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1.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740596

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the job satisfaction level of the dental staff working at oral health centers for people with disabilities. METHODS: A questionnaire survey was conducted with 73 dentists and dental hygienists working at seven regional oral health centers for people with special needs and dental hospitals for people with disabilities in Seoul. The questionnaire consisted of seven questions across two subscales: general satisfaction (4 questions) and satisfaction with wage and welfare (3 questions). The internal consistency of the questionnaire items was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (0.80). The responses were analyzed using a t-test with SPSS (version 23.0). RESULTS: Of the 73 dental staff members, 50% were dentists, 64% were women, and participants' average age was 30 years. In total, 58% of the participants had up to five years of experience working with people with disabilities, 42% of them worked full-time, and each participant treated an average of 200 patients with disabilities per month. The participants reported that their salary was relatively low. Dental hygienists had higher satisfaction level than dentists in the institution's welfare work. The more full-time workers answered, the more suitable they are for their work. CONCLUSIONS: The job satisfaction level of most professionals working in oral health centers for people with disabilities was not very high but they felt rewarded by their welfare work. It was inferred that it is necessary to examine and improve institutional support aspects such as human resource support. Increasing the number of centers in the central region is also needed.


Subject(s)
Dental Hygienists , Dental Staff , Dentists , Disabled Persons , Female , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Oral Health , Reward , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Seoul
2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740595

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to determine the association between the management of oral health and experiences of oral health education and to investigate the influential factors of the Patient Hygiene Performance (PHP) index in an area's university students. In addition, we explored the factors that influence the PHP index and how to effectively promote oral health. METHODS: All collected data were analyzed using the χ2 test, the t-test, and multiple regression using SPSS version 23.0 for Microsoft Windows. The statistical significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: The total age of 380 participants ranged from 18 to 39 years (mean 22.22±2.43). No significant differences were found in oral health status and experiences of oral health education. CONCLUSIONS: Active national-based policies to develop regular and systematic national oral health education programs are needed.


Subject(s)
Education , Health Behavior , Health Education, Dental , Humans , Hygiene , Oral Health , Oral Hygiene
3.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740570

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: With the growing elderly population, there is an increasing interest in the oral and general health of elderly individuals. Loss of teeth is representative of oral disease in elderly individuals and is associated with medical and dental problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the number of remaining functional teeth and cognitive function. METHODS: A total of 456 (111 public health centers, 261 senior centers, 84 sanatoriums) older adults (aged ≥65 years) residing in Korea were included. A mental health nurse examined the cognitive function using the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination. A dentist examined the number of functional teeth and denture status through an oral examination, while a dental hygienist surveyed the subjective masticatory level using a questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 79.5 years (range 65–97 years), and 76.1% of them were women. Participants with a small number of functional teeth had lower cognitive function. In these participants, the odds ratio with poor cognitive function was 2.30 times higher; it was 2.74 times higher after adjusting for age, sex, residence, education, and denture use, and was statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that the number of functional teeth was associated with cognitive function in the Korean elderly population.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Cognition , Dental Hygienists , Dentists , Dentures , Diagnosis, Oral , Education , Female , Humans , Korea , Mental Health , Odds Ratio , Public Health , Senior Centers , Tooth
4.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740298

ABSTRACT

Stroke is the second cause of death worldwide, although the survival period is increasing after the occurrence of stroke, severe physical disability is caused with aftereffect. Oral inflammation is not limited to the oral cavity, it can cause malignant changes in other tissues and organs. In previous studies, we confirmed the relationship between tooth loss and stroke due to periodontal inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between oral health and stroke such as oral hygiene behavior, tooth loss and periodontal disease among Korean adults over 40 years of age. This study was analyzed using the 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data. A total of 3,389 adults over 40 years of age were analyzed as final subjects. Socioeconomic statuses and oral health status was analyzed using a complex sample analysis technique. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship of oral health and stroke, and 95% confidence intervals were computed using SPSS. When the prevalence of stroke according to oral hygiene behavior was checked, the prevalence of strokes was lower in subjects who had a lot of brushings per day and subjects who used oral hygiene products (p 0.05). Loss of teeth was found to be associated with the risk factor of stroke. Therefore, loss of teeth due to periodontal disease is an additional issue that should be considered as a risk factor for stroke.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cause of Death , Drinking , Education , Humans , Inflammation , Korea , Logistic Models , Mouth , Nutrition Surveys , Oral Health , Oral Hygiene , Periodontal Diseases , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Social Class , Stroke , Tooth , Tooth Loss
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-194235

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cognitive function and occlusal status in elderly individuals. METHODS: A total of 162 individuals aged 65 years and older, who attended the senior citizen center in Daegu city, were included after consent for participation in the study was obtained. The Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-K) was used to evaluate the level of cognitive function. Occlusal status was determined using the T-scan III® system. All collected data were analyzed by χ² test, t-test, one way ANOVA, and linear regression analysis using SPSS version 23.0 for Windows. RESULTS: There was a significant relationship between the cognitive function and the use of dentures. Individuals with posterior occlusal status had higher MMSE-K scores than those with anterior occlusal status. There was a positive correlation between the cognitive function and posterior occlusal force. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that occlusal status was associated with cognitive function in the elderly individuals. Active national policies to improve occlusal condition in the elderly population are needed.


Subject(s)
Aged , Bite Force , Cognition , Dentures , Humans , Linear Models
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-19270

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Dental caries and periodontitis are major oral bacterial infections associated with dental plaque. Infection and inflammation play a role in carcinogenesis, and a significant link has been found between some highly prevalent oral and dental diseases and some types of cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cancer and oral health among Korean adults. METHODS: Data from the 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to analyze the incidence of cancer according to oral health. Demographic and socioeconomic statuses and oral behavior of the participants was analyzed using complex chi-square tests. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between a high DMFT index and cancer by calculating the 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: In total, 6,450 case-control subjects were included. Significant difference was observed in the DMFT index, but not in periodontal diseases, between the cases and controls. The odds ratio for cancer was 1.80 (95% confidence interval: 1.18 to 2.73) in the high-risk group. However, no significant difference was observed after adjusting for age, education level, and income. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide potential evidence of a significant association between cancer and oral disease.


Subject(s)
Adult , Bacterial Infections , Carcinogenesis , Case-Control Studies , Dental Caries , Dental Plaque , Education , Humans , Incidence , Inflammation , Korea , Logistic Models , Nutrition Surveys , Odds Ratio , Oral Health , Periodontal Diseases , Periodontitis , Social Class , Stomatognathic Diseases
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-656219

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to investigate the optimal management interval in 33 healthy adults by observing changes in oral health on the basis of the plaque control index and gingival index. When plaque control score was compared according to the period, it was found that oral hygiene management was the best in the fourth visit (p0.05). The questionnaire survey showed, that the optimal management interval was 1, 3, and 6 months. As a result, with the effective management interval for the preventive management program focused on professional mechanical tooth cleaning, which was administered weekly, the maximum ability for oral hygiene management was attained at the fourth visit. The effective management period was 1 month. The use of a phase contrast microscope and the calculation of the evaluation index for oral hygiene management could influence the motivation to improve oral hygiene management.


Subject(s)
Adult , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Motivation , Oral Health , Oral Hygiene , Periodontal Index , Tooth
8.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-650972

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between objective oral health status determined by dentists, self-perceived subjective oral health status, and oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) in the elderly. The related factors affecting OHRQoL in the elderly were also surveyed. Four hundred and thirty elderly individuals who visited the three public health centers and four dental clinics in Busan were selected by convenience sampling. Twelve dental hygienists investigated the subjective oral health status and OHRQoL using the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) and twentyone dentists examined the objective oral health status, including healthy remaining teeth, treated remaining teeth, functional remaining teeth, missing teeth, and non-treated missing teeth. Data were analyzed using SPSS ver. 12.0. OHRQoL was higher when oral and periodontal status was perceived as healthy, when there was no toothache, no interference in mastication, and when study subjects had the ability of food softening. It was also higher when study subjects had ≥20 remaining teeth and <9 missing teeth, and were wearing denture. The related factors affecting OHRQoL of the elderly were the type of medical insurance, toothache, ability of food softening, perception of periodontal status, and the number of healthy remaining teeth. There was a significant relationship between the subjective-objective oral health status and OHRQoL in the elderly. A continuous oral health care system aimed at retaining ≥20 healthy remaining teeth is needed to improve oral health and OHRQoL for the elderly, especially for the elderly receiving medical aid.


Subject(s)
Aged , Dental Clinics , Dental Hygienists , Dentists , Dentures , Humans , Insurance , Mastication , Oral Health , Public Health , Quality of Life , Tooth , Toothache
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-207259

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Stress is a psychological reaction to stimuli such as anxiety or threat felt by a person either physically or mentally when placed in a difficult situation. Although a relationship between stress and dry mouth has been reported, it remains understudied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between stress and subjective dry mouth among the elderly living in a rural region. METHODS: A total of 214 people aged ≥60 years living in a rural area were recruited with an informed consent for a cross-sectional analysis. Information about stress and subjective dry mouth was obtained by an interview survey with a constructed questionnaire. Data on other potential confounding factors (including oral factors) such as socio-demographic data, health-related behaviors, the number of remaining teeth, and subjective chewing ability were also gathered at the same time. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the relationship of stress and dry mouth using SPSS. RESULTS: The Crude odds ratio (OR) of stress awareness affecting subjective dry mouth was 2.59 (95% confidence interval: 1.43–4.68). After adjusting for sex, education, income, smoking, and alcohol intake, the adjusted OR was 2.52 (95% confidence interval: 1.30–4.87) which was statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly people who were stressed had an approximately 2-fold increase in experiencing subjective dry mouth when compared to their stress-free counterparts.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anxiety , Cross-Sectional Studies , Education , Humans , Informed Consent , Logistic Models , Mastication , Mouth , Odds Ratio , Pilot Projects , Smoke , Smoking , Tooth
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-647061

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to find the attitude change for snack by military soldiers before and after entering military service. To investigate oral health status and improving activities, this survey was done for 318 soldiers at Gyeong-gi province Paju city and the results were as follows. After entering military service, the soldiers take more snacks than before and take snacks 2 or more times a day. Both smokers and non-smokers take more snacks after entering military service than before entering. The soldiers did not go dental clinic regularly. But they have lots of interests about oral health. As higher position and older, soldiers restrain themselves to taking sugar contained food, and the elder soldiers showed higher practical character for nutrition intake than younger soldiers. Private soldiers were least practical for brushing after meal and showed the highest level of fulfill for using fluoride contained toothpaste, regular scaling and checkup at dental clinic and flossing.


Subject(s)
Dental Clinics , Fluorides , Humans , Meals , Military Personnel , Oral Health , Snacks , Toothpastes
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-8404

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to observe the decrease in tooth color after home and office bleaching due to consumption of juice, soda, and coffee over a period of one year. METHODS: We obtained written consent from 30 subjects, who were divided into two groups i.e., home bleaching and office bleaching groups. They were treated with opalessence® and Zoom2 whitening gel, and the color of their teeth was assessed using shade Eye-NCC over a one-year period. A self-describing questionnaire was used to determine the frequency of juice, soda, and coffee consumption. RESULTS: The changes in color were measured before and after 1 day, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. Although the tooth color slightly changed after 12 months, the teeth were brighter than the original color. Consumption of juices, sodas, and coffee is thought to be associated with decrease in tooth color, although the change was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The ΔE* values showed that the tooth bleaching effect remained for 12 months. Consuming a normal amount of juice, sodas, and coffee does not significantly reduce tooth color after tooth bleaching.


Subject(s)
Coffee , Follow-Up Studies , Tooth Bleaching , Tooth
12.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-185906

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to present our experience with minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations (CCAMs). METHODS: The medical records of infants under 2 years of age who underwent operation for a CCAM from 2009 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: MIS (9 of thoracoscopy and 1 of laparoscopy) was performed for 10 infants (male:female = 7:3) with CCAM. CCAM were discovered prenatally around gestational age of 24.7 weeks. The median gestational age was 38.6 weeks, and the median body weight was 2,817.5 g. None had respiratory distress after birth. The median age at the time of operation was 0.94 years (range: 8 days-1.66 years). Two underwent the operation during the neonatal period; one because of a coexisting large esophageal duplication cyst and the other due to diagnostic uncertainty. While awaiting operation, 5 of CCAM had grown without respiratory symptoms, and 2 infants had experienced pneumonia. The mean operative time was 98 minutes (range: 70-227 minutes), and there were no conversions or perioperative complications. The infants resumed enteral feeding within 2 days and were discharged within 7 days, except for 1 infant who underwent esophageal duplication cyst excision. During the follow-up period, there were no cases of either remnant lesions or respiratory symptoms. CONCLUSION: MIS for CCAMs is safe and feasible, with excellent cosmesis and short hospital stays. Increasing experience with various MIS procedures will widen the indications for MIS in lung pathology.


Subject(s)
Body Weight , Bronchopulmonary Sequestration , Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation of Lung, Congenital , Enteral Nutrition , Follow-Up Studies , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant , Length of Stay , Lung , Medical Records , Operative Time , Parturition , Pathology , Pneumonia , Retrospective Studies , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Thoracoscopy , Uncertainty
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-161442

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Mastic is a resinous extract from the stem and main leaves of Pistacia lentiscus, grown only in the Chios island of Greece. Mastic has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and anti-ulcer activities. Although mastic has been widely studied, its inhibitory effect against cancer cells, especially oral cancer cells, has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to assess the anticancer effects of mastic on human oral cancer YD-10B cells. METHODS: YD-10B cells were cultured in 0, 1, 2, 5, and 10 µg/mL mastic for 24 h. Cell count, viability, morphology, colony-forming assay, and DAPI staining were analyzed. RESULTS: Mastic treatment of YD-10B cells resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth, and almost all the cells in the 10 µg/mL culture were dead (P<0.05). Mastic treatment induced a morphological change and nuclear fragmentation in the YD-10B cells, and inhibited colony formation of YD-10B cells in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that mastic exhibited anticancer effects on the YD-10B cells through changes in cell morphology and apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Count , Greece , Humans , Mouth Neoplasms , Pistacia
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-161437

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the association between the stress or depression and oral health status of Korean adolescents. METHODS: The subjects were 1,180 participants of the Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), aged 12 to 18 years. All the collected data were analyzed by using the chi-square test, t test, analysis of variance, and multiple regression analysis with the SAS version 9.3 software. Multiple regression analysis was performed to analyze the relationship of stress or depression to oral health status, and 95% confidence intervals were computed. RESULTS: Cognitive stress and depression levels for >2 weeks correlated with permanent teeth caries index. In terms of cognitive status, oral health of "a little feeling" was poorer than that of "almost no feeling," with significant statistical difference (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides further evidence to support the establishment of a school oral health clinic for adolescents and hopefully provide guidance in the planning for oral health education.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Depression , Education , Humans , Korea , Nutrition Surveys , Oral Health , Tooth
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-156071

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Many recent studies have suggested that several systemic conditions, such as obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes, are related to periodontitis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether any particular metabolic syndrome component correlates with the periodontal status. METHODS: This study analyzed data from 501 adults (age range, 30 to 64 years) who completed a general physical examination and an oral-health-related questionnaire between January 2014 and June 2014. Periodontitis was already used by the validity and reliability has been proven questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between metabolic syndrome and the presence of chronic periodontitis. RESULTS: Among the 501 participants, 81 (16.2%) had metabolic syndrome and 91 (18.2%) had chronic periodontitis. The prevalence of chronic periodontitis was 28.40% (23/81) and 16.19% (68/420) in the participants with and without metabolic syndrome, respectively. The association remained significant after adjusting for sex, age, education, income, occupation, and smoking status; the adjusted odds ratio was 2.03 (95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 3.71). CONCLUSIONS: A significant association exists between metabolic syndrome components and the periodontal status.


Subject(s)
Adult , Chronic Periodontitis , Education , Humans , Hyperlipidemias , Hypertension , Logistic Models , Obesity , Occupations , Odds Ratio , Periodontitis , Physical Examination , Prevalence , Reproducibility of Results , Smoke , Smoking
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-50020

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Adolescence is a time during which health behaviors and attitudes that significantly affect the quality of life are formed. The aim of this study was to analyze data from a large national survey to determine the effect of health behaviors and the DMFT index as well as oral and general health behavior patterns on oral health in adolescents. METHODS: Data from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to analyze the association between health behaviors and the DMFT index in Korean adolescents. The data were analyzed using SAS version 19.3. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the variables, and 95% confidence intervals were computed. RESULTS: Sex, age, private medical insurance coverage, usage of oral-hygiene-assistance products, lack of dental treatment, and the status of self-recognition of oral health were the factors that had a significant influence on oral health among adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings provided further evidence supporting the promotion of school-based oral health programs and highlighting the need of oral health education for adolescents.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Education , Health Behavior , Humans , Insurance Coverage , Korea , Nutrition Surveys , Oral Health , Quality of Life
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-181867

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The quest for a happy life is accompanied by an increase in social activities, living standards, and socioeconomic development, with individuals showing increased interest in health and esthetics. In the field of dentistry, not only prevention and treatment but also esthetics is gaining popularity. The aim of this study was to identify tooth color reduction and consequent patient satisfaction over a period of 6 months after office and home bleaching. METHODS: Thirty subjects were divided using the convenience sampling method into two groups based on the bleaching agent used: 10% carbamide peroxide (CP10; home bleach) and 15% hydrogen peroxide (office bleach). CP10 was used at home in a tray for 2 h/day over 14 days, while 15% hydrogen peroxide was light-activated for 15 min, three times/session (total, 45 min). A control set of teeth without any bleaching treatment was used as reference. Shade evaluation was conducted using the Shade Eye NCC at baseline, 1 week, and 1 and 6 months after bleaching. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and the nonparametric Friedman test. RESULTS: There were significant differences in tooth color before and after bleaching in both the home and office bleach groups, although intergroup differences were not observed. Although b* values after bleaching were lower than the original values, only slight tooth color reduction was observed at 6 months. DeltaE*, which represents the overall change in color, at 1 and 6 months after bleaching was significantly different from that at baseline in the home bleach group, while it showed no significant differences in the office bleach group. According to a patient satisfaction survey, patient satisfaction significantly increased over time in the home bleach group, although it did not differ significantly between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Tooth whitening was observed after bleaching in both groups. However, slight color reduction was observed at 6 months after bleaching, and complete restoration to the color before bleaching did not occur; therefore, long-term observation of color reduction is required.


Subject(s)
Dentistry , Esthetics , Follow-Up Studies , Hydrogen Peroxide , Patient Satisfaction , Socioeconomic Factors , Tooth Bleaching , Tooth , Urea
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-18584

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Recently, studies aiming to improve the quality of life of the elderly have become more common. In the aging population, oral health is an important consideration for overall good systemic health. Oral health is closely related to general health and should not be ignored. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are associations between the mastication level and number of remaining teeth and the cognitive function. These associations were investigated using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score and the results of oral examinations in elderly individuals. METHODS: Participants who were aged over 60 years and living in Daegu city underwent oral examination for assessing their oral condition; their cognitive function was evaluated using the MMSE. The collected data were analyzed using the chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression in SPSS. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between the MMSE score and the number of remaining teeth, and the 95% confidence intervals were computed. RESULTS: Although a significant relationship was found between the number of remaining teeth and the MMSE score, the differences were not large. The odds ratio (OR) when the number of remaining teeth was 0-10 was 3.02 (95% confidence interval: 1.200-7.581). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a slight but significant relationship between the MMSE score and the number of remaining teeth in elderly individuals.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aging , Alzheimer Disease , Dementia , Diagnosis, Oral , Humans , Logistic Models , Mastication , Odds Ratio , Oral Health , Pilot Projects , Quality of Life , Tooth
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-101038

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bleaching effect of chewing gum containing amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), hydroxyapatite (HA), and tricalcium pyrophosphate (TSP) on human enamel. METHODS: Seventy-three subjects aged 20-30 years were recruited after obtaining their informed consent and approval of the Institutional Review Board. All subjects were randomly assigned to the following four groups: (I) negative control group; (II) 50% gum group; (III) 100% gum group; and (IV) positive control group (10% carbamide peroxide). They received gum containing ACP, HA, and TSP, three times a day, for 4 weeks. Group IV also received 10% CP application using individual trays, once a day, for 2 weeks. Color change was measured using the Shade Eye-NCC colorimeter at weekly intervals, during the 4-week period. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 18.0. RESULTS: Color changes (DeltaE*) were significantly different among the groups at 2 and 4 weeks after chewing the gum (P<0.05). Given that bleaching effect of Group IV was 100%, bleaching effects of Group III, Group II, and Group I were 54%, 46%, and 36%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Chewing gum containing ACP, HA, and TSP was effective enough to bleach the human enamel. Further comprehensive studies and assessment will be required to ascertain the bleaching effects and mechanism of chewing gum containing various components such as ACP, HA, and TSP using various methods of experiment and analysis.


Subject(s)
Aged , Calcium , Calcium Phosphates , Chewing Gum , Dental Enamel , Diphosphates , Durapatite , Ethics Committees, Research , Gingiva , Humans , Informed Consent , Mastication , Urea
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-35345

ABSTRACT

Currarino syndrome is a hereditary syndrome characterized by the triad of a sacral bony defect, presacral mass and anorectal malformation. We retrospectively reviewed 13 Currarino syndrome patients who were treated in our center between 1997 and 2010. Demographic data, initial symptoms, initial diagnosis, pathologic diagnosis of presacral mass, associated anomalies and managements were analyzed. There were 8 boys and 5 girls. Four patients were diagnosed as Currarino syndrome immediately after birth with failure of passage of meconium and abdominal distension. Four patients underwent surgery for imperforate anus immediately after birth and were diagnosed as Currarino syndrome later and underwent reoperation. Three patients were diagnosed during work-up and management with of the tentative diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease. Diagnosis of the remaining two patients was at the age of 26 months and 9 years and anorectal malformation was not associated. Twelve patients showed hemi-sacrum and one patient showed bilateral sacral subtotal agenesis. Two patients without anorectal malformation underwent presacral mass excision, untethering of spinal cord and repair of myelomeningocele. Six out of 8 patients, excluding 3 that expired or were lost to follow up, with anorectal malformation underwent colostomy, presacral mass excision, untethering of spinal cord, repair of myelomeningocele, posterior sagittal anorectoplasty and colostomy repair. One patient underwent only posterior sagittal anorectoplasty after colostomy. One waits the scheduled operation only with Hegar dilatation. Pathologic examation of presacral masses showed myelomeningoceles in 4 patients, lipomyelomeningoceles in 3 patients and dermoid cyst in one patient. Teratoma was combined in 2 patients. Eight patients needed neurosurgical operation for spinal cord problems. Seven patients had urologic anomalies and two of them underwent operation. Currarino syndrome should be considered as a differential diagnosis in pediatric patients with abdominal distension, constipation and anorectal malformation. For proper evaluation and treatment, a multi-disciplinary approach is recommended.


Subject(s)
Anal Canal , Anus, Imperforate , Colostomy , Constipation , Dermoid Cyst , Diagnosis, Differential , Digestive System Abnormalities , Dilatation , Hirschsprung Disease , Humans , Lost to Follow-Up , Meconium , Meningomyelocele , Parturition , Rectum , Reoperation , Retrospective Studies , Sacrum , Spinal Cord , Syringomyelia , Teratoma
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