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1.
Cell Journal [Yakhteh]. 2019; 20 (4): 450-458
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-199613

ABSTRACT

Objective: Mesenchymal stem cells [MSC] from various sources have the potentials to positively affect regenerative medicine.Furthermore, pre-conditioning strategies with different agents could improve the efficacy of cell therapy. This study compares the effects of an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent, melatonin, on protection of bone marrow-derived MSCs [BMSCs] and adipose tissue-derived MSCs [ADSCs]


Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, rat BMSCs and ADSCs were isolated and expanded. Pre-conditioning was performed with 5 ìM melatonin for 24 hours. Cell proliferation and viability were detected by MTT assay. Expression of BAX, BCL2, melatonin receptors and osteocalcin genes were evaluated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCR]. Also, apoptosis was detected with tunnel assay. Osteogenic differentiation was analyzed using alizarin red staining


Results: No significant increase was found in cell viability between BMSCs and ADSCs after melatonin preconditioning. Following melatonin preconditioning, BAX expression was significantly down-regulated in both ADSCs and BMSCs [P<0.05], with the difference being more significant in ADSCs compared to BMSCs. BCL2 expression was increased significantly in both cell types after preconditioning. Metalothionine 1 and Metalothionine 2 were both upregulated significantly in the two cell types [P<0.05]. Melatonin increased osteogenesis capability through increasing osteocalcin expression. However, expression of osteocalcin in BMSCs before and after preconditioning was higher than that in ADSCs. On the other hand, melatonin expression in ADSCs was in higher levels than in BMSCs. Melatonin also improved alizarin red concentration significantly in both BMSCs and ADSCs [P<0.05]. Alizarin red staining severity increased significantly in ADSCs after preconditioning compared to BMSCs [P<0.05]


Conclusion: Here we have shown that the effects of preconditioning on melatonin expression in ADSCs are higher than those in BMSCs. These findings could be used in adoption of a proper preconditioning protocol based on the sources of MSCs in specific clinical applications, especially in bone regeneration

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-756917

ABSTRACT

@#Introduction: Intracerebroventricular administration of streptozotocin (icv-STZ) induced apoptosis changes in neurons similar to Alzheimer's disease. The serotonergic system via its receptor involved in survival of neurons. The present study examined the ability of selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist (NAD-299) and 5-HT2A receptor agonist (TCB-2) to attenuate the apoptosis caused by the icv-STZ in the rat. Methods: The icv-STZ (3 mg/kg, 10 μL, twice) induced neuronal loss in the hippocampus of adult male rats. Animals were divided into naive control, sham-operated, STZ+saline (1 μL, icv), STZ+NAD-299 (5 μg/μL, icv), STZ+TCB-2 (5 μg/μL, icv), and STZ+NAD-299+TCB-2 (5 μg/μL of any agent, icv) groups. Following the 35 days’ treatment period, neuronal apoptosis was detected using the Tunnel. Cells with morphological features of apoptotic cell were contended by microscopy. Results: TCB-2 and NAD-299 administration decreased number of apoptotic neurons in the treatment group compared with the STZ group. Combined treatment of STZ rat with NAD+TCB more decreased number of apoptotic cells in compare to TCB-2 or NAD-299 treated STZ groups. Conclusion: Treatment with 5-HT1A receptor antagonist or 5-HT2A receptor agonist diminished apoptosis. The beneficial effect of 5HT1A receptor inhibition was potentiated with activation of 5-HT2A receptor in prevention of apoptosis in hippocampus.

3.
Basic and Clinical Neuroscience. 2015; 6 (3): 147-154
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-179395

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Previous studies have shown that cannabinoidergic system is involved in anxiety. However, there are controversial reports in the experimental studies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of pharmacological stimulation or blocking of CB1 receptors and inhibition of endocannabinoid degradation in anxiety like behavior in elevated plus-maze [EPM] test in rat. The EPM is one of the most widely used animal models of anxiety


Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to ten groups. Different groups of animals intraperitoneally received Win-55212 [0.3, 1 and 5 mg/kg] as CB1 receptor agonist, AM- 251 [0.3, 1 and 5 mg/kg] as CB1 receptor antagonist, URB-597 [0.03, 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg] as endocannabinoid breakdown inhibitor or saline [as control group] 30 min before submitting into EPM test


Results: The results showed that compared to the control group, Win-55212 [1 and 5 mg/kg] and URB-597 [0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg] significantly increased both of the time and percentage of entries into open arms. AM-251 [1 and 5 mg/kg] significantly decreased the time and percentage of entries into open arms in the EPM test. These substances have no effects on the total distance covered by animals and number of closed arm entries


Discussion: It is concluded that activation of cannabinoid receptor exert anxiolytic effect while blocking of cannabinoid receptor resulted in anxiety behavior. The locomotor activity was not significantly changed by cannabinoid system. It is suggested that potentiation of cannabinoid system may be therapeutic strategy for the anxiety behavior

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