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1.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 451-459, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896626

ABSTRACT

We have previously reported that the thoracolumbar posterior nerve root shows a tortuous epidural course, based on studies of human fetuses near term. For comparison with the cervical nerve, examinations were conducted using frontal, sagittal and horizontal sections of cervical vertebrae from 22 fetuses at 30–38 weeks of gestation. The cervical nerve root showed a short, straight and lateral course near the zygapophysial joint. Multiple rather than single bundles of the cervical posterior root seemed to account for the majority of sensory nerve fibers innervating the upper extremity. Fasciculation of rootlets was evident near the thoracolumbar spinal cord, whereas it was seen in the dural pocket at the nerve exit from the dural sac although both sites were subdural. As in the thoracolumbar region, the nerve sheath was continuous with the dura mater and independently surrounded each of the anterior and posterior roots. Radicular arteries were few in the cervical region. In 2 of the 22 fetuses (31 weeks and 33 weeks), there was a segmental, unilateral abnormality of nerve rootlet fasciculation where the dorsal root ganglion was located lateral or peripheral to the intervertebral region. Long nerve roots running inferiorly are a necessary adaptation to the delayed and marked growth of the thoracolumbar vertebral column.In children, the cervical nerve roots are likely to be affected by movement or dislocation of the vertebrae. The segmental abnormality of the cervical nerve root may be linked to rare variations in the brachial plexus.

2.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 451-459, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888922

ABSTRACT

We have previously reported that the thoracolumbar posterior nerve root shows a tortuous epidural course, based on studies of human fetuses near term. For comparison with the cervical nerve, examinations were conducted using frontal, sagittal and horizontal sections of cervical vertebrae from 22 fetuses at 30–38 weeks of gestation. The cervical nerve root showed a short, straight and lateral course near the zygapophysial joint. Multiple rather than single bundles of the cervical posterior root seemed to account for the majority of sensory nerve fibers innervating the upper extremity. Fasciculation of rootlets was evident near the thoracolumbar spinal cord, whereas it was seen in the dural pocket at the nerve exit from the dural sac although both sites were subdural. As in the thoracolumbar region, the nerve sheath was continuous with the dura mater and independently surrounded each of the anterior and posterior roots. Radicular arteries were few in the cervical region. In 2 of the 22 fetuses (31 weeks and 33 weeks), there was a segmental, unilateral abnormality of nerve rootlet fasciculation where the dorsal root ganglion was located lateral or peripheral to the intervertebral region. Long nerve roots running inferiorly are a necessary adaptation to the delayed and marked growth of the thoracolumbar vertebral column.In children, the cervical nerve roots are likely to be affected by movement or dislocation of the vertebrae. The segmental abnormality of the cervical nerve root may be linked to rare variations in the brachial plexus.

3.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-362948

ABSTRACT

A 81-year old woman had hypertensive heart failure. She had a history of intermittent claudication for 5 years. Her ankle brachial pressure index (ABI) was 0.53 on the right and 0.58 on the left side. Coarctation of the descending aorta with severe calcification was found by a whole body CT. After medical therapy for heart failure, axillo-bifemoral artery bypass using an 8 mm ringed expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) graft was performed. Postoperatively, ABI improved to 0.83 on the right and 0.87 on the left side. The patient is doing well without any signs of heart failure or intermittent claudication. Although it is a palliative operation, axillo-bifemoral artery bypass is an effective and less-invasive procedure and appropriate for elderly patients.

4.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-361842

ABSTRACT

A 54-year-old woman complained of prolonged fever. Echocardiography showed severe mitral regurgitation with vegetation, and computed tomography showed right coronary artery (RCA) fistula to the coronary sinus (CS). Blood culture revealed Strep. viridans, thus a diagnosis of active infective endocarditis was established. The patient underwent urgent surgery. Surgical findings showed that vegetation was located in A3 to P3 of the mitral valve. The patient underwent mitral valve repair using a glutalualdehyde-treated autologous pericardial patch and artificial chordea. Epicardial ligation for fistula was performed. Her postoperative course was uneventful.

5.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-367265

ABSTRACT

A 44-year-old man with a history of remittent fever for 6 months was given a diagnosis of inf ective endocarditis of the aortic valve related to a congenital ventricular septal defect (VSD), although no bacterial growth was obtained by blood culture. After one week of antibiotic treatment, aortic valve replacement (AVR) and patch closure of the VSD were performed after debridement of infected tissue and vegetations involving the aortic root, pulmonary and tricuspid valves, and myocardium surrounding the VSD. Antibiotic treatment was continued postoper-atively, but elevation of C-reactive protein (CRP) persisted. Blood culture disclosed Candida albicans in the blood 3 months after AVR. Fungal prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) was suspected, therefore, aortic root replacement with a Free Style bioprosthesis and VSD re-closure were performed followed by continued systemic antifungal treatment. Five months after reoperation, the patient was readmitted with a high fever. A pseudoaneurysm of the left common iliac artery and complete obstruction of the external iliac artery were shown by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). The aneurysm was resected without revascular-ization. This case presentation concludes that long-term whole body study with contrast-enhanced CT might be necessary even though complete eradication of the infected foci of the heart has been established.

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