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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919336

ABSTRACT

Stiripentol is an anti-epileptic drug for the treating of refractory status epilepticus. It has been reported that stiripentol can attenuate seizure severity and reduce seizure-induced neuronal damage in animal models of epilepsy. The objective of the present study was to investigate effects of post-treatment with stiripentol on cognitive deficit and neuronal damage in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region of the hippocampus proper following transient ischemia in the forebrain of gerbils. To evaluate ischemia-induced cognitive impairments, passive avoidance test and 8-arm radial maze test were performed. It was found that post-treatment with stiripentol at 20 mg/kg, but not 10 or 15 mg/kg, reduced ischemia-induced memory impairment. Transient ischemia-induced neuronal death in the CA1 region was also significantly attenuated only by 20 mg/kg stiripentol treatment after transient ischemia. In addition, 20 mg/kg stiripentol treatment significantly decreased ischemia-induced astrocyte damage and immunoglobulin G leakage. In brief, stiripentol treatment after transient ischemia ameliorated transient ischemia-induced cognitive impairment in gerbils, showing that pyramidal neurons were protected and astrocyte damage and blood brain barrier leakage were significantly attenuated in the hippocampus. Results of this study suggest stiripentol can be developed as a candidate of therapeutic drug for ischemic stroke.

2.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 185-192, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902670

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hypothermic treatment is known to protect organs against cardiac arrest (CA) and improves survival rate. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of hypothermia on CA-induced liver damages. This study was designed to analyzed the possible protective effects of hypothermia on the liver after asphyxial CA (ACA). Rats were randomly subjected to 5 min of ACA followed by return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Body temperature was controlled at 37 ± 0.5 °C (normothermia group) or 33 ± 0.5 °C (hypothermia group) for 4 h after ROSC. Liver tissues were extracted and examined at 6 h, 12 h, 1 day, and 2 days after ROSC. @*Results@#The expression of infiltrated neutrophil marker CD11b and matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP9) was investigated via immunohistochemistry. Morphological damage was assessed via hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) staining. Hypothermic treatment improved the survival rate at 6 h, 12 h, 1 day, and 2 days after ACA. Based on immunohistochemical analysis, the expression of CD11b and MMP9 was significantly increased from 6 h after ACA in the normothermia group. However, the expressions of CD11b and MMP9 was significantly decreased in the hypothermia group compared with that of the normothermia group. In addition, in the results of H & E, sinusoidal dilatation and vacuolization were apparent after ACA; however, these ACA-induced structural changes were reduced by the 4 h-long hypothermia. @*Conclusions@#In conclusion, hypothermic treatment for 4 h inhibited the increases in CD11b and MMP9 expression and reduced the morphological damages in the liver following ACA in rats. This study suggests that hypothermic treatment after ACA reduces liver damages by regulating the expression of CD11b and MMP9.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902648

ABSTRACT

Background@#Aging is one of major causes triggering neurophysiological changes in many brain substructures, including the hippocampus, which has a major role in learning and memory. Thioredoxin (Trx) is a class of small redox proteins. Among the Trx family, Trx2 plays an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential and is controlled by TrxR2. Hitherto, age-dependent alterations in Trx2 and TrxR2 in aged hippocampi have been poorly investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine changes in Trx2 and TrxR2 in mouse and rat hippocampi by age and to compare their differences between mice and rats. @*Results@#Trx2 and TrxR2 levels using Western blots in mice were the highest at young age and gradually reduced with time, showing that no significant differences in the levels were found between the two subfields. In rats, however, their expression levels were the lowest at young age and gradually increased with time. Nevertheless, there were no differences in cellular distribution and morphology in their hippocampi when it was observed by cresyl violet staining. In addition, both Trx2 and TrxR2 immunoreactivities in the CA1-3 fields were mainly shown in pyramidal cells (principal cells), showing that their immunoreactivities were altered like changes in their protein levels. @*Conclusions@#Our current findings suggest that Trx2 and TrxR2 expressions in the brain may be different according to brain regions, age and species. Therefore, further studies are needed to examine the reasons of the differences of Trx2 and TrxR2 expressions in the hippocampus between mice and rats.

4.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 185-192, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894966

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hypothermic treatment is known to protect organs against cardiac arrest (CA) and improves survival rate. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of hypothermia on CA-induced liver damages. This study was designed to analyzed the possible protective effects of hypothermia on the liver after asphyxial CA (ACA). Rats were randomly subjected to 5 min of ACA followed by return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Body temperature was controlled at 37 ± 0.5 °C (normothermia group) or 33 ± 0.5 °C (hypothermia group) for 4 h after ROSC. Liver tissues were extracted and examined at 6 h, 12 h, 1 day, and 2 days after ROSC. @*Results@#The expression of infiltrated neutrophil marker CD11b and matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP9) was investigated via immunohistochemistry. Morphological damage was assessed via hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) staining. Hypothermic treatment improved the survival rate at 6 h, 12 h, 1 day, and 2 days after ACA. Based on immunohistochemical analysis, the expression of CD11b and MMP9 was significantly increased from 6 h after ACA in the normothermia group. However, the expressions of CD11b and MMP9 was significantly decreased in the hypothermia group compared with that of the normothermia group. In addition, in the results of H & E, sinusoidal dilatation and vacuolization were apparent after ACA; however, these ACA-induced structural changes were reduced by the 4 h-long hypothermia. @*Conclusions@#In conclusion, hypothermic treatment for 4 h inhibited the increases in CD11b and MMP9 expression and reduced the morphological damages in the liver following ACA in rats. This study suggests that hypothermic treatment after ACA reduces liver damages by regulating the expression of CD11b and MMP9.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894944

ABSTRACT

Background@#Aging is one of major causes triggering neurophysiological changes in many brain substructures, including the hippocampus, which has a major role in learning and memory. Thioredoxin (Trx) is a class of small redox proteins. Among the Trx family, Trx2 plays an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential and is controlled by TrxR2. Hitherto, age-dependent alterations in Trx2 and TrxR2 in aged hippocampi have been poorly investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine changes in Trx2 and TrxR2 in mouse and rat hippocampi by age and to compare their differences between mice and rats. @*Results@#Trx2 and TrxR2 levels using Western blots in mice were the highest at young age and gradually reduced with time, showing that no significant differences in the levels were found between the two subfields. In rats, however, their expression levels were the lowest at young age and gradually increased with time. Nevertheless, there were no differences in cellular distribution and morphology in their hippocampi when it was observed by cresyl violet staining. In addition, both Trx2 and TrxR2 immunoreactivities in the CA1-3 fields were mainly shown in pyramidal cells (principal cells), showing that their immunoreactivities were altered like changes in their protein levels. @*Conclusions@#Our current findings suggest that Trx2 and TrxR2 expressions in the brain may be different according to brain regions, age and species. Therefore, further studies are needed to examine the reasons of the differences of Trx2 and TrxR2 expressions in the hippocampus between mice and rats.

6.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 188-196, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836909

ABSTRACT

Brain Factor-7® (BF-7), silk fibroin peptide, is known to be effective in improvement of memory and learning ability. In this study, the effects of BF-7 (10 mg/kg, p.o., pre-treatment for 7 days and post-treatment for 7 days) on neuroprotection and memory and learning functions were investigated in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia and a gerbil model of transient global forebrain ischemia. Furthermore, to find the mechanism of BF-7, we examined the neuroprotective and antioxidative effects of BF-7 in vitro using neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells. In vivo model, treatment with BF-7 significantly reduced the number of errors in 8-arm maze test and significantly increased latency time in passive avoidance test at 7 days after focal ischemia compared to those in the vehicle-treated group. In addition, treatment with BF-7 significantly decreased the infarct size or neuronal death at 7 day following transient ischemia compared to that in the vehicle-treated group. In vitro model, 10 or 20 μg/ml of BF-7 treatment significantly increased cell viability in dose-dependent manner. In addition, oxidative stress was significantly attenuated in the ischemic cells, showing that 10 or 20 μg/ml of BF-7 treatment significantly reduced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) compared to that in the ischemic cells. These results indicate that BF-7 treatment can attenuate ischemic damages and improve memory deficits via reduction of ROS generation.

7.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 229-238, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836905

ABSTRACT

Obesity has been known as an independent risk factor for stroke. Effects of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity on neuronal damage in the somatosensory cortex of animal models of cerebral ischemia have not been studied yet. In this study, HFD-induced obesity was used to study the impact of obesity on neuronal damage/loss and microgliosis in the somatosensory cortex of a gerbil model of 5-min transient forebrain ischemia. We used gerbils fed normal diet (ND) and HFD and chronologically examined microgliosis (microglial cell activation) by ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1) immunohistochemistry. In addition, we examined neuronal damage or death by using neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN, a neuronal marker) immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B (F-J B, a marker for neuronal degeneration) histofluorescence staining. We found that ischemia-induced microgliosis in ND-fed gerbils was increased from 2 days post-ischemia; however, ischemia-mediated microgliosis in HFD-fed gerbils increased from 1 day post-ischemia and more accelerated with time than that in the ND-fed gerbils. Ischemia-induced neuronal death/loss in the somatosensory cortex in the ND-fed gerbils was apparently found at 5 days post-ischemia. However, in the HFD-fed gerbils, neuronal death/loss was shown from 2 days post-ischemia and progressively exacerbated at 5 days post-ischemia. Our findings indicate that HFD can evoke earlier microgliosis and more detrimental neuronal death/loss in the somatosensory cortex after transient ischemia than ND evokes.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763034

ABSTRACT

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a pivotal role in pathologic ocular neovascularization and vascular leakage via activation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2). This study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic mechanisms and effects of the tetrapeptide Arg-Leu-Tyr-Glu (RLYE), a VEGFR2 inhibitor, in the development of vascular permeability and choroidal neovascularization (CNV). In cultured human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs), treatment with RLYE blocked VEGF-A-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2, Akt, ERK, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), leading to suppression of VEGF-A-mediated hyper-production of NO. Treatment with RLYE also inhibited VEGF-A-stimulated angiogenic processes (migration, proliferation, and tube formation) and the hyperpermeability of HRMECs, in addition to attenuating VEGF-A-induced angiogenesis and vascular permeability in mice. The anti-vascular permeability activity of RLYE was correlated with enhanced stability and positioning of the junction proteins VE-cadherin, β-catenin, claudin-5, and ZO-1, critical components of the cortical actin ring structure and retinal endothelial barrier, at the boundary between HRMECs stimulated with VEGF-A. Furthermore, intravitreally injected RLYE bound to retinal microvascular endothelium and inhibited laser-induced CNV in mice. These findings suggest that RLYE has potential as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of CNV by preventing VEGFR2-mediated vascular leakage and angiogenesis.


Subject(s)
Actins , Animals , Capillary Permeability , Choroid , Choroidal Neovascularization , Claudin-5 , Endothelial Cells , Endothelium , Humans , Macular Degeneration , Mice , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Permeability , Phosphorylation , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor , Retinaldehyde , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
9.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 140-147, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786393

ABSTRACT

P53 and its family member p63 play important roles in cellular senescence and organismal aging. In this study, p53 and p63 immunoreactivity were examined in the hippocampus of young, adult and aged mice by using immunohistochemistry. In addition, neuronal distribution and degeneration was examined by NeuN immunohistochemistry and fluoro-Jade B fluorescence staining. Strong p53 immunoreactivity was mainly expressed in pyramidal and granule cells of the hippocampus in young mice. p53 immunoreactivity in the pyramidal and granule cells was significantly reduced in the adult mice. In the aged mice, p53 immunoreactivity in the pyramidal and granule cells was more significantly decreased. p63 immunoreactivity was strong in the pyramidal and granule cells in the young mice. p63 immunoreactivity in these cells was apparently and gradually decreased with age, showing that p63 immunoreactivity in the aged granule cells was hardly shown. However, numbers of pyramidal neurons and granule cells were not significantly decreased in the aged mice with normal aging. Taken together, this study indicates that there are no degenerative neurons in the hippocampus during normal aging, showing that p53 and p63 immunoreactivity in hippocampal neurons was progressively reduced during normal aging, which might be closely related to the normal aging processes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aging , Animals , Cellular Senescence , Fluorescence , Hippocampus , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Mice , Neurons , Pyramidal Cells
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776868

ABSTRACT

To examine the effects of Populus tomentiglandulosa (PT) extract on the expressions of antioxidant enzymes and neurotrophic factors in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region of the hippocampus at 5 min after inducing transient global cerebral ischemia (TGCI) in gerbils, TGCI was induced by occlusion of common carotid arteries for 5 min. Before ischemic surgery, 200 mg·kg PT extract was orally administrated once daily for 7 d. We performed neuronal nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B staining. Furthermore, we determined in situ production of superoxide anion radical, expression levels of SOD1 and SOD2 as antioxidant enzymes and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) as neurotrophic factors. Pretreatment with 200 mg·kg PT extract prevented neuronal death (loss). Furthermore, pretreatment with 200 mg·kg PT extract significantly inhibited the production of superoxide anion radical, increased expressions of SODs and maintained expressions of BDNF and IGF-I. Such increased expressions of SODs were maintained in the neurons after IRI. In summary, pretreated PT extract can significantly increase levels of SODs and protect the neurons against TGCI, suggesting that PT can be a useful natural agent to protect against TGCI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Genetics , Metabolism , CA1 Region, Hippocampal , Metabolism , Gerbillinae , Humans , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Genetics , Metabolism , Male , Neuroprotective Agents , Plant Extracts , Populus , Chemistry , Pyramidal Cells , Metabolism , Reperfusion Injury , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase , Genetics , Metabolism , Up-Regulation
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918395

ABSTRACT

Histone-binding protein RbAp48 has been known to be involved in histone acetylation, and epigenetic alterations of histone modifications are closely associated with the pathogenesis of ischemic reperfusion injury. In the current study, we investigated chronological change of RbAp48 expression in the hippocampus following 5 min of transient ischemia in gerbils. RbAp48 expression was examined 1, 2, 5, and 10 days after transient ischemia using immunohistochemistry. In sham operated gerbils, RbAp48 immunoreactivity was strong in pyramidal and non-pyramidal cells in the hippocampus. After transient ischemia, RbAp48 immunoreactivity was changed in the cornu ammonis 1 subfield (CA1), not in CA2/3. RbAp48 immunoreactivity in CA1 pyramidal neurons was gradually decreased and not detected at 5 and 10 days after ischemia. RbAp48 immunoreactivity in non-pyramidal cells was maintained until 2 days post-ischemia and significantly increased from 5 days post-ischemia. Double immunohistofluorescence staining revealed that RbAp48 immunoreactive non-pyramidal cells were astrocytes. At 5 days post-ischemia, death of pyramidal neurons occurred only in the CA1. These results showed that RbAp48 immunoreactivity was distinctively altered in pyramidal neurons and astrocytes in the hippocampal CA1 following 5 mins of transient ischemia. Ischemia-induced change in RbAp48 expression may be closely associated with neuronal death and astrocyte activation following 5 min of transient ischemia.

13.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 689-695, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690555

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b>Glehnia littoralis has been used for traditional Asian medicine, which has diverse therapeutic activities. However, studies regarding neurogenic effects of G. littoralis have not yet been considered. Therefore, in this study, we examined effects of G. littoralis extract on cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation, and the maturation of newborn neurons in the hippocampus of adult mice.</p><p><b>Methods</b>A total of 39 male ICR mice (12 weeks old) were randomly assigned to vehicle-treated and 100 and 200 mg/kg G. littoralis extract-treated groups (n = 13 in each group). Vehicle and G. littoralis extract were orally administrated for 28 days. To examine neurogenic effects of G. littoralis extract, we performed immunohistochemistry for 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU, an indicator for cell proliferation) and doublecortin (DCX, an immature neuronal marker) and double immunofluorescence staining for BrdU and neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN, a mature neuronal marker). In addition, we examined expressional changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its major receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) using Western blotting analysis.</p><p><b>Results</b>Treatment with 200 mg/kg, not 100 mg/kg, significantly increased number of BrdU-immunoreactive () and DCX cells (48.0 ± 3.1 and 72.0 ± 3.8 cells/section, respectively) in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) and BrdU/NeuN cells (17.0 ± 1.5 cells/section) in the granule cell layer as well as in the SGZ. In addition, protein levels of BDNF and TrkB (about 232% and 244% of the vehicle-treated group, respectively) were significantly increased in the DG of the mice treated with 200 mg/kg of G. littoralis extract.</p><p><b>Conclusion</b>G. littoralis extract promots cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation, and neuronal maturation in the hippocampal DG, and neurogenic effects might be closely related to increases of BDNF and TrkB proteins by G. littoralis extract treatment.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Apiaceae , Chemistry , Blotting, Western , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Dentate Gyrus , Cell Biology , Hippocampus , Cell Biology , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Mice , Microtubule-Associated Proteins , Metabolism , Neurogenesis , Neuropeptides , Metabolism , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Receptor, trkB , Metabolism
14.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 366-375, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714674

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation induced by native low-density lipoprotein (nLDL) stimulation is dependent on superoxide production from activated NADPH oxidase. The present study aimed to investigate whether the novel arginase inhibitor limonin could suppress nLDL-induced VSMC proliferation and to examine related mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Isolated VSMCs from rat aortas were treated with nLDL, and cell proliferation was measured by WST-1 and BrdU assays. NADPH oxidase activation was evaluated by lucigenin-induced chemiluminescence, and phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC) βII and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 was determined by western blot analysis. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed using MitoSOX-red, and intracellular L-arginine concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the presence or absence of limonin. RESULTS: Limonin inhibited arginase I and II activity in the uncompetitive mode, and prevented nLDL-induced VSMC proliferation in a p21Waf1/Cip1-dependent manner without affecting arginase protein levels. Limonin blocked PKCβII phosphorylation, but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and translocation of p47phox to the membrane was decreased, as was superoxide production in nLDL-stimulated VSMCs. Moreover, mitochondrial ROS generation was increased by nLDL stimulation and blocked by preincubation with limonin. Mitochondrial ROS production was responsible for the phosphorylation of PKCβII. HPLC analysis showed that arginase inhibition with limonin increases intracellular L-arginine concentrations, but decreases polyamine concentrations. L-Arginine treatment prevented PKCβII phosphorylation without affecting ERK1/2 phosphorylation. CONCLUSION: Increased L-arginine levels following limonin-dependent arginase inhibition prohibited NADPH oxidase activation in a PKCβII-dependent manner, and blocked nLDL-stimulated VSMC proliferation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta , Arginase , Arginine , Blotting, Western , Bromodeoxyuridine , Cell Proliferation , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Lipoproteins , Luminescence , Membranes , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , NADP , NADPH Oxidases , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinase C , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species , Superoxides
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914288

ABSTRACT

Arginase inhibition exhibits beneficial effects in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In human aortic smooth muscle cells (hAoSMCs), native low-density lipoprotein (nLDL) induced the production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) that is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, we examined the effect of arginase inhibition on IL-8 production and the underlying mechanism. In hAoSMCs, reverse transcription–PCR, western blotting and immunocytochemistry with MitoTracker confirmed that arginase II was confined predominantly to mitochondria. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was assessed using tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester. The MMP decreased upon nLDL stimulation but was restored upon arginase inhibition. MMP loss caused by nLDL was prevented by treatment with the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM. In mitochondrial Ca(2+) measurements using Rhod-2 AM, increased mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels by nLDL were inhibited upon preincubation with an arginase inhibitor. Among the polyamines, spermine, an arginase activity-dependent product, caused mitochondrial Ca(2+) movement. The nLDL-induced MMP change resulted in p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and IL-8 production and was prevented by the arginase inhibitors BAPTA and ruthenium 360. In isolated AoSMCs from ApoE(−/−) mice fed a high-cholesterol diet, arginase activity, p38 MAPK phosphorylation, spermine and mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) production were increased compared with wild-type (WT) mice. However, in AoSMCs isolated from arginase II-null mice, increases in MMP and decreases in mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels were noted compared with WT and were associated with p38 MAPK activation and IL-8 production. These data suggest that arginase activity regulates the change in MMP through Ca(2+) uptake that is essential for p38 MAPK phosphorylation and IL-8 production.

16.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 128-135, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715223

ABSTRACT

Cardiac arrest (CA) is sudden loss of heart function and abrupt stop in effective blood flow to the body. The patients who initially achieve return of spontaneous circulation (RoSC) after CA have low survival rate. It has been known that multiorgan dysfunctions after RoSC are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Most previous studies have focused on the heart and brain in RoSC after CA. Therefore, the aim of this research was to perform serological, physiological, and histopathology study in the lung and to determine whether or how pulmonary dysfunction is associated with low survival rate after CA. Experimental animals were divided into sham-operated group (n=14 at each point in time), which was not subjected to CA operation, and CA-operated group (n=14 at each point in time), which was subjected to CA. The rats in each group were sacrificed at 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, and 2 days, respectively, after RoSC. Then, pathological changes of the lungs were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining, Western blot and immunohistochemistry for tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). The survival rate after CA was decreased with time past. We found that histopathological score and TNF-α immunoreactivity were significantly increased in the lung after CA. These results indicate that inflammation triggered by ischemia-reperfusion damage after CA leads to pulmonary injury/dysfunctions and contributes to low survival rate. In addition, the finding of increase in TNF-α via inflammation in the lung after CA would be able to utilize therapeutic or diagnostic measures in the future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Brain , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Heart , Heart Arrest , Hematoxylin , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation , Lung , Models, Animal , Mortality , Rats , Survival Rate , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180938

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Post cardiac arrest (CA) syndrome is associated with a low survival rate in patients who initially have a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after the CA. The aim of this study was to examine the histopathology and inflammatory response in the heart during post CA syndrome. METHODS: Asphyxial CA was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats and the survival rate of the rats was determined during the post resuscitation phase. RESULTS: Survival of the rats decreased after CA: 66.7% at 6 hours, 36.7% at 1 day, and 6.7% at 2 days after the ROSC following CA. The rats were sacrificed at 6 hours, 12 hours, 1 day, and 2 days after the ROSC, and their heart tissues were examined. Histopathological scores increased at 12 hours post CA. Afterwards, the histopathological changes were not significant. In addition, the levels of tumor necrosis factor-αimmunoreactivity increased gradually after CA. CONCLUSION: The survival rate of the rats 2 days post CA was very low, even though the histopathological and inflammatory changes in the heart were not pronounced in the early stages following the CA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Heart Arrest , Heart , Humans , Male , Necrosis , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Resuscitation , Survival Rate , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1796-1803, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-338850

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Glehnia littoralis, as a traditional herbal medicine to heal various health ailments in East Asia, displays various therapeutic properties including antioxidant effects. However, neuroprotective effects of G. littoralis against cerebral ischemic insults have not yet been addressed. Therefore, in this study, we first examined its neuroprotective effects in the hippocampus using a gerbil model of transient global cerebral ischemia (TGCI).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Gerbils were subjected to TGCI for 5 min. G. littoralis extract (GLE; 100 and 200 mg/kg) was administrated orally once daily for 7 days before ischemic surgery. Neuroprotection was examined by neuronal nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence staining. Gliosis was observed by immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1. For neuroprotective mechanisms, immunohistochemistry for superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was done.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Pretreatment with 200 mg/kg of GLE protected pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) area from ischemic insult area (F = 29.770, P < 0.05) and significantly inhibited activations of astrocytes (F = 22.959, P < 0.05) and microglia (F = 44.135, P < 0.05) in the ischemic CA1 area. In addition, pretreatment with GLE significantly increased expressions of SOD1 (F = 28.561, P < 0.05) and BDNF (F = 55.298, P < 0.05) in CA1 pyramidal neurons of the sham- and ischemia-operated groups.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Our findings indicate that pretreatment with GLE can protect neurons from ischemic insults, and we suggest that its neuroprotective mechanism may be closely associated with increases of SOD1 and BDNF expressions as well as attenuation of glial activation.</p>

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-646633

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Post cardiac arrest (CA) syndrome is associated with a low survival rate in patients who initially have return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after CA. The aim of this study was to examine the histopathology and inflammatory response in the heart during the post CA syndrome. METHODS: We induced asphyxial CA in male Sprague-Dawley rats and determined the survival rate of these rats during the post resuscitation phase. RESULTS: Survival of the rats decreased after CA: 66.7% at 6 hours, 36.7% at 1 day, and 6.7% at 2 days after ROSC following CA. The rats were sacrificed at 6 hours, 12 hours, 1 day, and 2 days after ROSC, and their heart tissues were examined. Histopathological scores increased at 12 hours post CA and afterwards, histopathological changes were not significant. In addition, levels of tumor necrosis factor-α immunoreactivity gradually increased after CA. CONCLUSION: The survival rate of rats 2 days post CA was very low, even though histopathological and inflammatory changes in the heart were not pronounced in the early stage following CA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Heart Arrest , Heart , Humans , Male , Necrosis , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Resuscitation , Survival Rate
20.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 284-292, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47824

ABSTRACT

The genus Populus (poplar) belonging to the Salicaceae family has been used in traditional medicine, and its several species show various pharmacological properties including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. No study regarding protective effects of Populus species against cerebral ischemia has been reported. Therefore, in the present study, we examined neuroprotective effects of ethanol extract from Populus tomentiglandulosa (Korea poplar) in the hippocampal cornu ammonis (CA1) area of gerbils subjected to 5 minutes of transient global cerebral ischemia. Pretreatment with 200 mg/kg of P. tomentiglandulosa extract effectively protected CA1 pyramidal neurons from transient global cerebral ischemia. In addition, glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive astrocytes and ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 immunoreactive microglia were significantly diminished in the ischemic CA1 area by pretreatment with 200 mg/kg of P. tomentiglandulosa extract. Briefly, our results indicate that pretreatment with P. tomentiglandulosa extract protects neurons from transient cerebral ischemic injury and diminish cerebral ischemia-induced reactive gliosis in ischemic CA1 area. Based on these results, we suggest that P. tomentiglandulosa can be used as a potential candidate for prevention of ischemic injury.


Subject(s)
Astrocytes , Brain Ischemia , Calcium , Ethanol , Gerbillinae , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Gliosis , Hippocampus , Humans , Medicine, Traditional , Microglia , Neurons , Neuroprotective Agents , Populus , Pyramidal Cells , Salicaceae
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