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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873740

ABSTRACT

Malaria was one for the most serious communicable diseases in China. Following the concerted efforts for decades, remarkable achievements have been gained for malaria control in China. Since the national malaria elimination programme was initiated in China in 2010, local malaria transmission was rapidly interrupted, with zero indigenous malaria case reported for the first time in the country in 2017, and the country will undergo the certification of malaria elimination by WHO. Currently, however, malaria remains hyper-endemic across the world. In China, there are more than 2 000 overseas imported malaria cases each year, and prevention of re-establishment of imported malaria will become the major task in future malaria control activities. Here by, we analyze the main challenges in the prevention of re-establishment of imported malaria in China, and propose the corresponding countermeasures, so as to provide insights into the consolidation of malaria elimination achievements.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885837

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in extremely preterm infants (EPI) before 28 weeks of gestation during 8-years period.Methods:A retrospective study. From January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2018, 300 EPI infants with a gestational age of less than 28 weeks admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Tianjin Central Hospital of Gynecology Obstetrics were included in the study. EPI birth gestational week (GA), birth weight (BW), gender and other basic information, as well as neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, oxygen (≥10 d), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and other hospitalizations and complications were recorded. According to ROP international classification standards, ROP was staged. Severe ROP was defined as ROP that requires treatment. The screening start time, screening interval, and intervention time of all children tested were carried out in accordance with the requirements of the "Guidelines for Screening Retinopathy of Prematurity" until the end of follow-up. The most severe ROP during the follow-up of each examined child was recorded as the final screening result of the examined child, and those with asymmetric eyes with the screening results of the severe side of the diseas was recorded. A retrospective analysis of the overall incidence of EPI ROP showed the incidence of severe ROP, and the first and second stages of EPI ROP during the 8 years (from January 1 , 2011 to December 31, 2014, and January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2018), changes in the rate of severe illness. Logistic regression analysis was used to screen independent risk factors for severe ROP.Results:Among 300 EPI infants, the average GA was (26.7±1.8) weeks; the average BW was (993.3±178.7) g. Two hundred and five infants (68.3%) were diagnosed with ROP, 116 (56.6%), 57 (27.8%), and 32 (15.6%) infants of stage Ⅰ, Ⅱ, and Ⅲ disease, respectively. There were no infants of stage IV and V. There were 30 infants (14.6%) with additional lesions and 59 infants (19.7%) with severe ROP requiring treatment. With the increase of GA ( χ2=52.391, 44.521; P=0.000, 0.000) and BW ( χ2=43.772, 26.138; P=0.000, 0.000), the incidence of EPI ROP and the incidence of severe ROP decreased significantly. From 2011 to 2018, the number of people surviving EPI obviously increased, especially those with small GA (26 weeks) and low BW (750 g). The average GA of the second stage EPI was lower than that of the first stage, the difference was statistically significant ( t=2.243, P=0.026); the average BW of the second stage EPI was lower than the first stage, the difference was not statistically significant ( t=1.428, P=0.154). The incidence of ROP in the second stage EPI was slightly higher than that in the first stage, and the incidence of severe ROP was lower than that in the first stage, the difference was not statistically significant ( χ2=1.069, 1.723; P=0.301, 0.189). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that GA<27 weeks ( β=-2.584, P=0.032), maternal chorioamnionitis (CA) ( β=-0.935, P=0.038) and BPD ( β=-1.432, P=0.001) was an independent risk factor for severe ROP. Conclusions:The incidence of EPI ROP and severe ROP are 68.3% and 19.7%, respectively. From 2011 to 2018, the number of survivors of EPI obviously increase, and those with small GA and low BW increase significantly; however, the incidence of ROP and severe ROP remaine stable. GA, CA and BPD are independent risk factors for severe ROP.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883307

ABSTRACT

Ocular surface diseases are common diseases in ophthalmology.It is difficult for clinicians to make early and accurate diagnosis based on symptoms, signs and serologic examination.Compared with the blood test, the tear test can reflect the condition of the local ocular surface and it has the characteristics of being non-invasive, having high diagnostic accuracy and fast diagnostic speed.Tear detection uses modern detection techniques such as polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, gene chip and protein chip to detect the pathogen and immune components in tear, including microbial nucleic acid, tear antibody (IgM, IgG, IgE, IgA, antinuclear antibody, etc.) and cytokines (interleukin, tumor necrosis factor, interference factor, transforming growth factor, epidermal growth factor, etc.). Tear detection provides information about the pathogen infection and immune response on the ocular surface.At present, a large number of domestic and foreign tear detection studies show that there are certain regular changes in tear composition, not only in ocular surface diseases, uveitis, fundus diseases, thyroid related ophthalmopathy, but even in systemic diseases such as diabetes, hepatitis B, acquired immune deficiency syndrome etc.In addition, the research of tear pathogen and immune components is of great significance to study the cause, biochemical and immune process, treatment of diseases.In this paper, the latest research progress of tear collection, the clinical significance of tear pathogen and immune components and the characteristics of tear in various diseases was summarized and analyzed to provide reference for clinical practice.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882854

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the death rate of asthma among Chinese people aged 0-19 years in 2018 and the trend of asthma mortality between 2008 and 2018, in order to guide the research of asthma control management and prevention strategy, and reduce the mortality of childhood asthma in China.Methods:Data from the national disease surveillance points system (DSPs) was adopted.The mortality rates of 0-19-year-old people in different age groups, genders, places of residence and geographical regions from 2008 to 2018 were calculated, and the national death toll of asthma was estimated as well.The annual percentage change (APC) and average annual percentage change (AAPC) were calculated, and the death rate of asthma among Chinese people aged 0-19 years in 2018 and change trend of asthma mortality from 2008 to 2018 were analyzed.Results:In 2018, there was no significant gender diffe-rence in asthma mortality among Chinese people aged 0-19 years among different age groups, places of residence and geographical regions(all P>0.05). From 2008 to 2018, the mortality rate of people aged 0-19 fluctuated from 0.023/100 000 to 0.046/100 000, the highest mortality rate was in 2009 and 2012, and the lowest was in 2018. It was estimated that the total number of deaths among people aged 0-19 years reached the highest in 2009 (148 cases) and the lowest in 2018 (70 cases). It is estimated that the total number of deaths among people aged 0-19 years in China from 2008 to 2018 was 1 158 cases.From 2008 to 2018, the total mortality rate of asthma in Chinese population aged 0-19 years decreased significantly (AAPC=-7.6%, 95% CI: -10.4%--4.7%). There was a significant decrease in male group(AAPC=-7.4%, 95% CI: -12.5%--2.0%), female group(AAPC=-7.5%, 95% CI: -12.7%--2.0%), 1-<5 years old group(AAPC=-11.4%, 95% CI: -17.9%--4.5%), 15-19 years old group(AAPC=-14.4%, 95% CI: -24.8%--2.6%), rural group(AAPC=-9.0%, 95% CI: -13.1%--4.8%) and central areas(AAPC=-13.1%, 95% CI: -24.0%--0.5%), with statistical significance(all P<0.05). Conclusions:The total mortality of asthma in 0-19-year old population decreased significantly from 2008 to 2018.The mortality rate of asthma in 0-19-year old people in China is at the low level around the world.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882848

ABSTRACT

Bronchial asthma is the most common chronic respiratory disease in children.With the increasing use of inhaled corticosteroids, asthma deaths in the world have decreased by nearly two thirds.Mortality of childhood asthma is very low, ranging from 0 to 0.7/100 000, however, most of risk factors of asthma death could be avoidable.Risk factors of asthma death include poor asthma control, poor treatment compliance, insufficient medicine prescribed by doctors, insufficient monitoring of lung function, mental and psychological problems, food allergy, insufficient recognition and treatment of asthma exacerbation, improper use of β 2-receptor agonist, insufficient application of asthma action plan, et al.The mortality and risk factors of asthma in children were reviewed, which could support further improving asthma management strategies.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882845

ABSTRACT

Anaphylaxis is the most severe clinical presentation of acute systemic allergic reactions.The occurrence of anaphylaxis has increased in recent years, and subsequently, there is a need to continue disseminating knowledge on the diagnosis and management, so every healthcare professional is prepared to deal with such emergencies.This updated position document keep guidance aligned with the current state of the art of knowledge in anaphylaxis management including definition, diagnostic criteria, severity grading, elicitors and cofactors, acute treatment and long-term management of anaphylaxis.Intramuscular Adrenaline continues to be the first-line treatment for anaphylaxis.After an anaphylaxis occurrence, patients should be referred to a specialist to assess the potential cause and to be educated on prevention of recurrences and self-management.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882805

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the etiology of pleural effusion in hospitalized children in Beijing Children′s Hospital.Methods:Clinical information of children with pleural effusion admitted to Beijing Children′s Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University from January 2016 to December 2018 was retrospectively analyzed.According to the etiology, the children were divided into infection group (parapneumonic pleural effusion, tuberculous pleurisy and empyema) and non infection group.According to the age, the children were further divided into ≤ 3 years old, >3-7 years old and > 7 years old groups.Classification of statistics was performed, and the etiology of pleural effusion were retrospectively analyzed.Results:Among the 1 165 children with pleural effusion, 746 cases(64.0%) were infected with pleural effusion, 697 cases (697/746, 93.4%) of who were parapneumonic effusion.In patients with parapneumonic effusion, 457 cases (61.3%) had Mycoplasma pneumonia (MP) infection.Infectious pleural effusion was more common in children >7 years old(339/479 cases, 70.8%), while non-infectious pleural effusion was prevalent in children under 3 years old(188/324 cases, 58.0%). The difference was statistically significant ( χ2=96.33, P<0.05). Among the patients with non-infectious pleural effusion, 239 cases (239/419 cases, 57.0%) had multi-system diseases and 97 cases (97/419 cases, 23.2%) had malignant pleural effusion.All the 18 deaths were non-infectious pleural effusion. Conclusions:The leading reason for pleural effusion in children is infection.The most prevalent symptom is parapneumonic effusion, which is mainly caused by MP.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877656

ABSTRACT

This paper analyzes the development necessity of a series of international technical specification of acupuncture-moxibustion from three aspects, the development status of global


Subject(s)
Acupuncture , Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Internationality , Moxibustion , Reference Standards
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-866573

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the effect and safety of adjustable closed loop(ACL) in the treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS).Methods:From January 2017 to December 2017, the clinical data of 2 cases with ostomy in continuity after surgery in Children's Hospital Affiliated to Xi'an Jiaotong University were analyzed.The age was 1 and 3 months, both were females, and preservation of intestinal tube length were 65 cm and 60 cm respectively.They were all diagnosed SBS with a lot of stool like water.Self-made ACL was installed to maintain SBS.The blood circulation of stoma, weight, BMI, defecating, abdomen, nutrition status changes, nursing convenience, intestinal infection susceptibility were observed.Results:There was no necrosis in stoma, and the overall condition was improved, and no significant increase in abdominal distension.ACL used in babies with ostomy in continuity could improve the anus stool, weight, nursing convenience.Conclusion:ACL installed in baby with SBS could contribute to intestinal management, and is easy to install.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828402

ABSTRACT

As an important substitute for agarwood, mountain-agarwood, belonging to the family Oleaceae, comes from the root, stem and thick branch of Syringa pinnatifolia, which has a wide range of application in Inner Mongolia, China. It has good clinical efficacy in the use of cardiovascular diseases. However, the formation speed of mountain-agarwood is extremely slow, and its cultivated seedlings have low resin content. Therefore, how to speed up the formation of mountain-agarwood and increase the resin content is a hot research topic in this field. In this work, 16 S rDNA amplicon sequencing method was used to systematically analyze the bacterial communities of different samples of mountain-agarwood. Our data revealed that the samples of mountain-agarwood had more obvious species diversity than the ones of non-mountain-agarwood, especially the wild mountain-agarwood samples. By analysis of bacterial community composition and species abundance, Sphingomonas, Modestobacter and unidentified Cyanobacteria genus were three dominant bacterial genera in all samples. In addition, there are two identified genera of dominant bacteria, namely Actinoplanes and Microbacterium in both wild and cultivated mountain-agarwood, by bacterial community composition and species richness analysis. Meanwhile, Roseomonas was the dominant bacterial genus in both wild and cultivated non-mountain-agarwood samples. Our work could provides basic data for exploring the mechanism of the mountain-agarwood formation, and help to exploit resource of endophytic bacteria reasonably.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Genetics , China , DNA, Ribosomal , Resins, Plant , Thymelaeaceae
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828383

ABSTRACT

Mountain-agarwood plays an important role in ethnic medicine in China for its pharmaceutical value. Modern pharmacological researches demonstrated that mountain-agarwood was effective for its anti-myocardial ischemia, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor and analgesic effects. Mountain-agarwood derives from the peeled roots, stems or twigs of Syringa pinnatifolia which belongs to Syringa genus. It often depends on the purple substance and fragrance to estimate the formation of mountain-agarwood. However, the mechanism of mountain-agarwood formation has not been reported. To observe the microcosmic change in the process during the formation of mountain-agarwood, this study described the microscopic and histochemical characteristics of mountain-agarwood formation through histochemical staining. Our results showed that a significant difference of the distribution of tyloses existed during mountain-agarwood formation. It was observed that inchoate mountain-agarwood had more starch granules and viable cells than mountain-agarwood formed with high level or low level. The amount of polysaccharide and degree of lignification were increased during the mountain-agarwood formation. The results indicated that the mountain-agarwood, which meets the quality requirements for pharmaceutical use, contained the following characteristics: a large amount of purple tyloses in heartwood; yellow-brown tyloses distributing in heartwood and sapwood which were less in the latter; lignification with high level; a few viable cells; lots of polysaccharide and few starch granules in xylem rays cell. This study is aimed to reveal the change of histochemical characteristics during mountain-agarwood formation, and lay the foundation for exploring the mechanism of mountain-agarwood formation.


Subject(s)
China , Humans , Myocardial Ischemia , Syringa , Thymelaeaceae
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827942

ABSTRACT

Syringa plants are of important value in ornamental, economic and medical fields. The terpenoids in Syringa plants mainly include iridoids, sesquiterpenoids, and triterpenoids, most showing activities such as cardioprotective, neuroprotective, hypoglycemic, anti-flu virus, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidation effects. Among the above active compounds, sesquiterpenoids have attracted increasing attention. In this review, the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of Syringa terpenoids were summarized in order to provide an overview for further research and development of Syringa plants.


Subject(s)
Phytochemicals , Sesquiterpenes , Syringa , Terpenes , Triterpenes
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827938

ABSTRACT

To explore the diversity of bacterial community structure between different layers of agarwood, Hiseq(high-throughput sequencing) was used to analyze the bacterial community structure of samples from different layers of agarwood. Our results showed that 1 150 096 optimized sequences and 9 690 OTUs were obtained from 15 samples of 5 layers of agarwood, which belonged to 28 bacterial phyla, 61 classes, 110 orders, 212 families and 384 genera. Further analysis revealed that the normal layer(NL) had the lowest bacterial species richness and the smallest number of OTUs. And the total number of OTUs of the agarwood layer(AL) and NL was zero, which was quite different.At the same time, there were significant differences in bacterial community structure and species diversity between NL and the other four layers. While there were some common dominant bacterial genera in both transition layer(TL) and NL. The similarity of bacterial distribution in 4 non-NL layers was relatively high, which had four common genera, such as Acidibacter, Bradyrhizobium, Acidothemus and Sphingomonas. While Acidibacter, Bradyrhizobium and Acidothemus were the dominant bacterial genus of DA and AL, and all of these layers contained volatile oil. In addition, the Bradyrhizobium was the most abundant in agarwood layer. Our results showed that bacterial community diversity and abundance were decreasing from DL to AL, and different layers showed significant differences in bacterial enrichment. It provided the clues to investigate how bacteria participate in the formation of agarwood.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Oils, Volatile , Thymelaeaceae , Genetics
15.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2325-2332, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-825886

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To explore the mechanism of Hippophae rhamnoides in the treatment of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD), and to provide theoretic reference for further exploring the material basis. METHODS :TCMSP,Uniprot,GeneCards database were used to screen the active components of H. rhamnoides ,targets and AD-related target gene. The “ingredients-targets-related diseases”network was constructed by Cytoscape 3.7.1 software. STRING database was adopted to construct protein interaction (PPI)network,molecular docking was conducted between the potential targets with high degree values and active components of H. rhamnoides . The gene ontology (GO)analysis and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG)pathway enrichment analysis were performed by Clue GO for the potential target of H. rhamnoides in the treatment of AD. Totally 50 mice were randomly divided into blank group ,model group [ D-galactose 120 mg/(kg·d),AlCl3 solution 20 mg/(mL·d)],positive drug group [oxiracetam 260 mg/(kg·d)],seabuckthorn oil extract group [ 1.6 g/(kg·d)],seabuckthorn polyphenols group [1.6 g/(kg·d)],with 10 mice in each group. The mice was given relevant medicine intragastrically and modeling agent ;blank group was given constant volume of distilled water intragastrically ,once a day ,for consecutive 60 d. The learning and memory abilities were detected by Morris water maze test ;the levels of immune factors in hippocampus tissue were measured by ELISA. Pathological morphology of hippocampus tissue was observed by HE staining. The mechanism of H. rhamnoides in the treatment of AD was validated preliminarily. RESULTS :Totally 22 active components of H. rhamnoides (quercetin,kaempferol,isorhamnetin, β-carotene,β-sitosterol) may affect biological processes such as nuclear receptor activity ,lipopolysaccharide-mediated signal pathway,and may affect 114 methabolism pathways such as IL- 17 signal transduction pathway ,TNF signal transduction pathway by regulating 147 targets such as serine/threonine kinase coding protein (AKT1),amino terminal kinase (JUN)and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK1). The results of molecular docking showed that binding scores of the main active components of H. rhamnoides and the main target proteins were all above 4.25,which showed good binding activity. Results of pharmacology experiment showed that H. rhamnoides extract could shorten the escape latency of AD model mice ,increased the times of crossing platform,relieved hippocampus injury of cerebral tissue ,and decreased the contents of inflammatory factors TNF-α,IL-1β,IL-6 and IL- 17 in hippocampus of cerebral tissue. CONCLUSIONS :The active components of H. rhamnoides can regulate multiple targets in the important pathway of AD ;animal experiments preliminarily verify that H. rhamnoides can relieve the hippocampus injury and improve the learning and memory ability of AD model mice by inhibiting the expression of inflammatory factors.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821621

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was identified in Wuhan City, Hubei Province of China by the end of 2019, and then, the disease spread across China and became a global pandemic. Nevertheless, there are no effective treatments or vaccines for COVID-19 until now. In addition to the treatment of patients with COVID-19, the China Medical Treatment Expert Group for COVID-19 is active to study and screen effective antiviral drugs, and has found that chloroquine, an old antimalarial,shows activity against SARS-CoV-2. Then, chloroquine was included in the Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of COVID-19 in China (version 6) issued by National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China. Currently, chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine sulfate, two chloroquine derivatives, are under clinical use. Although these two agents exhibit similar mechanisms of drug actions, there is a difference between these two chemicals in terms of target populations, therapeutic efficacy and adverse reactions. This paper summarizes the currently available data and experiences from clinical treatment for malaria with chloroquine drugs, so as to provide insights into the more rational use of chloroquine agents for the treatment of COVID-19.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821085

ABSTRACT

@#This study aimed to investigate the antitumor efficacy of a single-chain variable fragment JZC00 combined with 2-deoxyglucose(2-DG)on murine non-small lung cancer cell and breast cancer cell models. JZC00 was expressed by E. coli and identified using SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The combination inhibited the proliferation of LLC and 4T1 cells. The concentration of glucose and lactic acid in the medium were determined by glucose and lactate kit, respectively, then calculated the tumor cell glucose uptake inhibition rate and lactate release inhibition rate. In vivo, the tumor volume and tumor weight were analyzed after 15-day treatment. The results showed that the molecular weight of JZC00 expressed was correct, and it could inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells in vitro. JZC00 and 2-DG could inhibit the glycolysis of tumor cells, respectively, and JZC00 combined with 2-DG could inhibit glycolysis synergistically. When hypoxic microenvironment was induced in vitro, the inhibition of glycolysis by JZC00 treatment decreased. However, it was reversed with the addition of 2-DG. The in vivo models the combination showed a significantly improved tumor suppressive effect compared with JZC00 treated group, suggesting that 2-DG could improve the anti-tumor effect of anti-angiogenic antibodies and its combination has the potentialial value in the treatment of solid tumors.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878854

ABSTRACT

Ganjiang Lingzhu Decoction is one of the first 100 classical prescriptions published by China in 2018. According to the published literature, it was found that there is no review on the history, evolution and research progress of this prescription. In order to reflect the history, modifications, quality control and clinical applications, this paper focuses on the origination, evolution, current development and modern studies of Ganjiang Lingzhu Decoction, in the hope of providing a reference for the heritage and innovation of other classical prescriptions.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Prescriptions , Quality Control
19.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1245-1249, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877593

ABSTRACT

Through analyzing the differences in the clinical questions of


Subject(s)
Acupuncture , Acupuncture Therapy , Humans , Migraine Disorders/therapy , Moxibustion , Reference Standards
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-803098

ABSTRACT

Early days in life can not only affect people′s physiology, immune system, metabolism and structural development, but also can alter body cell functions in long term, which in turn has an impact on human′s health and diseases both in short and long term.Thus, early days, especially the first thousand days in life play an important role in human health and is thought to be a key period for preventing certain diseases later in life, which is under heated investigation.However, the mechanisms for this impact are not clear.This review emphasizes the importance of the first thousand days in human life and elucidates its association with human health from multiple aspects.

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