.0006]. Treatment with tablets offers a good alternative to the intranasal route, especially in patients with chronic rhinitis or common cold and similar conditions


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Deamino Arginine Vasopressin/pharmacology , Deamino Arginine Vasopressin , Diabetes Insipidus/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Drug Administration Routes/methods
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