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AJMB-Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology. 2017; 9 (3): 146-149
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-192943


Background: Phenylalanine hydroxylase [PAH] gene is the well-known causative gene for classic Phenylketonuria [PKU] [OMIM#261600] disease, with more than 500 reported mutations. Through this study, a novel mutation in the PAH gene in an Iranian pedigree with phenylketonuria was introduced

Methods: A consanguineous family with a 10-year old affected girl was referred for genetic analysis. Mutation screening of all exons and exon-intron boundaries was performed by Sanger sequencing, and mini haplotype analysis was carried out by genotyping of Short Tandem Repeat [STR] and Variable Number Tandem Repeat [VNTR] alleles

Results: Mutation analysis revealed a novel homozygous insertion of a single adenine nucleotide at position 335 in exon 3 of the PAH gene. Based on the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics [ACMG] guidelines, the change is interpreted as a pathogenic mutation which produces a premature termination signal [TAA] at codon 113 according to in silico assessments. The mini haplotype analysis showed that this mutation was linked to STR [15] -VNTR [3]

Conclusion: In this study, a novel mutation was reported in a patient who had PKU symptoms without any previously reported mutations in the PAH gene [NM_000277.1: p.Asp112Glufs*2] that can be responsible for the classical PKU phenotype in the Iranian population. Detection of novel mutations indicates notable allelic heterogeneity of the PAH locus among this population

Cell Journal [Yakhteh]. 2016; 18 (2): 229-236
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-183013


Objective: The phenylalanine hydroxylase [PAH] locus has high linkage disequilibrium. Haplotypes related to this locus may thus be considered sufficiently informative for genetic diagnosis and carrier screening using multi-allelic markers. In this study, we present an efficient method for haplotype analysis of PAH locus using multiplexing dyes. In addition, we explain how to resolve the dye shift challenge in multiplex short tandem repeat [STR] genotyping

Materials and Methods: One hundred family trios were included in this descriptive study. The forward primer of a tetra-nucleotide STR and the reverse primer of a variable number tandem repeat [VNTR] were labeled with three different non-overlapping dyes 5-carboxyfluorescein [FAM], 6-carboxy-N,N,N',N'-tetramethylrhodamine [HEX] and 6-carboxy-N,N,N',N'-tetramethylrhodamine [TAMRA]. The polymerase chain reaction [PCR] products from each family trio were multiplexed for capillary electrophoresis and results were analyzed using Peak Scanner software

Results: Multiplexing trio products decreased the cost significantly. The TAMRA labeled products had a significant predictable shift [migrated at a slower electrophoretic rate] relative to the HEX and FAM labeled products. Through our methodology we achieve, the less inter-dye shift than intra-dye shift variance. Correcting the dye shift in the labeled products, according to the reference allele size, significantly decreased the inter-dye variability [P<0.001]

Conclusion: Multiplexing trio products helps to detect and resolve the dye shift accurately in each family, which otherwise would result in diagnostic error. The dye system of FAM, HEX and TAMRA is more feasible and cheaper than other dye systems

Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67994


BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common genetic renal disorder caused by mutation in 2 genes PKD1 and PKD2. Thus far, no mutation is identified in approximately 10% of ADPKD families, which can suggest further locus heterogeneity. Owing to the complexity of direct mutation detection, linkage analysis can initially identify the responsible gene in appropriate affected families. Here, we evaluated an Iranian ADPKD family apparently unlinked to both PKD1 and PKD2 genes. This is one of the pioneer studies in genetic analysis of ADPKD in Iranian population. METHODS: Linkage reanalysis was performed by regenotyping of flanking microsatellite markers in 8 individuals of the ADPKD family. Direct mutation analysis was performed by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: Mutation analysis revealed a pathogenic mutation (c.1094+1G>A) in the PKD2 gene in the proband. Analyzing 2 healthy and 4 clinically affected members confirmed the correct segregation of the mutation within the family and also ruled out the disease in 1 suspected individual. Misinterpretation of the linkage data was due to the occurrence of 1 crossing over between the PKD2 intragenic and the nearest downstream marker (D4S2929). Homozygosity of upstream markers caused the recombination indistinguishable. CONCLUSION: Although analysis of additive informative polymorphic markers can overcome the misleading haplotype data, it is limited because of the lack of other highly polymorphic microsatellite markers closer to the gene. Direct mutation screening can identify the causative mutation in the apparently unlinked pedigree; moreover, it is the only approach to achieve the confirmed diagnosis in individuals with equivocal imaging results.

Crossing Over, Genetic , Diagnosis , Haplotypes , Humans , Mass Screening , Microsatellite Repeats , Pedigree , Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant , Population Characteristics , Recombination, Genetic
IBJ-Iranian Biomedical Journal. 2009; 13 (4): 199-206
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-134589


Ras-associated domain family 1 [RASSF1A] and hypermethylated in cancer [HIC1] genes are methylated more frequently in breast cancer. Genetic factors that alter the DNA methylation levels in normal and tumor tissues could therefore influence the susceptibility to this tumor phenotype. We determined the frequency of aberrant methylation of HIC1 and RASSF1A gene promoters and their association with methylene tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase [MTHFD1] G1958A polymorphism and major clinical and pathological features of breast cancer in Iranian women. DNA was extracted from 81 primary breast tumors and 100 control blood samples. Gene promoter methylation was analyzed by methylationspecific polymerase chain reaction. Eighty four percent of the breast cancer samples showed total methylation in at least one of two tested loci. We detected HIC1 hypermethylation in 79% of invasive and metastasis tumors and RASSF1A gene hypermethylation in 51% of them. We found no association between HIC1 and RASSF1A gene hypermethylation and MTHFD1 G1958A polymorphism, but a significant correlation between methylation of HIC1 and RASSF1A promoters was indicated [r = 0.24, P = 0.02]. There was a combination between hypermethylation of HIC1 locus and nodal involvement in the studied population [p=0.03]. We found a significant association between total methylation and nodal involvement [P=0.01] as well as tumor size more than 2 cm in all cases [P=0.02]. Methylation of HIC1 and RASSF1A promoters can be used as epigenetic markers to detect the malignant progression of breast carcinoma in Iranian women patients

Humans , Female , Methylation , Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors , Tumor Suppressor Proteins , Polymorphism, Genetic , Genotype , Sulfates , Polymerase Chain Reaction