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IJKD-Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases. 2010; 4 (1): 20-26
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-93071


Bone marrow transplantation [BMT] is a major modality for malignant and hematologic disorders. This procedure is associated with a high morbidity and mortality such as acute kidney injury [AKI]. Many factors, such as therapeutic agents, irradiation, and graft versus host disease [GVHD] can cause AKI. Bone marrow transplantation conditioning therapy in Iran is based on drugs such as busulfan and cyclophosphamide and without irradiation therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency, risk factors, and mortality of AKI among patients who underwent BMT. Acute kidney injury was defined as doubling serum creatinine from baseline at any time during the first 180 days posttransplant. The risk of AKI in relation to non-total-body-irradiation-based conditioning regimen, type of graft [allograft and autograft], comorbidities, GVHD, drug toxicity, and veno-occlusive disease were examined in 375 patients with BMT. One hundred and forty-two patients [37.6%] developed AKI at a median of 18 days after transplant. A higher frequency of AKI was observed in patients who received cyclosporine A [40%], patients with allograft BMT [42.1%], and those who developed gastrointestinal GVHD [47.3%] .The remainder AKI cases were associated with amphotericin B, veno-occlusive disease, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. The frequency of AKI in our patients with BMT remained high. Cyclosporine A and amphotericin B and the presence of GVHD and veno-occlusive disease increased the risk of AKI within the first 180 days after BMT

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Middle Aged , Adult , Risk Factors , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Graft vs Host Disease , Treatment Outcome , Kidney Transplantation/mortality
IJKD-Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases. 2010; 4 (1): 44-49
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-93075


Many factors have been proposed to be associated with higher mortality in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis [CAPD]. However, the relative importance of these factors may differ among patients with different characteristics. We evaluated survival of patients on CAPD and its influencing factors in Iran. We enrolled 282 patients on CAPD between 1996 and 2006 at 2 major CAPD centers in Tehran. Patient survival was investigated during this period. Demographic characteristics, laboratory data, dialysis adequacy parameters, residual renal function, peritoneal transport characteristics, and nutritional status were assessed as potential predictors of the outcome. The mean duration of follow-up was 18.4 +/- 14.5 months. Sixty patients [21%] died during the studied period. In univariate analysis, age, body mass index, history and duration of hemodialysis before CAPD, diabetes mellitus, blood pressure, patient selection criteria, edema, peritonitis, renal residual function, urine volume, dialysis adequacy, and serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, intact parathyroid hormone, calcium, and albumin were predictors of patient survival. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that old age, diabetes mellitus, prior hemodialysis longer than 7 months, low serum albumin, calcium, trigelyceride, and parathyroid hormone levels independently predicted mortality, while the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors was associated with a better survival. This study showed that older patients on CAPD and diabetics are at a higher risk of mortality. On the other hand, nutritional and metabolic factors are other predictors of mortality. Especial concern should be applied to good nutrition and treatment of comorbidities in these patients

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Adolescent , Aged , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Survival Analysis , Age Factors , Diabetes Complications
IJKD-Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases. 2009; 3 (3): 162-167
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-91265


Dialysis-induced oxidative stress is one of the mechanisms of atherosclerotic changes. Heparin, used in hemodialysis, is an anticoagulant drug with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. This study was planned in order to evaluate the antioxidant effects of heparin and dalteparin [low-molecular weight heparin]. Twenty-two patients underwent 3 hemodialysis sessions with 48-hour intervals. They underwent hemodialysis with heparin, with a bolus dose of 1000 U followed by 1000 U/h during the procedure. The second hemodialysis was done using hypertonic saline solution instead of heparin, and the third, using dalteparin, 4000 U, infused during hemodialysis. Before and after each dialysis session, we measured serum levels of total blood cholesterol, triglyceride, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterols and oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, in addition to total antioxidant capacity and paraoxonase 1 activity. Serum concentrations of triglyceride, cholesterol, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as well as paraoxonase activity and total antioxidant capacity equally increased after the three hemodialysis sessions. Heparin and daltepain increased total antioxidant capacity, but they did not change the ratio of paraoxonase 1 to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol after hemodialysis. No significant differences were found through the study between the two heparin products in their antioxidant activities. Regarding these findings and considering higher price and less availability of dalteparin in comparison to conventional heparin, we recommend using conventional heparin during hemodialysis as the anticoagulant-antioxidant agent

Humans , Male , Female , Heparin/pharmacology , Dalteparin/pharmacology , Renal Dialysis , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Antioxidants , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, LDL , Cholesterol, HDL , Triglycerides , Aryldialkylphosphatase