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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2391-2405, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929378

ABSTRACT

Drug-induced hyperglycemia/diabetes is a global issue. Some drugs induce hyperglycemia by activating the pregnane X receptor (PXR), but the mechanism is unclear. Here, we report that PXR activation induces hyperglycemia by impairing hepatic glucose metabolism due to inhibition of the hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4α)‒glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) pathway. The PXR agonists atorvastatin and rifampicin significantly downregulated GLUT2 and HNF4α expression, and impaired glucose uptake and utilization in HepG2 cells. Overexpression of PXR downregulated GLUT2 and HNF4α expression, while silencing PXR upregulated HNF4α and GLUT2 expression. Silencing HNF4α decreased GLUT2 expression, while overexpressing HNF4α increased GLUT2 expression and glucose uptake. Silencing PXR or overexpressing HNF4α reversed the atorvastatin-induced decrease in GLUT2 expression and glucose uptake. In human primary hepatocytes, atorvastatin downregulated GLUT2 and HNF4α mRNA expression, which could be attenuated by silencing PXR. Silencing HNF4α downregulated GLUT2 mRNA expression. These findings were reproduced with mouse primary hepatocytes. Hnf4α plasmid increased Slc2a2 promoter activity. Hnf4α silencing or pregnenolone-16α-carbonitrile (PCN) suppressed the Slc2a2 promoter activity by decreasing HNF4α recruitment to the Slc2a2 promoter. Liver-specific Hnf4α deletion and PCN impaired glucose tolerance and hepatic glucose uptake, and decreased the expression of hepatic HNF4α and GLUT2. In conclusion, PXR activation impaired hepatic glucose metabolism partly by inhibiting the HNF4α‒GLUT2 pathway. These results highlight the molecular mechanisms by which PXR activators induce hyperglycemia/diabetes.

2.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 166-180, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929081

ABSTRACT

Neuroscientists have emphasized visceral influences on consciousness and attention, but the potential neurophysiological pathways remain under exploration. Here, we found two neurophysiological pathways of heart-brain interaction based on the relationship between oxygen-transport by red blood cells (RBCs) and consciousness/attention. To this end, we collected a dataset based on the routine physical examination, the breaking continuous flash suppression (b-CFS) paradigm, and an attention network test (ANT) in 140 immigrants under the hypoxic Tibetan environment. We combined electroencephalography and multilevel mediation analysis to investigate the relationship between RBC properties and consciousness/attention. The results showed that RBC function, via two independent neurophysiological pathways, not only triggered interoceptive re-representations in the insula and awareness connected to orienting attention but also induced an immune response corresponding to consciousness and executive control. Importantly, consciousness played a fundamental role in executive function which might be associated with the level of perceived stress. These results indicated the important role of oxygen-transport in heart-brain interactions, in which the related stress response affected consciousness and executive control. The findings provide new insights into the neurophysiological schema of heart-brain interactions.


Subject(s)
Awareness , Brain , Consciousness , Humans , Oxygen , Visual Perception
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928234

ABSTRACT

There is a shared problem in current optical imaging technologies of how to obtain the optical parameters of biological tissues with complex profiles. In this work, an imaging system for obtaining the optical parameters of biological tissues with complex profile was presented. Firstly, Fourier transformation profilometry was used for obtaining the profile information of biological tissues, and then the difference of incident light intensity at different positions on biological tissue surface was corrected with the laws of illumination, and lastly the optical parameters of biological tissues were achieved with the spatial frequency domain imaging technique. Experimental results indicated the proposed imaging system could obtain the profile information and the optical parameters of biological tissues accurately and quickly. For the slab phantoms with height variation less than 30 mm and angle variation less than 40º, the maximum relative errors of the profile uncorrected optical parameters were 46.27% and 72.18%, while the maximum relative errors of the profile corrected optical parameters were 6.89% and 10.26%. Imaging experiments of a face-like phantom and a human's prefrontal lobe were performed respectively, which demonstrated the proposed imaging system possesses clinical application value for the achievement of the optical parameters of biological tissues with complex profiles. Besides, the proposed profile corrected method can be used to combine with the current optical imaging technologies to reduce the influence of the profile information of biological tissues on imaging quality.


Subject(s)
Diagnostic Imaging , Humans , Light , Optical Imaging , Phantoms, Imaging
4.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 927-930, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923311

ABSTRACT

Particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5), as one of the main components of atmospheric particulate matter, has become an important factor affecting people's health; however, there are relatively few studies on the association of PM2.5 with the development and progression of liver cancer. This article reviews the epidemiological study of PM2.5 and liver cancer, summarizes the mechanisms of PM2.5 causing liver cancer (including changing enzyme activity, affecting gene expression, inducing endoplasmic mesh stress, causing liver fat degeneration, and leading to liver fibrosis), and discusses the influence of PM2.5 exposure on the prognosis of liver cancer.

5.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 309-313, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872682

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To investigate inhibitory effects of Qing fei baoyu an capsule on airway inflammation in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),and its effects on NLRP 3 signaling pathway. METHODS :Totally 60 SD male rats were randomly divided into blank control group ,model group ,dexamethasone group (positive control ,0.2 mg/kg),Qingfei baoyuan capsule high-dose ,medium-dose and low-dose groups (1 232.0,616.0,308.0 mg/kg),with 10 rats in each group. Except for blank control group ,other groups were fumigated for 28 days and given intratracheal dripping of lipopolysaccharide twice to induce COPD model. Since the 29th day after modeling ,blank control group and model group were given constant volume of normal saline intragastrically ,and administration groups were given related medicine intragastrically. The administration volume was 10 mL/kg,once a day ,for consecutive 28 days. After last administration ,the lung function was detected. The pathological changes of lung tissue were observed by HE staining. The content of interleukin- 1β(IL-1β)in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF)were detected by ELISA ,and the number of leukocytes was counted ;the expression of NLRP 3 and Cleaved caspase- 1 in lung tissue of rats were detected by Western blotting assay. RESULTS:Three,two,one,one and two rats died in model group, dexamethasone group , Qingfei baoyuan capsule high-dose,medium-dose and low-dose groups ,respectively. Compared with blank control group ,FEV0.3/FVC of rats in # model group was significantly decreased (P<0.01). A large number of inflammatory cells infiltration we re found in the lung tissue ,and lung tissue lesion was obvious. The content of IL- 1β and white blood cell count in BALF,relative expression of NLRP3 and Cleaved caspase- 1 protein in lung tissue were increased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with model group,FEV0.3/FVC of administration groups were increased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01);lung tissue lesion of them were improved to different extents. The content of IL- 1β and white cell count in BALF,relative expression of NLRP 3 protein(except for Qingfei baoyuan capsule low-dose group )and Cleaved caspase- 1 protein(except for Qingfei baoyuan capsule medium-dose and low-dose groups )in lung tissue were decreased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS :Qingfei baoyuan capsule can relieve lung tissue lesion and improve lung function in COPD model rats ,the effects of which may be associated with inhibiting inflammation reaction by inhibiting NLRP 3 signaling pathway.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881069

ABSTRACT

Polyphyllin I (PPI) purified from Polyphyllarhizomes displays puissant cytotoxicity in many kinds of cancers. Several researches investigated its anti-cancer activity. But novel mechanisms are still worth investigation. This study aimed to explore PPI-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as well as the underlying mechanism in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Cell viability or colony-forming was detected by MTT or crystal violet respectively. Cell cycle, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential were assessed by flow cytometry. Gene and protein levels were evaluated by qRT-PCR and immunoblotting respectively. Protein interaction was determined by immunoprecipitation or immunofluorescence assay. Gene overexpression or silencing was carried out by transient transfection with plasmids or small interfering RNAs. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database was used for Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), survival analysis, gene expression statistics or pathway enrichment assay. PPI inhibited the propagation of NSCLC cells, increased non-viable apoptotic cells, arrested cell cycle at G2/M phase, induced ROS levels but failed to decrease mitochondrial membrane potential. High levels of GRP78 indicates poor prognosis in NSCLC patients. PPI selectively suppressed unfolded protein response (UPR)-induced GRP78 expression, subsequently protected CHOP from GRP78-mediated ubiquitination and degradation. We demonstrated that the natural product PPI, obtained from traditional herbal medicine, deserves for further study as a valuable candidate for lead compound in the chemotherapy of NSCLC.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907812

ABSTRACT

Objective:To summarize the core research topics of the literature on differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) , and to analyze the citation status to form the knowledge domain of citation science.Methods:Web of Science was used to search the literature on DTC, which was limited to April 04, 2021. The published records on DTC were identified. VOSviewer 1.6.11 and CiteSpace 5.5.R2 software were used to cluster and visualize the knowledge domain of citation.Results:A total of 8, 629 records on DTC were obtained, including 87, 973 citations, which showed that the publication volume increased year by year. Moreover, the trend of the annual records became more significant after the year of 2005. Meanwhile, it was reported that clinical staging and surgical management, as well as clinical researches on targeted therapy drugs, were treated as the currently hot research topics. The data showed that 115 records were cited more than 100 times, and 14 cited more than 300 times. And two records had been cited more than 1,000 times. Furthermore, the publication year of top15 were from 1988 to 2016, which also illustrated that the development of DTC researches were relatively slow before 2006. And the annual publication volume of DTC increased significantly with the publication of four highly cited records in 2006, even three with which have 1,000 citations. And the results revealed that the Consensus and Clinical Guidelines on DTC issued by ATA, as well as targeted therapy and radioactive 131I therapy on DTC had been highly cited. However, the newer highly cited documents on surgical treatment of DTC were still lacking. Conclusions:The current hot topics on DTC are focused on clinical staging, surgical management and targeted therapy. And a high-quality clinical guidelines and consensus and RCTs of targeted drugs on DTC have a significant impact on its development. Moreover, the further researches need to pay more attention to persistent/recurrent and metastatic DTC.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906631

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the different diagnostic values of acid-fast staining, tuberculosis culture, tuberculosis DNA detection (TB-DNA), tuberculosis RNA constant temperature amplification technology (SAT-TB) in the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum specimens. Methods A total of 200 pulmonary tuberculosis patients and 80 non-tuberculosis patients who were hospitalized in Hebei Chest Hospital between September 2015 and September 2019 were selected for this study. Sputum samples were collected after admission, and the detection values of acid-fast staining, tuberculosis culture, TB-DNA, and SAT-TB in sputum samples were statistically analyzed. Results The differences in the sensitivity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive values of the four diagnostic methods of acid-fast staining, tuberculosis culture, TB-DNA, and SAT-TB were statistically significant (P TB-DNA> tuberculosis culture> acid-fast staining. In terms of the positive predictive value of diagnosis, the values of SAT-TB, TB-DNA, and tuberculosis culture were higher than that of acid-fast staining. The Kappa values of the four methods and the gold standard were: Kappa (acid-fast staining) = 0.145, Kappa (tuberculosis culture) = 0.395, Kappa (TB-DNA) = 0.602, and Kappa (SAT-TB) = 0.770. Conclusion The four diagnostic methods of acid-fast staining, tuberculosis culture, TB-DNA, and SAT-TB all had certain detection value with their advantages and disadvantages. SAT-TB was a better detection method with high specificity, good sensitivity, and a short detection timer, which could quickly identify bacteria and distinguish live bacteria.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906409

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the incidence rate of andrological diseases has shown a significant growth trend. Considering the unavailability of a perfect theoretical system for andrology in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the complex pathogenesis despite of the limited types of andrological diseases, it is necessary to improve the clinical efficacy of andrological diseases so as to satisfy the needs of patients. Therefore, the China Association of Chinese Medicine (CACM) organized the andrologists of TCM and western medicine and the outstanding young clinicians to discuss the andrological diseases responding specifically to TCM or integrated TCM and western medicine, such as chronic prostatitis, male infertility, benign prostatic hyperplasia, erectile dysfunction, and premature ejaculation, determine their diagnostic criteria in western medicine, and standardize the specifications for TCM diagnosis and treatment based on syndrome differentiation, thus formulating recognized and integrated diagnosis and treatment protocols. Apart from proposing suggestions on the treatment of such andrological diseases with TCM and western medicine, the experts have also figured out the andrological diseases responding specifically to TCM, the optimal intervention time of TCM and western medicine, and the suitable measures including surgery. The resulting consensus helps to better guide the formulation of accurate, personalized, and optimized treatment plans in clinical practice and improve the diagnosis and treatment effects of andrological diseases by giving full play to the advantages of TCM, which will in turn contribute to further innovation and development of TCM.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905981

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effects of Daizongfang (DZF) on insulin resistance (IR) of adipocytes induced by different methods. Method:The cocktail induction method was adopted to induce the differentiation and maturity of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. An IR model in mature adipocytes was established by the induction of palmitic acid (PA), high-concentration glucose (HG), and dexamethasone (DEX). DZF extracts at different concentrations (2.0, 0.5, 0.1 g·L<sup>-1</sup>) intervened for 24 hours. A model group, a rosiglitazone (RSG) group, and a blank control group were set up at the same time. The glucose concentration in the culture supernatant was measured by the glucose oxidase-peroxidase (GOD-POD) method. Glucose consumptions under basic conditions (G<sub>Basic</sub>) and insulin stimulation (G<sub>Ins</sub>) were calculated to evaluate the insulin sensitivity index (ISI). The mRNA expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) was detected by the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Result:Compared with the model group, the DZF (2.0 g·L<sup>-1</sup>) showed increased G<sub>Basic</sub>, G<sub>Ins</sub>, and ISI in three IR models (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). In addition, for the PA-induced IR model, G<sub>Basic</sub> and G<sub>Ins</sub> in the DZF (0.5 g·L<sup>-1</sup>) group were elevated (<italic>P</italic><0.01), and G<sub>Basic</sub>, G<sub>Ins</sub>, and ISI in the RSG group increased (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). For the HG-induced IR model, G<sub>Ins</sub> and ISI increased in the DZF (0.5 g·L<sup>-1</sup>) group (<italic>P</italic><0.05), and G<sub>Basic</sub>, G<sub>Ins</sub>, and ISI were elevated in the RSG group (<italic>P</italic><0.01). For the DEX-induced IR model, G<sub>Ins</sub> and ISI increased in the RSG group (<italic>P</italic><0.01). In the three models, there were differences among groups with different doses. G<sub>Basic</sub>, G<sub>Ins</sub>, and ISI in the high-dose DZF group increased in varying degrees compared with those in the medium- and low-dose DZF groups (<italic>P</italic><0.05). In the three models, the DZF (2.0 g·L<sup>-1</sup>) group and the RSG group both increased GLUT4 mRNA expression (<italic>P</italic><0.05). Conclusion:DZF can reduce IR of adipocytes induced by HG, DEX, or PA in a dose-dependent manner and increase glucose uptake in an insulin-independent manner, which may be related to the increase in GLUT4 expression.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904711

ABSTRACT

@#Objective    To compare the clinical effects of segmentectomy and lobectomy for ≤2 cm lung adenocarcinoma with micropapillary and solid subtype negative by intraoperative frozen sections. Methods    The patients with adenocarcinoma who received segmentectomy or lobectomy in multicenter from June 2020 to March 2021 were included. They were divided into two groups according to a random number table, including a segmentectomy group (n=119, 44 males and 75 females with an average age of 56.6±8.9 years) and a lobectomy group (n=115, 43 males and 72 females with an average of 56.2±9.5 years). The clinical data of the patients were analyzed. Results    There was no significant difference in the baseline data between the two groups (P>0.05). No perioperative death was found. There was no statistical difference in the operation time (111.2±30.0 min vs. 107.3±34.3 min), blood loss (54.2±83.5 mL vs. 40.0±16.4 mL), drainage duration (2.8±0.6 d vs. 2.6±0.6 d), hospital stay time (3.9±2.3 d vs. 3.7±1.1 d) or pathology staging (P>0.05) between the two groups. The postoperative pulmonary function analysis revealed that the mean decreased values of forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second percent predicted in the segmentectomy group were significantly better than those in the lobectomy group (0.2±0.3 L vs. 0.4±0.3 L, P=0.005; 0.3%±8.1% vs. 2.9%±7.4%, P=0.041). Conclusion    Segmentectomy is effective in protecting lungs function, which is expected to improve life quality of patients.

12.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 600-607, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904241

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Plasma osmolality, a marker of dehydration, is associated with cardiovascular mortality. We aimed to investigate whether elevated plasma osmolality is associated with case fatality within 1 year after severe acute ischemic stroke. @*Materials and Methods@#We included severe ischemic stroke patients (defined as National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ≥15 score) within 24 hours from symptom onset admitted to the Department of Neurology, West China Hospital between January 2017 and June 2019. Admission plasma osmolality was calculated using the equation 1.86 * (sodium+potassium)+1.15 * glucose+urea+14. Elevated plasma osmolality was defined as plasma osmolality >296 mOsm/kg, indicating a state of dehydration. Study outcomes included 3-month and 1-year case fatalities. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine independent associations between plasma osmolality and case fatalities at different time points. @*Results@#A total of 265 patients with severe acute ischemic stroke were included. The mean age was 71.2±13.1 years, with 51.3% being males. Among the included patients, case fatalities were recorded for 31.7% (84/265) at 3 months and 39.6% (105/265) at 1 year. Elevated plasma osmolality (dehydration) was associated with 3-month case fatality [odds ratio (OR) 1.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07–3.66, p=0.029], but not 1-year case fatality (OR 1.51, 95% CI 0.84–2.72, p=0.165), after full adjustment for confounding factors. @*Conclusion@#Elevated plasma osmolality was independently associated with 3-month case fatality, but not 1-year case fatality, for severe acute ischemic stroke.

13.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 600-607, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896537

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Plasma osmolality, a marker of dehydration, is associated with cardiovascular mortality. We aimed to investigate whether elevated plasma osmolality is associated with case fatality within 1 year after severe acute ischemic stroke. @*Materials and Methods@#We included severe ischemic stroke patients (defined as National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ≥15 score) within 24 hours from symptom onset admitted to the Department of Neurology, West China Hospital between January 2017 and June 2019. Admission plasma osmolality was calculated using the equation 1.86 * (sodium+potassium)+1.15 * glucose+urea+14. Elevated plasma osmolality was defined as plasma osmolality >296 mOsm/kg, indicating a state of dehydration. Study outcomes included 3-month and 1-year case fatalities. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine independent associations between plasma osmolality and case fatalities at different time points. @*Results@#A total of 265 patients with severe acute ischemic stroke were included. The mean age was 71.2±13.1 years, with 51.3% being males. Among the included patients, case fatalities were recorded for 31.7% (84/265) at 3 months and 39.6% (105/265) at 1 year. Elevated plasma osmolality (dehydration) was associated with 3-month case fatality [odds ratio (OR) 1.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07–3.66, p=0.029], but not 1-year case fatality (OR 1.51, 95% CI 0.84–2.72, p=0.165), after full adjustment for confounding factors. @*Conclusion@#Elevated plasma osmolality was independently associated with 3-month case fatality, but not 1-year case fatality, for severe acute ischemic stroke.

14.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 833-839, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922166

ABSTRACT

Sexual arousal is an important factor for the success of sexual behavior, and regulated by the central nervous system, its underlying mechanism is very complicated. Androgen is the most important endocrine hormone in men, which is deeply involved in the whole process of male sexual response, but how it regulates male sexual arousal has not been fully clarified and remains one of the hotspots in current andrological research. Therefore, this paper presents an overview of the advances in the studies of the related role and mechanism of androgen in male sexual arousal. In the central nervous system, androgen regulates the release of dopamine neurotransmitters by binding androgen receptors or metabolizing neurosteroids, thus activating the brain reward system. Besides, androgen regulates the neuronal plasticity and spinous process formation in the neural circuit of sexual arousal to ensure successful activation and conduction of the neural circuit. However, the specific regulating mechanism of sexual arousal remains to be further explored.


Subject(s)
Androgens , Humans , Male , Sexual Arousal
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921921

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical efficacy of total hip arthroplasty with conventional instrument OCM approach and posterolateral approach in supine position.@*METHODS@#From February 2017 to January 2019, 67 patients underwent hip arthroplasty due to hip diseases, including 21 patients in the minimally invasive group, 12 males and 9 females;there were 10 cases of femoral neck fracture, 5 cases of aseptic necrosis of femoral head and 6 cases of hip osteoarthritis. In the traditional group, 46 cases were treated by traditional posterolateral approach, including 28 males and 18 females;there were 24 cases of femoral neck fracture, 12 cases of aseptic necrosis of femoral head and 10 cases of hip osteoarthritis. All patientsused biological ceramic artificial joint prosthesis. The operation time, intraoperative bleeding, incision length, preoperative and postoperative creatine kinase (CK-NAC), underground activity time, hospital stay, abduction angle and anteversion angle of prosthesis were observed and compared between two groups. Harris scores before operation and 12 months after operation were compared between two groups.@*RESULTS@#All cases were followed up for 14 to 26(18.4±3.6) months. There was no significant difference in intraoperative bleeding, postoperative anteversion and abduction angle between two groups (@*CONCLUSION@#The two approaches of total hip arthroplasty can obtain satisfactory results.OCM approach has less damage and rapid postoperative recovery. It is a reliable surgical approach and can be popularized and used.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Female , Femoral Neck Fractures/surgery , Femur Head , Hip Prosthesis , Humans , Male , Operative Time , Retrospective Studies , Supine Position , Treatment Outcome
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921787

ABSTRACT

The ripe dried fruit of citron(Citrus medica) is one of the important sources of Chinese herb Citri Fructus. At the same time, it is also grown for edible and ornamental uses. There are many species and abundant genetic variation. To clarify the intraspecific variation and resource distribution of citron, this study investigated the variation in 11 citron fruits, basically covering the main species in China, including Xiaoguo citron(C. medica var. ethrog), Goucheng(C. medica var. yunnanensis), Muli citron(C.medica var. muliensis), Dehong citron(C.medica×Citrus spp.), Fuzhou citron(C.medica×C.grandis?), Mawu(C.medica×C.grandis?), Cangyuan citron, Binchuan citron, Sweet citron, Big citron, and Small citron. The natural communities of citron were proved to be mainly distributed in the southwestern and western Yunnan and southeastern Tibet of China, with Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangxi, Chongqing, Hubei, and Zhejiang identified as the main production areas. Citron has also been widely grown in India, the Mediterranean region, and the Caribbean coast countries. The field investigation revealed the large-scale intraspecific variation of citron fruits. Most of the fruits are oval-like or sphere-like in shape. The fruits are green when raw and yellow when ripe, with oil cell dots on the skin, stripe-likes running from top to bottom, and bulge at the top. Usually, in the smaller citron fruits, the pulp and juice vesicles are better developed and the central columella is tighter. By contrast, the juice vesicles and central columella in larger fruits became more vacant, with carpels visible, and the apex segregation and development of the carpels is one of the reasons for variation. These variations should be given top priority in the future variety selection and breeding, and the quality differences of different citron species and their mechanisms should be further studied. In particular, variety selection and classification management according to their medicinal or edible purposes will provide scientific and technological supports for the orderly, safe, and effective production of citron products consumed as food and medicine.


Subject(s)
China , Citrus , Fruit , Taste , Tibet
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921695

ABSTRACT

With the widespread application of next-generation sequencing(NGS), especially 16 S rRNA and shotgun sequencing, researchers are no longer troubled with massive data on the gut microbiota, and the correlation between the gut microbiota and the brain(central nervous system) has been gradually revealed. Research on the microbiota-gut-brain axis(MGBA) based on the gut microbiota have provided insights into the exploration of the pathogenesis and risk factors of ischemic stroke(IS), a cerebrovascular disease with high disability and mortality rates, and also facilitate the selection of therapeutic targets of this class of drugs. This study reviewed the application of NGS in the study of gut microbiota and the research progress of MGBA in recent years and systematically collated the research papers on the correlation between IS and gut microbiota. Furthermore, from the bi-directional regulation of MGBA, this study also discussed the high-risk factors of IS under the dysregulation of gut microbiota and the pathophysiological changes of gut microbiota after the occurrence of IS and summarized the related targets to provide a reliable reference for the therapeutic research of IS from the gut microbiota.


Subject(s)
Brain , Brain-Gut Axis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke/genetics
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921388

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the expression and mechanism of the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) HCG22 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).@*METHODS@#HCG22 levels were detected in the OSCC and adjacent tissues, OSCC cells, and normal oral keratinocytes. HCG22 expression in SCC-25 and HSC-3 cells was upregulated by transfection of the overexpressing plasmi dvector. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, and Transwell assay were employed to detect changes in cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion ability, while Western blotting was used to detect the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transformation-related proteins. The expression level of miR-650 in the cells was detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and dual-luciferase reporter gene assay was applied to assess the targeting relationship between HCG22 and miR-650.@*RESULTS@#Compared with that in adjacent tissues, the expression of HCG22 significantly decreased in OSCC tissues (@*CONCLUSIONS@#HCG22 is expressed at low levels in OSCC. Upregulation of the expression of this lncRNA can inhibit the proliferation, migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of OSCC cells. The mechanism of action of HCG22 may be related to its targeted regulation of miR-650.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , Mouth Neoplasms/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911947

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the influencing factors of the survival in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and to develop a prediction model for CDH.Methods:Clinical data of 252 infants with a prenatal diagnosis of CDH in Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine from January 2010 to December 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. Adverse outcomes were defined as neonatal death on discharge. Chi-square and t test were used for univariate analysis of 16 perinatal and five postnatal risk factors. Regression analysis was used to determine the independent predictors of survival. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves of the risk factors for predicting the survival of CDH were drawn. A prediction model based on the combination of risk factors for predicting adverse outcomes of CDH was established using the cut-off value. ROC curves of the model were drawn and the area under curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity were calculated. Results:Out of the 252 patients, 173(68.7%) survived on discharge. Univariate analysis showed that lung-to-head ratio (LHR), polyhydramnios, right diaphragmatic hernia, liver herniation, intrathoracic stomach, premature birth, low birth weight, 5 min Apgar score <7, and amniotic fluid index (AFI) were significantly associated with the survival of CDH. Regression analysis showed that polyhydramnios ( OR=11.19,95% CI:2.83-45.33), liver herniation ( OR=2.81,95% CI:1.32-11.92), intrathoracic stomach ( OR=5.02, 95% CI:1.29-17.13), low birth weight ( OR=8.58,95% CI:1.59-45.01) and AFI ( OR=3.68, 95% CI:1.37-14.72) were independent risk factors for survival at discharge in children with CDH, while LHR ( OR=0.36, 95% CI:0.01-0.69) were protective factors. The predictive cut-off values of LHR, polyhydramnios, liver herniation, intrathoracic stomach, low birth weight, and AFI were 1.6, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, and 232.5 mm, respectively. The model based on the combination of the above indicators for predicting CDH adverse outcomes was shown with an AUC value of 0.904, predictive sensitivity of 0.747, and specificity of 0.896. Conclusions:In this study, LHR, liver herniation, intrathoracic stomach, polyhydramnios, low birth weight, and AFI are independent risk factors for CDH survival. The combination of prenatal and postnatal indicators is noted for a higher accuracy for predicting CDH survival.

20.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 983-993, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911826

ABSTRACT

Based on a comprehensive literature review with long-term experiences of clinical practice and researches, the authors propose the following concepts of the diagnosis, treatment and research of acute cerebral small vessel disease: (1) Cerebral small vessel disease could be grouped into acute and non-acute categories. Acute cerebral small vessel disease indicates an acute stroke due to small vessel disease, including ischemic (ie. acute lacunar stroke) and hemorrhagic (hypertensive arteriopathy- and cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related intracerebral hemorrhage) stroke. (2) Acute ischemic cerebral small vessel disease, defined traditionally by the infarction size (lacunar stroke), is regarded as the syndrome caused by a variety of mechanisms recently, although mainly characterized by lipohyalinosis in the small arterioles. The understanding of pathological mechanisms has experienced a history from autopsy observation, to inference based on risk factors, and then to direct observation of arteriole morphology using high-resolution magnetic resonance angiography. The advancement in imaging technology has brought new opportunities for studies on pathological mechanisms of cerebral small vessel disease. (3) Acute cerebral small vessel disease is manifested as acute stroke, which could be with or without the non-acute symptoms or imaging markers. (4) Individualized treatment based on the pathogenesis is the future direction for practice and research of cerebral small vessel disease. Reducing the incidence, recurrence and major outcomes (death, disability and dementia) is the main target of prevention and treatment.

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