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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927978

ABSTRACT

Syndrome is a nonlinear "internal-excess external-deficiency", "dynamic spatial-temporal" and "multi-dimensional" complex system and thus only by using a versatile method can the connotation be expounded. Metabonomics, which is dynamic, holistic, and systematic, is consistent with the overall mode of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)(holistic view and syndrome differentiation and treatment). Therefore, metabonomics is very important for the research on the differentiation, material basis, and metabolic pathways of syndromes, and efficacy on syndromes. This study reviewed the application of metabonomics in the study of TCM syndromes in recent years, which is expected to objectify the research on TCM syndromes.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Metabolomics , Syndrome
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927941

ABSTRACT

Chinese medicine processing is a procedure to process medicinal materials under the guidance of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) theories by using unique methods in China. The medicinal materials can only be used clinically after proper processing. With the development of the modernization of TCM, it is difficult to solve the problems in the inheritance, development, and internationalization of Chinese medicine processing. Metabonomics, a new omics technology developed at the end of the last century, is used to infer the physiological or pathological conditions of the organism with the methods such as NMR and LC-MS via investigating the changes in endogenous small molecule metabolic network after the organism is stimulated by external environment. Metabonomics coincides with the holistic view of TCM because it displays the characteristics of integrity, comprehensiveness, and dynamics, and it has been widely applied in the field of Chinese medicine processing in recent years. This study summarized the application of metabonomics in the processing mechanism and quality control of Chinese medicine processing and prospected the development of this technology in the field of Chinese medicine processing.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Mass Spectrometry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Metabolomics/methods , Quality Control
3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1263-1272, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924738

ABSTRACT

Berberine is a naturally occurring benzylisoquinoline alkaloid with a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as antibacterial, anticancer, hypolipidemic, antidiabetic and antidiarrheal. Although berberine has a wide range of curative effects, the extremely low bioavailability (< 1%) limits its clinical application. Pure berberine preparations have not yet been approved for any specific disease. The low oral bioavailability of berberine is mainly due to poor solubility caused by self-aggregation under acidic conditions, low permeability, P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux, and liver and intestine metabolism. To improve the oral bioavailability of berberine, researchers have adopted a variety of strategies, including the application of various nano-delivery systems, penetration enhancers and P-gp inhibitors, structural modifications, and development of berberine derivatives. Improving the oral bioavailability of berberine can improve the pharmacological activity of berberine, reduce the dosage, and then reduce the toxic and side effects. This review summarized the various pharmacological activities, metabolism progress and pharmacokinetic characteristics of berberine, the newly discovered berberine target intestinal microbiota and focused on the strategies to improve the oral bioavailability of berberine by improving solubility and permeability, inhibiting P-gp efflux, and structural modification. The research on berberine was prospected, which provided guidance for the in-depth study of berberine.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3431-3440, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906818

ABSTRACT

In order to solve the problems of erratic drug absorption and low bioavailability after oral administration for poorly-water soluble drugs due to low solubility, a series of novel pharmaceutical dosage forms as solid dispersion, liposome, microemulsion, vesicle, cyclodextrin inclusion complexes and drug nanocrystal have been developed in recent years. Among which drug nanocrystal attracts more attentions for its simpler preparation method, higher drug loading and easier manufacturing technology in the design of dosage forms suitable for different administration routes. In this paper, the nanocrystals of the poorly-water soluble drugs prepared based on bottom-up and top-down technologies were introduced. The characteristics and applications of the nanocrystal-based dosage forms as suspension, tablet and capsule were also introduced and carefully evaluated with the focus on their pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and tissue targeted drug distribution after delivery by oral administration, intravenous injection and pulmonary inhalation. The advantages of drug nanocrystals in their therapeutics effects over the bulk drugs were discussed together with the inherent mechanism. Finally, the problems existing in basic research and scaled-up manufacture of drug nanocrystal as well as the possible ways of solution were listed out so as to make the nanocrystal-based preparations exert their maximum therapeutic effect after clinical application.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906452

ABSTRACT

Xiehuangsan, derived from QIAN Yi's Key to Therapeutics of Children's Diseases, consists of 5 medicines, namely Gypsum Fibrosum,Gardeniae Fructus,Saposhnikoviae Radix,Pogostemonis Herba and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. It is used to treat children with spleen heat and tongue scratching. With the clinical use of later generations of physicians,the scope of diseases and syndromes of this prescription was gradually expanded,including aphthous bad breath,dry lips,yellow eyes,and sweet mouth. Modern doctors used this prescription to treat children with anorexia,constipation,allergic purpura,tic disorder, and other diseases. At present,more and more attention has been paid to the research of classical famous prescriptions. At the same time,the application of classical famous prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) must be researched and verified in ancient literature. Therefore,it has become important contents in the study of classic prescriptions that researching the source of prescriptions from the ancient books,combing and analyzing literature,and studying the evolution rules of indications,preparations,methods of administration and taboos.The author searched a variety of ancient Chinese medicine databases and collected the relevant documents related to Xiehuangsan in ancient medical books. A total of 242 pieces of relevant ancient document data were obtained,involving 131 types of ancient Chinese medicine books. Through combing the relevant records of historical documents,this paper analyzes and researches the historical evolution of Xiehuangsan,the source and composition of the prescriptions,the indications,the dosage,the textual research of Chinese herbal medicine and the determination of the basis,and the method of prescription preparation and administration,etc. The historical changes of Xiehuangsan and its internal relations are expected to provide literature references and theoretical basis for the modern development and research of Xiehuangsan.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921790

ABSTRACT

Cambodia is rich in medicinal plant resources. One hundred and thirty-three medicinal material samples, including the hole herb, root, stem/branch, leaf, flower, fruit, seed, and resin, were collected from the Orussey Herbal Market in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and then authenticated by ITS and psbA-trnH. A total of 46 samples were identified based on ITS sequences, belonging to 24 families, 40 genera, and 42 species. A total of 100 samples were identified by psbA-trnH sequences to belong to 42 families, 77 genera, and 84 species. A total of 103 samples were identified by two DNA barcodes. According to the morphological characteristics of the medicinal materials, 120 samples classified into 50 species, 86 genera, and 86 families were identified, and the majority of them were from Zingiberaceae, Fabaceae, and Acanthaceae. Such samples have been commonly used in traditional Cambodian medicine, Ayurvedic medicine, Unani medicine, traditional Chinese medicine, and ethnomedicine, but different medical systems focus on different functional aspects of the same medicinal material. The results of this study have demonstrated that DNA barcoding has a significant advantage in identifying herbal products, and this study has provided basic data for understanding the traditional medicinal materials used in Cambodia.


Subject(s)
Cambodia , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , DNA, Plant/genetics , Humans , Plant Leaves , Plants, Medicinal/genetics
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921672

ABSTRACT

Dirigent(DIR) proteins are involved in the biosynthesis of lignin, lignans, and gossypol in plants and respond to biotic and abiotic stresses. Based on the full-length transcriptome of Schisandra chinensis, bioinformatics methods were used to preliminarily identify the DIR gene family and analyze the physico-chemical properties, subcellular localization, conserved motifs, phylogeny, and expression patterns of the proteins. The results showed that a total of 34 DIR genes were screened and the encoded proteins were 156-387 aa. The physico-chemical properties of the proteins were different and the secondary structure was mainly random coil. Half of the DIR proteins were located in chloroplast, while the others in extracellular region, endoplasmic reticulum, cytoplasm, etc. Phylogenetic analysis of DIR proteins from S. chinensis and the other 8 species such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, and Glycine max demonstrated that all DIR proteins were clustered into 5 subfamilies and that DIR proteins from S. chinensis were in 4 subfamilies. DIR-a subfamily has the unique structure of 8 β-sheets, as verified by multiple sequence alignment. Finally, through the analysis of the transcriptome of S. chinensis fruit at different development stages, the expression pattern of DIR was clarified. Combined with the accumulation of lignans in fruits at different stages, DIR might be related to the synthesis of lignans in S. chinensis. This study lays a theoretical basis for exploring the biological functions of DIR genes and elucidating the biosynthesis pathway of lignans in S. chinensis.


Subject(s)
Fruit/genetics , Lignans/analysis , Phylogeny , Schisandra , Sequence Alignment
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906303

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the clinical efficacy of Qingkailing injection in the treatment of children with sepsis and heat syndrome, and investigate its anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant and protective effects. Method:Eighty patients were randomly divided into control group and observation group with forty cases in each group according to the number table. Both groups received comprehensive treatment measures such as fluid resuscitation, anti-infection, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulation, vasoactive drugs, and protection of vital organ functions. While patients in observation group additionally took Qingkailing injection, 5-10 mL each time, intravenous drip after dilution, 1 time/day. Treatment course was five days in both groups. Before and after treatment, the scores of quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA), pediatric critical illness score (PCIS) and acute physiology and chronic health evalution Ⅱ (APACHEⅡ) were graded; procalcitonin (PCT), serum amyloid A protein (SAA) before and after treatment, heparin-binding protein (HBP), tumor necrosis factor-<italic>α</italic> (TNF-<italic>α</italic>), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, N-terminal brain sodium Peptide precursor (NT-proBNP), high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) level, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB), <italic>D</italic>-dimer (<italic>D-</italic>D ), fibrinogen (FIB) and antithrombin Ⅲ (AT-Ⅲ) levels were detected. Result:The APACHEⅡ and qSOFA scores in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (<italic>P</italic><0.05), while the PCIS score was higher than that in the control group (<italic>P</italic><0.05). The levels of PCT, SAA,HBP,TNF-<italic>α</italic>, hs-CRP and IL-6 in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (<italic>P</italic><0.01), while the IL-10 level was higher than that in the control group (<italic>P</italic><0.01). The levels of NT-proBNP, hs-cTnT, cTnI, CK-MB, <italic>D</italic>-D and FIB in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (<italic>P</italic><0.01), while the AT-Ⅲ activity was higher than that in the control group (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:Qingkailing injection as the adjuvant therapy in children with sepsis and fever syndrome, can play the role of anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, reducing infection and myocardial damage, thereby reducing the severity of the disease and improving the prognosis.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905387

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) on the autophagy in penumbra of rats after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Methods:A total of 56 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control group (n = 14), sham group (n = 14), model group (n = 14) and VNS group (n = 14). The model group and VNS group accepted MCAO for one hour, then reperfusion, and VNS group accepted VNS in the left as MCAO for 0.5 hour. Their infarct volume was detected with TTC staining, neurological impairment was assessed with Longa's score, and the expression of Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II/I, phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (P-AMPK) and silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Sirt1) were detected with Western blotting 24 hours after reperfusion. Results:Compared with the sham group, the infarct volume and Longa's score increased in the model group, while the expression of Beclin-1, LC3-II/I, P-AMPK and Sirt1 decreased significantly (P < 0.001). Compared with the model group, the infarct volume and Longa's score reduced (P < 0.05) in VNS group, while the expression of Beclin-1, LC3-II/I, P-AMPK and Sirt1 increased significantly (P < 0.001). Conclusion:VNS may alleviate cerebral ischemic injury in rats through AMPK-Sirt1 pathway.

10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 178-184, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in high temperature requirement serine peptidase A1 (HTRA1) gene are responsible for cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CARASIL). Recently, increasing evidence has shown that heterozygous HTRA1 mutations are also associated with cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. This study was aimed to analyze the genetic and clinical characteristics of HTRA1-related autosomal dominant CSVD.@*METHODS@#We presented three new Chinese cases of familial CSVD with heterozygous HTRA1 mutations and reviewed all clinical case reports and articles on HTRA1-related autosomal dominant CSVD included in PUBMED by the end of March 1, 2020. CARASIL probands with genetic diagnosis reported to date were also reviewed. The genetic and clinical characteristics of HTRA1-related autosomal dominant CSVD were summarized and analyzed by comparing with CARASIL.@*RESULTS@#Forty-four HTRA1-related autosomal dominant CSVD probands and 22 CARASIL probands were included. Compared with typical CARASIL, HTRA1-related autosomal dominant probands has a higher proportion of vascular risk factors (P < 0.001), a later onset age (P < 0.001), and a relatively slower clinical progression. Alopecia and spondylosis can be observed, but less than those in the typical CARASIL. Thirty-five heterozygous mutations in HTRA1 were reported, most of which were missense mutations. Amino acids located close to amino acids 250-300 were most frequently affected, followed by these located near 150∼200. While amino acids 250∼300 were also the most frequently affected region in CARASIL patients, fewer mutations precede the 200th amino acids were detected, especially in the Kazal-type serine protease domain.@*CONCLUSIONS@#HTRA1-related autosomal dominant CSVD is present as a mild phenotype of CARASIL. The trend of regional concentration of mutation sites may be related to the concentration of key sites in these regions which are responsible for pathogenesis of HTRA1-related autosomal dominant CSVD.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Infarction , Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases/genetics , Heterozygote , High-Temperature Requirement A Serine Peptidase 1/genetics , Humans , Leukoencephalopathies/genetics , Mutation/genetics
11.
Chinese Herbal Medicines ; (4): 247-256, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-842008

ABSTRACT

Objective: Schisandra sphenanthera and S. chinensis are the two important medicinal plants that have long been used under the names of “Nan-Wuweizi” and “Wuweizi”, respectively. The misuse of “Nan-Wuweizi” and “Wuweizi” in herbal medical products calls for an accurate method to distinguish these herbs. Chloroplast (cp) genomes have been widely used in species delimitation and phylogeny due to their uniparental inheritance and lower substitution rates than that of the nuclear genomes. To develop more efficient DNA markers for distinguishing S. sphenanthera, S. chinensis, and the related species, we sequenced the cp genome of S. sphenanthera and compared it to that of S. chinensis. Methods: The cp genome of S. sphenanthera was sequenced at the Illumina HiSeq platform, and the reference-guided mapping of contigs was obtained with a de novo assembly procedure. Then, comparative analyses of the cp genomes of S. sphenanthera and S. chinensis were carried out. Results: The cp genome of S. sphenanthera was 146 853 bp in length and consisted of a large single copy (LSC) region of 95 627 bp, a small single copy (SSC) region of 18 292 bp, and a pair of inverted repeats (IR) of 16 467 bp. GC content was 39.6%. A total of 126 functional genes were predicted, of which 113 genes were unique, including 79 protein-coding genes, 30 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and four ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Five tRNA, four protein-coding genes, and all rRNA were duplicated in the IR regions. There were 18 intron-containing genes, including six tRNA genes and 12 protein-coding genes. In addition, 45 SSRs were detected. The whole cp genome of S. sphenanthera was 123 bp longer than that of S. chinensis. A total of 474 SNPs and 97 InDels were identified. Five genetic regions with high levels of variation (Pi > 0.015), trnS-trnG, ccsA-ndhD, psbI-trnS, trnT-psbD and ndhF-rpl32 were revealed. Conclusion: We reported the cp genome of S. sphenanthera and revealed the SNPs and InDels between the cp genomes of S. sphenanthera and S. chinensis. This study shed light on the species identification and further phylogenetic study within the genus of Schisandra.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827211

ABSTRACT

Pyrrosia petiolosa, Pyrrosia lingua and Pyrrosia sheareri are recorded as original plants of Pyrrosiae Folium (PF) and commonly used as Chinese herbal medicines. Due to the similar morphological features of PF and its adulterants, common DNA barcodes cannot accurately distinguish PF species. Knowledge of the chloroplast (cp) genome is widely used in species identification, molecular marker and phylogenetic analyses. Herein, we determined the complete cp genomes of three original species of PF via high-throughput sequencing technologies. The three cp genomes exhibited a typical quadripartite structure with sizes ranging from 158 165 to 163 026 bp. The cp genomes of P. petiolosa and P. lingua encoded 130 genes, whilst that of P. sheareri encoded 131 genes. The complete cp genomes were compared, and five highly divergent regions of petA-psbJ, matK-rps16, ndhC-trnM, psbM-petN and psaC-ndhE were screened as potential DNA barcodes for identification of Pyrrosia genus species. The phylogenetic tree we obtained indicated that P. petiolosa and P. lingua are clustered in a single clade and, thus, share a close relationship. This study provides invaluable information for further studies on the species identification, taxonomy and phylogeny of Pyrrosia genus species.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821142

ABSTRACT

@#Objective    By summarizing the clinical characteristics of perioperative patients with cross infection of novel coronavirus in thoracic surgery ward, to guide the prevention and treatment of nosocomial infection during the anti-epidemic period. Methods    The clinical data of 451 patients with chest diseases in the Department of Thoracic Surgery of Tongji Hospital Affiliated to Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology from January 1st to 24th, 2020 were analyzed and followed up. There were 245 surgical patients and 206 non-surgical patients. Results    In the department, 7 patients (7/451, 1.55%) were infected with the novel coronavirus and all of them were surgical patients, whose preoperative imaging data did not reveal the imaging changes of novel coronavirus. There were 5 males and 2 females, aged 56 to 68 years. The patients with old age, smoking, surgery, coronary heart disease, chronic liver disease and tumor history were more susceptible to infection. From the spatial distribution of patient beds, it was found that the distance among infected patients was greater than 1 m, and no cross infection was found in the other patients of the same ward. During follow-up, two family members of noninfected patients were found to be infected one week after discharge. However, there was no overlap of spatiotemporal distribution between the family members and the infected patients during the hospitalization period. Conclusion    The novel coronavirus pneumonia rate in the department of  thoracic surgery is low, which may be opportunistic infection. At the same time, a good control and prevention of epidemic disease can reduce the occurrence of cross infection in the department of thoracic surgery.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781937

ABSTRACT

@#Objective    To summarize our experience of surgical resection of multiple ground-glass opacity (GGO) in recent years. Methods    Clinical data of patients who underwent one-stage resections of multiple GGO from November 2015 to May 2019 in our hospital were collected, including 13 males and 52 females at an average age of 56.0±9.4 years. The clinical effects and pathological types of GGO were evaluated. Results    Time interval from first discovery to surgery was 8-1 447 (236.5±362.4) days. There were 48 patients with unilateral surgery and 17 patients with bilateral surgery during the same period. Except for 2 patients who underwent open thoracotomy due to total thoracic adhesions, other patients underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). The mean postoperative hospital stay was 12.2±4.3 days. No severe perioperative complication or death occurred. A total of 156 GGO lesions were resected, 80 lesions were pure GGO, including 58 (72.5%) malignant lesions and 22 (27.5%) benign lesions, with an average diameter of 7.7±3.3 mm and 5.5±2.6 mm, respectively. Another 76 lesions were mixed GGO, including 69 (90.8%) malignant lesions and 7 (9.2%) benign lesions, with an average diameter of 13.6±6.6 mm and 7.7±3.5 mm, respectively. Conclusion    Patients with multiple GGO should be treated with anti-inflammatory therapy firstly. When conservative treatment is ineffective and no benign outcomes are observed, surgical treatment should be considered. And when lung function is sufficient for patients to underwent surgeries, the simultaneous unilateral or bilateral thoracoscopic resection is suggested, and the sublobar resection or lobectomy methods can be adopted flexibly according to the clinical features of the lesion and the rapid pathological results, which will not increase the risk of postoperative complications. Otherwise, surgical resection should be given priority for pure GGO lesions with a diameter > 7.7 mm and mixed GGO lesions.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802518

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effect of Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens(ZRR) on hemorrhoids in mice and rats. Method: Sixty SPF-grade SD rats were divided into blank group, model group, Ma Yinglong Shexiang hemorrhoid ointment group (7.5 g·kg-1), and large and small-dose ZRR paste groups (10, 5 g·kg-1). ZRR paste was applied in Yongquan acupoint to observe the effect of 0.05 mL injection with 75% acetic acid solution on hemorrhoids induced by subcutaneous anus in rats, the levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO) in the serum were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and the rectal histopathology was detected by hematoxylin-eosin(HE). Sixty SPF-grade KM mice were divided into blank group, model group, MA Ying-long Shexiang hemorrhoid ointment group (7.5 g·kg-1), and large and small-dose ginger essential oil groups (0.06, 0.03 mL, three times a day). ZRR paste was applied in crissum to observe the effect of injection of 20% acetic acid solution 0.05 mL (maintaining for 1 min) on hemorrhoids in mice induced by anus. The degree of local swelling ulcer around the anus and score was observed, levels of IL-1β, TNF-α in the serum were determined by ELISA, and the rectal histopathology was detected by HE staining. Result: In the experimental study on treating hemorrhoids with ZRR paste applied on Yongquan point of rats, compared with normal group, serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, NO in model group were significantly higher (Pβ, IL-6, TNF-α, NO were decreased in each administration group (PPPPβ, TNF-α in model group were significantly higher (PPβ, TNF-α levels (PPConclusion: External application of ZRR can effectively inhibit perianal swelling and ulcer degree, with a good therapeutic effect on hemorrhoids model in rats and mice.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-817842

ABSTRACT

At present,allergen-specific immunotherapy(AIT)is the only treatment method that can change the natural course of allergic rhinitis in children. While achieving good clinical efficacy,it reduces the dosage of drugs for AR children,improves the quality of life,prevents AR progression to asthma,and reduces new allergens. New methods and techniques for AIT are designed to shorten the time to reach immune tolerance,improve the compliance of children,enhance the safety of treatment,and reduce the treatment burden as much as possible. Here,we review the clinical progress of AIT in AR children.

17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 629-637, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780145

ABSTRACT

The blood brain barrier can selectively block the uptake of xenobiotics from peripheral blood into the brain. Although this is important for maintaining the stability of the brain environment and normal function of the central nervous system, it presents a challenge for delivery of therapeutic drugs to the brain. Passive brain-targeting drug carrier is able to increase the drug concentration in the brain by enhancing the affinity to blood-brain barrier and/or inhibiting the efflux absorbed drug via P-glycoprotein. The active brain-targeting drug carrier can be obtained by linking specific ligands or antibodies onto passive target carriers to achieve precise delivery of drugs to the brain. Dual targeting drug carriers obtained by combining tumor cell targeting with brain targeting have shown their advantages for treatment of brain tumors. The targeted drug delivery to brain will provide a unique manner for the treatment of brain diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, brain tumors, and stroke. Among the drug delivery systems of passive brain-targeting, active brain-targeting and dual brain-targeting, we evaluated the strategies to improve brain drug delivery efficiency, such as by reducing carrier size, opening tight junctions between cells at the blood-brain barrier, incorporating hydrophilic groups on the surface of the carrier, and alternative intranasal drug administration.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775930

ABSTRACT

" 's triple nine needling therapy" is the crucial acupuncture prescription in treatment of eye diseases in 's academic school of ophthalmology. " 's triple nine needling therapy" includes the three points near to the eyes, the three groups of points for penetrating acupuncture around the eyes and the acupoint selection based on the general differentiation of syndrome. In this paper, the acupoint selection and the thinking of acupoint combination were introduced in the treatment of optic nerve disease on the base of the theory of " 's triple nine needling" prescription. The specific needling manipulations at different regions involved in the triple needling procedure were explained in detail. It is proposed that the acupoints are combined and the correct needling manipulations selected rationally in compliance with the illness condition and the syndrome characteristics to ensure maximally the clinical effects of " 's triple nine needling therapy".


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Humans , Needles , Optic Nerve Diseases , Therapeutics
19.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 417-422, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810016

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate clinicopathologic features and prognostic factors of mantle cell lymphoma(MCL).@*Methods@#The clinical data of 349 MCL patients diagnosed at Beijing Friendship Hospital from January 2004 to January 2016 were retrospectively collected. Corresponding histological sections were reviewed. Additional studies included immunohistochemical staining using the MaxVision two-step method, IgH/CCND1 fusion gene detection by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and correlative statistical analysis.@*Results@#Of 349 patients with MCL, the median patient age was 61 years (range: 25-83 years, M∶F=2.7∶1.0) and the age of 243 patients ranged from 51 to 70 years (69.6%). Those with B symptoms accounted for 22.4% (70/313). Most of the patients presented with superficial lymphadenopathy and the clinical stage Ⅲ-Ⅳ accounted for 76.1% (235/309). Extranodal involvement was seen in 47.9% (148/309), among which the gastrointestinal tract accounted for 31.8% (47/148) and splenic involvement accounted for 15.4% (47/305). Three hundred and nine (88.5%) cases were of classical type and 40 (11.5%) cases were of aggressive variant type, and all were composed of proliferating lymphoid cells. All the tumors were positive for CD20 and cyclin D1, and 98.6% (344/349) tumors were weakly positive or positive for CD5. FISH test was positive in 12 cases that were CD5 negative and with cyclin D1 partial expression.Two hundred and forty-three (69.6%) patients had a median follow-up of 26 months (range: 3-108 months). The 3- and 5-year overall survival rates for patients were 63.0% and 34.8%, respectively. Single factor analysis showed that age of >60 years, splenic involvement, aggressive variant type, incompletely overlapping type [Based on the degree of overlap ≥90% and <90% between the follicular dendritic cell (FDC) meshwork and tumor cells, the tumors were divided into the completely overlapped type and incompletely overlapped type] and Ki-67 index >40% had poor prognosis (P<0.05). Multiple factor Cox proportional risk regression analysis after removing the aggressive variant type showed that age, splenic involvement, the degree of overlap between the FDC meshwork and tumor cells and Ki-67 index were independent prognostic factors for overall survival rate of MCL patients (P<0.05).@*Conclusions@#MCL is more commonly found among middle-aged and elderly men. Patient age, splenic involvement, degree of overlap between FDC meshwork and tumor cells and Ki-67 index are the independent prognostic indicators for MCL.

20.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 407-411, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810014

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the clinicopathological features of EBV-positive T/NK cell lymphoproliferative diseases (EBV+ T/NK-LPD).@*Methods@#The clinical characteristics of 156 cases of EBV+ T/NK-LPD were collected from August 2002 to March 2015 at Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University. Immunohistochemical staining, EBER in situ hybridization and clonal analysis of TCR gene were performed. All patients were followed up.@*Results@#There were 106 male and 50 female patients; patients′ age ranged from 1 to 75 years (median 20 years). The course of the diseases before diagnosis ranged from 2 to 540 months (median 20 months). Fever was noted in 122 patients (78.2%), 108 patients had lymphadenopathy (69.2%), and 75 patients had hepatosplenomegaly (48.1%). Thirty-three cases were grade 1, 68 cases were grade 2, and 55 cases were grade 3. TCR gene arrangement analysis was performed in 45 cases, and 33 cases (73.3%) showed clonal rearrangement. The follow-up period ranged from 1-134 months, and 44 patients (28.2%) died. There was a trend of increased death rate associated with increasing grade (P>0.05).@*Conclusions@#There are many types of EBV+ T/NK-LPD, and they can be classified as systemic, relatively localized and localized. The prognosis should be based on a comprehensive analysis of pathology and clinical data. There is no significant correlation between morphological grade and mortality. An important goal of therapy is to prevent serious complications.

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