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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194081


The integrity of blood vessels controls vascular permeability and extravasation of blood cells, across the endothelium. Thus, the impairment of endothelial integrity leads to hemorrhage, edema, and inflammatory infiltration. However, the molecular mechanism underlying vascular integrity has not been fully understood. Here, we demonstrate an essential role for A-kinase anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12) in the maintenance of endothelial integrity during vascular development. Zebrafish embryos depleted of akap12 (akap12 morphants) exhibited severe hemorrhages. In vivo time-lapse analyses suggested that disorganized interendothelial cell-cell adhesions in akap12 morphants might be the cause of hemorrhage. To clarify the molecular mechanism by which the cell-cell adhesions are impaired, we examined the cell-cell adhesion molecules and their regulators using cultured endothelial cells. The expression of PAK2, an actin cytoskeletal regulator, and AF6, a connector of intercellular adhesion molecules and actin cytoskeleton, was reduced in AKAP12-depleted cells. Depletion of either PAK2 or AF6 phenocopied AKAP12-depleted cells, suggesting the reduction of PAK2 and AF6 results in the loosening of intercellular junctions. Consistent with this, overexpression of PAK2 and AF6 rescued the abnormal hemorrhage in akap12 morphants. We conclude that AKAP12 is essential for integrity of endothelium by maintaining the expression of PAK2 and AF6 during vascular development.

A Kinase Anchor Proteins/genetics , Animals , Blood Vessels/abnormalities , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , Down-Regulation , Embryo, Nonmammalian/abnormalities , Gene Deletion , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Hemorrhage/embryology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Intercellular Junctions/genetics , Kinesins/genetics , Myosins/genetics , Zebrafish/embryology , p21-Activated Kinases/genetics
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-92236


To provide a basis for studying the pharmacological actions of tetracaine.HCl, we analyzed the membrane activities of this local anesthetic. The n-(9-anthroyloxy) stearic and palmitic acid (n-AS) probes (n = 2, 6, 9, 12 and 16) have been used previously to examine fluorescence polarization gradients. These probes can report the environment at a graded series of depths from the surface to the center of the membrane bilayer structure. In a dose-dependent manner, tetracaine.HCl decreased the anisotropies of 6-AS, 9-AS, 12-AS and 16-AP in the hydrocarbon interior of synaptosomal plasma membrane vesicles isolated from bovine cerebral cortex (SPMV), and liposomes derived from total lipids (SPMVTL) and phospholipids (SPMVPL) extracted from the SPMV. However, this compound increased the anisotropy of 2-AS at the membrane interface. The magnitude of the membrane rotational mobility reflects the carbon atom numbers of the phospholipids comprising SPMV, SPMVTL and SPMVPL and was in the order of the 16, 12, 9, 6, and 2 positions of the aliphatic chains. The sensitivity of the effects of tetracaine.HCl on the rotational mobility of the hydrocarbon interior or surface region was dependent on the carbon atom numbers in the descending order 16-AP, 12-AS, 9-AS, 6-AS and 2-AS and on whether neuronal or model membranes were involved in the descending order SPMV, SPMVPL and SPMVTL.

Anisotropy , Carbon , Cell Membrane , Cerebral Cortex , Fluorescence Polarization , Liposomes , Membranes , Neurons , Palmitic Acid , Palmitic Acids , Phospholipids , Stearic Acids