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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920541

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the prevalence of myopic refractive error and its associated risk factors among primary school students in Shanghai Minhang Distict. Methods A total of 11 356 primary school students who participated in the children's refraction screening project in Meilong Community, Minhang District, Shanghai from January 1 to December 31, 2019 were selected for visual inspection and computer optometry Results The detection rate of myopic refractive error among 6-10 year-old students was 45.59%, with a higher rate in girls and older age group. The detection rates of 6-10 year-old students were 22.88% (6 year-old), 31.77% (7 year-old), 47.62% (8 year-old), 60.53% (9 year-old) and 69.84% (10 year-old), respectively, showing a linear trend(χ 2=1.31, P<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that myopic refractive error was statistically significantly associated with gender, age and parents' myopic. Birth weight, preterm birth and body mass index (BMI) had no influence on refractive myopic in primary school students. Conclusion Myopic refractive error is still a major public health problem in primary school students. A combined strategies for myopic refractive error reduction should be called to focus on high risk persons and behaviors.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1-12, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913160

ABSTRACT

Due to the complexity of tumor pathology, the demand for the combined use of multiple drugs in clinical treatment has become increasingly clear-cut. Multi-drug combination can act on multiple pathways and multiple targets simultaneously to exert synergistic effects. However, the current delivery strategy for multi-drug combination still needs to be optimized. Nano-drug delivery systems can carry drugs to overcome physiological and pathological barrier to target tumor tissues and cells, achieve the goal of continuous, controllable, and targeted delivery, and enhance the efficacy of anti-tumor synergism and detoxification. To meet the new requirements for smarter and more accurate antitumor multi-drug combinational therapy, the nano-drug delivery system has been well-designed to realize more functions. For instance, delivery of multiple drugs in accurate proportions and doses can make the multi-drug synergistic effect more precise; stimulus-responsive drug release can improve selectivity and reduce side effects; controlling the time-course relationship of multiple drugs can realize sequential drug combination effect. It has shown broad prospects in the field of tumor multidrug therapy and has become one of the new directions of research and development. This article reviews the recent developments in the application of tumor drug combination therapy strategies and their delivery systems, and analyzes the new requirements and challenges of multidrug combination for the development of nano-drug delivery systems.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928959

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effects of total ginsenosides (TG) extract from Panax ginseng on neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and differentiation and their underlying mechanisms.@*METHODS@#The migration of NSCs after treatment with various concentrations of TG extract (50, 100, or 200 µ g/mL) were monitored. The proliferation of NSCs was examined by a combination of cell counting kit-8 and neurosphere assays. NSC differentiation mediated by TG extract was evaluated by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining to monitor the expression of nestin and microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2). The GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway in TG-treated NSCs was examined by Western blot assay. The NSCs with constitutively active GSK-3β mutant were made by adenovirus-mediated gene transfection, then the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs mediated by TG were further verified.@*RESULTS@#TG treatment significantly enhanced NSC migration (P<0.01 or P<0.05) and increased the proliferation of NSCs (P<0.01 or P<0.05). TG mediation also significantly upregulated MAP2 expression but downregulated nestin expression (P<0.01 or P<0.05). TG extract also significantly induced GSK-3β phosphorylation at Ser9, leading to GSK-3β inactivation and, consequently, the activation of the GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway (P<0.01 or P<0.05). In addition, constitutive activation of GSK-3β in NSCs by the transfection of GSK-3β S9A mutant was found to significantly suppress TG-mediated NSC proliferation and differentiation (P<0.01 or P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#TG promoted NSC proliferation and neuronal differentiation by inactivating GSK-3β.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/metabolism , Neural Stem Cells/metabolism , Panax , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats , beta Catenin/metabolism
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928863

ABSTRACT

From the perspective of technical evaluation, this article introduces the focus of clinical evaluation of dental implants (systems) in comparison with the comparable devices and discusses the clinical evaluation of such products,combined with the clinical evaluation review of dental implants (systems) products in recent years, in order to provide reference for the registration of these products.


Subject(s)
Dental Implants
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928154

ABSTRACT

This study aims to develop an HPLC-DAD method for simultaneous determination of 11 components(6 phenolic acids and 5 iridoids) in Lonicera japonica flowers(LjF) and leaves(LjL), and compare the content differences of LjF at different development stages, LjL at different maturity levels, and between LjF and LjL. One-way ANOVA, principal component analysis(PCA), and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) were employed to compare the content of the 11 components. The content of total phenolic acids, total iridoid glycosides, and total 11 components in LjF showed an overall downward trend with the development of flowers. The content of total phenolic acids, total iridoid glycosides, and total 11 components in young leaves were higher than those in mature leaves. The results of PCA showed that the samples at different flowering stages had distinguishable differences in component content. The VIP value of OPLS-DA showed that isochlorogenic acid A, chlorogenic acid, and secologanic acid were the main differential components of LjF at different development stages or LjL with different maturity levels. LjF and LjL have certain similarities in chemical composition while significant differences in component content. The content of total phenolic acids in young leaves was significantly higher than that in LjF at various development stages. The content of total iridoid glycosides in young leaves was similar to that in LjF before white flower bud stage. The total content of 11 components in young leaves was significantly higher than that in LjF at green flower bud stage, before and during completely white flower bud stage. LjL have great potential for development. Follow-up research on the pharmacodynamic equivalence of LjF and LjL(especially young leaves) should be carried out to speed up the development and application of LjL.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Flowers/chemistry , Iridoid Glycosides/analysis , Lonicera/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928151

ABSTRACT

The chemical constituents of classical prescription Danggui Buxue Decoction were analyzed by reversed-phase(RP) chromatography and hydrophilic interaction chromatography(HILIC) coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. RP separation of Danggui Buxue Decoction was performed on ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 μm), while HILIC separation was on Waters BEH Amide(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm). Mass spectrometry(MS) data were acquired in both negative and positive ion modes. Chemical constituents of Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix were searched from Reaxys and thus the in-house library was established. MS data were further analyzed by MassLynx 4.1 combined with in-house library, HMDB, Reaxys, and comparison with reference substances. In conclusion, a total of 154 compounds were identified and characterized: 16 saponins, 44 flavonoids, 10 phthalides, 7 phenylpropanoids, 15 bases and the corresponding nucleosides, 30 oligosaccharides, and 32 other compounds. Among them, 65 compounds were detected by HILIC-MS/MS. This study provides experimental evidences for the material basis research, quality control, and preparation development of Danggui Buxue Decoction and a reference method for comprehensive characterization of Chinese medicine decoctions typified by classical prescriptions.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Prescriptions , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928150

ABSTRACT

According to the polarity of different components in Sanpian Decoction, two fingerprints were established. Then the substance benchmark freeze-dried powder of 15 batches of Sanpian Decoction was prepared, followed by the determination of the fingerprints, index component content, and dry extract rates, the identification of attribution of characteristic peaks, and the calculation of similarities between these fingerprints and the reference(R), the content and transfer rate ranges of ferulic acid, sinapine thiocyanate, liquiritin, and glycyrrhizic acid, and the dry extract rate range. The results showed that the similarities of 15 batches of the substance benchmark fingerprints with R were all greater than 0.900.Further summarization of the characteristic peaks revealed that there were a total of 20 characteristic peaks in fingerprint 1, among which, eight were from Sinapis Semen, four from Paeoniae Radix Alba, six from Chuanxiong Rhizoma, and two from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. A total of 16 characteristic peaks were observed in fingerprint 2, including one from Sinapis Semen, three from Paeoniae Radix Alba, eight from Chuanxiong Rhizoma, and four from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. The average dry extract rate of 15 batches of substance benchmarks was 18.25%, with a dry extract rate range of 16.28%-20.76%. The index component content and transfer rate ranges were listed as follows: 0.15%-0.18% and 38.81%-58.05% for ferulic acid; 0.26%-0.42% and 36.51%-51.02% for sinapine thiocyanate; 0.09%-0.15% and 48.80%-76.61% for liquiritin; 0.13%-0.24% and 23.45%-35.61% for glycyrrhizic acid. The fingerprint, dry extract rate, and index component content determination was combined for analyzing the quality value transfer of substance benchmarks in the classic prescription Sanpian Decoction.The established quality evaluation method for the substance benchmarks was stable and feasible, which has provided a basis for the quality control of Sanpian Decoction and the follow-up development of related preparations.


Subject(s)
Benchmarking , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glycyrrhizic Acid/analysis , Paeonia , Quality Control , Thiocyanates
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928099

ABSTRACT

By the in-depth excavation of prescriptions containing herbal pair Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma-Polygalae Radix in the Dictionary of Traditional Chinese Medicine Prescriptions, this study analyzed their formulation rules, so as to provide reference for their clinical application and new drug development. First, the prescriptions containing Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma-Polygalae Radix were collected from the Dictionary of Traditional Chinese Medicine Prescriptions, and their indications, herbal compatibility, and dosage forms were analyzed statistically using the Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Support System(TCMISS). Meanwhile, the formulation rules and common dosage forms for the top four indications(amnesia, palpitation, mania, and epilepsy) sorted by frequency were analyzed with Apriori algorithm. A total of 507 prescriptions containing Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma-Polygalae Radix were screened out, involving 15 indications(frequency>10) like amnesia, palpitation, mania, and epilepsy. There were 30 commonly used Chinese herbs(frequency≥60), with the Qi-tonifying herbs(Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizome), mind-tranquilizing herbs(Poria and Poria cum Radix Pini), and Yin-nourishing herbs(Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Ophiopogonis Radix) being the core ones. The commonly used dosage forms were honey pill, paste pill, decoction, and powder. These have indicated that the herbal pair Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma-Polygalae Radix is often combined with Qi-tonifying, Yin-nourishing, and mind-tranquilizing herbs for the treatment of "heart or brain diseases" caused by phlegm production due to spleen deficiency, Qi and blood deficiency, and phlegm-turbidity blocking orifice. In the treatment of amnesia, supplementing essence and replenishing marrow are considered on the basis of tonifying Qi, nourishing Yin, and tranquilizing mind. In the treatment of palpitation and mania, tranquilizing mind is emphasized. In the treatment of epilepsy, the emphasis is placed on resolving phlegm, extinguishing wind, and stopping convulsion.


Subject(s)
Data Mining , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Roots , Prescriptions , Rhizome
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928022

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effect of salidroside on phenotypic transformation of rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells(PASMCs) induced by hypoxia. Rat pulmonary arteries were isolated by tissue digestion and PASMCs were cultured. The OD values of cells treated with salidroside at different concentrations for 48 hours were measured by cell counting kit-8(CCK-8) to determine the appropriate concentration range of salidroside. The cells were divided into a normal(normoxia) group, a model(hypoxia) group, and three hypoxia + salidroside groups(40, 60, and 80 μg·mL~(-1)). Quantitative real-time PCR(qRT-PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression of cell contractile markers in each group, such as α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), smooth muscle 22(SM22), and calcium-binding protein(calponin), and synthetic marker vimentin. The expression levels of cell phenotypic markers and proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA) were detected by Western blot. The proliferation of cells in each group was detected by the 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine(EdU) assay. Cell migration was measured by Transwell assay. As revealed by results, compared with the normal group, the model group showed decreased mRNA and protein expression of contractile phenotypic markers of PASMCs and increased mRNA and protein expression of synthetic markers. Compared with the conditions in the model group, salidroside could down-regulate the mRNA and protein expression of synthetic markers in PASMCs and up-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of contractile phenotypic markers. Compared with the normal group, the model group showed potentiated proliferation and migration. Compared with the model group, the hypoxia + salidroside groups showed blunted proliferation and migration of cells after phenotypic transformation. The results suggest that salidroside can inhibit the expression of synthetic markers in PASMCs and promote the expression of contractile markers to inhibit the hypoxia-induced phenotypic transformation of PASMCs. The mechanism of salidroside in inhibiting the proliferation and migration of PASMCs is related to the inhibition of the phenotypic transformation of PASMCs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Glucosides , Hypoxia , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Phenols , Pulmonary Artery , Rats
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928010

ABSTRACT

The present study explored the kinetics and variation of volatile components of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma during the hot-air drying process to obtain the optimal process parameters under multiple goals such as drying efficiency and drying quality. The dry basis moisture content and drying rate curves along with the change of drying time of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma were investigated at five levels of drying air temperatures(30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ℃). The relationship between moisture ratio and time in the drying process of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma was fitted and verified by Midilli model, Page model, Overhults model, Modified Page model, Logaritmic model, Two terms Exponential model, and Newton model. Meanwhile, the effective diffusion coefficient of moisture(D_(eff)) and activation energy(E_a) in Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma were calculated under different drying air temperatures. GC-MS was used to determine the volatile components and content changes of the fresh Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and dried products at different temperatures. The dry basis moisture content and drying rate of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma were closely related to the temperature of the drying medium, and the moisture of the Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma decreased with the prolonged drying time. As revealed by the drying rate curve, the drying rate increased with the increase in hot air temperature, and the migration of moisture was accelerated. The comparison of the correlation coefficient(R~2), chi-square(χ~2), and root mean standard error(RMSE) of each model indicated that the parameter average of the Midilli model had the highest degree of fit, with R~2=0.999 2, χ~2=8.78×10~(-5), and RMSE=8.20×10~(-3). Besides, the D_(eff) at 30-70 ℃ was in the range of 1.04×10~(-9)-6.28×10~(-9) m~2·s~(-1), and E_a was 37.47 kJ·mol~(-1). The volatile components of fresh Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and dried products at different temperatures were determined by GC-MS, and 18, 18, 18, 17, 17, and 18 compounds were identified respectively, which accounted for more than 84.76% of the volatile components. In conclusion, the hot-air drying of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma can be model-fitted and verified and the variation law of the moisture and volatile components of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma with temperature is obtained. This study is expected to provide new ideas for exploring the drying characteristics and quality of aromatic Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Atractylodes , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hot Temperature , Kinetics , Rhizome
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927980

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze aflatoxins content and fungal community distribution in the harvesting and processing of Platycladi Semen, and explore the key link that affects aflatoxins contamination. The related Platycladi Semen samples of different maturity periods(cone non-rupture period, early rupture, and complete rupture period) and different processing periods(before drying, during 2-d drying, during 7-d drying, before and after seed scale removal, before and after peeling, 1 d after color sorting, and 7 d after color sorting) were collected for identifying the fungal community composition on sample surface by ITS amplicon sequencing. Then the content of aflatoxins B_1, B_2, G_1 and G_2 was determined by HPLC-MS/MS. The results showed that during the harvesting of Platycladi Semen from cone non-rupture to complete rupture, aflatoxins were only detected in the seed scale and seed coat, with aflatoxin G_2 in the seed scale and aflatoxin B_1 in the seed coat. During the drying, with the prolongation of drying time, aflatoxins B_1 and G_2 were detected simultaneously in the seed scale, aflatoxin B_1 in the seed coat, and low-content aflatoxin B_1 in the seed kernel. During subsequent processing, the aflatoxin content in seed kernel during subsequent processing was slighted increased. As demonstrated by fungal detection, Aspergillus flavus was not present during the harvesting of Platycladi Semen, but present during the drying and processing. Its content in the seed coat during the drying process was relatively higher. In short, Platycladi Semen should be harvested as soon as possible after it becomes fully mature. Drying process is the key link of preventing aflatoxin contamination. It is advised to build a sunlight room or adopt similar settings, standardize the operations in other processes, and keep the surrounding environment clean to minimize aflatoxin contamination.


Subject(s)
Aflatoxins/analysis , Aspergillus flavus , Food Contamination/prevention & control , Mycobiome , Semen/chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927977

ABSTRACT

Taste is an important factor affecting the medicinal properties of oral preparations and patient compliance with medication, and also an important evaluation index for oral preparation design and clinical application. How to characterize the taste objectively, accurately, simply, and efficiently is a bottleneck problem that restricts the taste design, development, and utilization of oral preparations. At present, the commonly used taste assessment methods for oral preparations are traditional human taste panel, electronic tongue, animal preference test, in vitro release study, and electrophysiological test. The traditional human taste panel is the first choice for taste evaluation, but it is limited by poor subjectivity and reproducibility. Therefore, despite some limitations, the other four taste assessment methods have been applied in the pharmaceutical industry as auxiliary methods. This study reviewed the detection principles, applicability, advantages, and disadvantages of the above methods to provide references for the taste correction research and taste assessment of oral preparations, improve patient compliance and the competitiveness of oral preparation products in the industry, and promote the development of oral preparation technologies.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Electronic Nose , Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Reproducibility of Results , Taste
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927946

ABSTRACT

In this study, the content of five heavy metals(Pb, Cd, As, Hg, and Cu) in 59 batches of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos(LJF) medicinal materials and pieces were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS). The health risk assessment was processed using the maximum estimated daily intake(EDI), target hazard quotients(THQ), and carcinogenic risks(CR) assessment models. With reference to the limit standard for heavy metal content in LJF specified in 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, five batches produced in Hebei were found to contain excessive Pb, and the remaining 54 batches met the specifications, with the unqualified rate of 8.47%. Comparative analysis of heavy metal content in LJF samples from three different producing areas, namely Shandong, Henan, and Hebei showed that the levels of Pb, As, and Hg in LJF from Hebei were significantly higher than those from Henan and Shandong. The samples produced in Shandong contained the highest content of Cd. The samples from Hebei contained the highest content of Cu while those from Shandong had the lowest content of Cu. As demonstrated by health risk assessment based on the EDI, THQ and CR models, these 59 batches of LJF samples did not cause significant health hazards for the exposed population, and there was no potential non-carcinogenic or carcinogenic risk. In conclusion, a few of LJF samples contained excessive heavy metals, so some measures, including controlling production environment, cultivating management mode, and optimizing processing methods, should be taken for ensuring the medication safety of LJF.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Mercury/toxicity , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Risk Assessment
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927345

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the clinical therapeutic effect of Tongdu Tiaoshen acupuncture combined with carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and simple CEA on carotid artery stenosis (CAS).@*METHODS@#A total of 60 patients with CAS were randomized into an observation group (30 cases, 2 cases dropped off) and a control group (30 cases, 3 cases dropped off). Both groups were treated with eversion CEA (eCEA). The conventional treatment of internal medicine and antiplatelet drugs i.e. aspirin enteric-coated tablet and clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate tablet were given in the control group for 4 weeks. On the basis of the treatment in the control group, Tongdu Tiaoshen acupuncture was applied at Baihui (GV 20), Fengfu (GV 16), Yamen (GV 15), cervical Jiaji (EX-B 2), Dazhui (GV 14), etc. in the observation group, once a day, 1-day rest was taken after 6-day treatment, 2 weeks were as one course and totally 2 courses were required. The carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) before and after treatment was detected by ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus, the TCM symptom score was compared before and after treatment and in the follow-up of 6 months after treatment, the clinical efficacy was evaluated in the two groups. The occurrence of endpoints within 1 year was recorded.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, the carotid IMT and TCM symptom scores were decreased compared before treatment in the both groups (P<0.05), and the changes in the observation group were greater than the control group (P<0.05). In the follow-up, the TCM symptom scores were decreased compared before treatment in the both groups (P<0.05). The total effective rate was 96.4% (27/28) in the observation group, which was superior to 88.9% (24/27) in the control group (P<0.05). There were 1 case of stoke in the observation group and 2 cases of stroke in the control group within 1-year follow-up, and there was no significant difference in the number of endpoints between the two groups within 1 year (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Tongdu Tiaoshen acupuncture combined with CEA can effectively reduce the IMT in patients with CAS, improve the TCM symptom score, the efficacy is superior to simple CEA treatment.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Carotid Stenosis/therapy , Endarterectomy, Carotid , Humans , Treatment Outcome
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924019

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the equity of the allocation of oral medical resources and the accessibility of health service capabilities in Wuhan. Methods The equity of oral medical resources was calculated with Gini coefficient and Theil index, accessibility was assessed by two-step floating catchment area model, and the spatial autocorrelation was used to study the high-low clustering of accessibility. Results The Gini coefficient of oral medical resources based on population level was around 0.3, and the Gini coefficient of oral medical resources based on geographic area was greater than 0.6. Theil index calculation results were similar. In terms of overall accessibility, the area with poor accessibility was 2,428 square kilometers, reaching 28.38% of the total area, while the area with better accessibility accounted for 14.18%. Conclusion The allocation of oral medical care resources based on population distribution was fairer and better than that based on geographic area. Moreover, the geographical accessibility varies greatly between regions, showing the characteristics of high-high cluster and low-low cluster.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874352

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We sought to investigate the effectiveness and safety of dabrafenib in children with BRAFV600E-mutated Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). @*Materials and Methods@#A retrospective analysis was performed on 20 children with BRAFV600E-mutated LCH who were treated with dabrafenib. @*Results@#The median age at which the patients started taking dabrafenib was 2.3 years old (range, 0.6 to 6.5 years). The ratio of boys to girls was 2.3:1. The median follow-up time was 30.8 months (range, 18.9 to 43.6 months). There were 14 patients (70%) in the risk organ (RO)+ group and six patients (30%) in the RO– group. All patients were initially treated with traditional chemotherapy and then shifted to targeted therapy due to poor control of LCH or intolerance to chemotherapy. The overall objective response rate and the overall disease control rate were 65% and 75%, respectively. During treatment, circulating levels of cell-free BRAFV600E (cfBRAFV600E) became negative in 60% of the patients within a median period of 3.0 months (range, 1.0 to 9.0 months). Grade 2 or 3 adverse effects occurred in five patients. @*Conclusion@#Some children with BRAFV600E-mutated LCH may benefit from monotherapy with dabrafenib, especially high-risk patients with concomitant hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and intolerance to chemotherapy. The safety of dabrafenib is notable. A prospective study with a larger sample size is required to determine the optimal dosage and treatment duration.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873741

ABSTRACT

Since 2015 when the transmission of schistosomiasis was controlled in China, the country has been moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis, with the surveillance-response as the main interventions for schistosomiasis control. During the period of the 13th Five-Year Plan, the transmission of schistosomiasis had been interrupted in four provinces of Sichuan, Jiangsu, Yunnan and Hubei and the prevalence of schistosomiasis has been at the historically lowest level in China. As a consequence, the goal set in The 13th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China is almost achieved. However, there are multiple challenges during the stage moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China, including the widespread distribution of intermediate host snails and complicated snail habitats, many types of sources of Schistosoma japonicum infections and difficulty in management of bovines and sheep, unmet requirements for the current schistosomiasis control program with the currently available tools, and vulnerable control achievements. During the 14th Five-Year period, it is crucial to consolidate the schistosomiasis control achievements and gradually solve the above difficulties, and critical to provide the basis for achieving the ultimate goal of elimination of schistosomiasis in China. Based on the past experiences from the national schistosomiasis control program and the challenges for schistosomiasis elimination in China, an expert consensus has been reached pertaining to the objectives, control strategy and measures for The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China, so as to provide insights in to the development of The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873551

ABSTRACT

@#Objective    To summarize the experience and lessons of right ventricular decompression in children with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum (PA/IVS) and to reflect on the strategies of right ventricular decompression. Methods    The clinical data of 12 children with PA/IVS who underwent right ventricular decompression in our hospital from March 2015 to December 2019 were reviewed retrospectively. There were 10 males and 2 females with a median age at the time of surgery was 5 d (range, 1-627 d). Correlation analysis between the pulmonary valve transvalvular pressure gradient and changes in Z score of tricuspid valves after decompression was performed. Results    One patient died of refractory hypoxemia due to circulatory shunt postoperatively and family members gave up treatment. There were 2 (16.67%) patients received postoperative intervention. The pulmonary transvalvular gradient after decompression was 31.95±21.75 mm Hg. Mild pulmonary regurgitation was found in 7 patients, moderate in 2 patients, and massive in 1 patient. The median time of mechanical ventilation was 30.50 h (range, 6.00-270.50 h), and the average duration of ICU stay was 164.06±87.74 h. The average postoperative follow-up time was 354.82±331.37 d. At the last follow-up, the average Z score of tricuspid valves was 1.32±0.71, the median pressure gradient between right ventricle and main pulmonary artery was 41.75 mm Hg (range, 21-146 mm Hg) and the average percutaneous oxygen saturation was 92.78%±3.73%. Two children underwent percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvoplasty at 6 and 10 months after surgery, respectively, with the rate of reintervention-free of 81.8%. There was no significant correlation between pulmonary transvalvular gradients after decompression and changes in Z score of tricuspid valves (r=–0.506, P=0.201). Conclusion    For children with PA/IVS, the simple pursuit of adequate decompression during right ventricular decompression may lead to  severe pulmonary dysfunction, increase the risk of ineffective circular shunt, and induce refractory hypoxemia. The staged decompression can ensure the safety and effectiveness for initial surgery and reduce the risk of postoperative death.

19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 244-256, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872604

ABSTRACT

Network pharmacological approaches were used to predict the components, targets and pathways of Erhuang decoction (EhD) in the treatment of acute lung injury (ALI). The SwissTargetPrediction platform, DisGeNET, Therapeutic Target Database (TTD), GeneCards and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) databases were used to predict potential targets of EhD and were integrated with the predicted targets for the treatment of ALI. A protein-protein interaction network model was constructed by using String database and Cytoscape software; the DAVID platform was used for Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis. A network of drug components-targets-pathways was constructed by Cytoscape software and the SwissDock platform was used to dock the molecules of EhD found in blood with the key disease targets. An ALI model was established in mice and inflammatory factor detection and Western blot protein expression experiments with lung tissue sections were carried out to verify the effect of EhD in the treatment of ALI. Animal experiment ethical requirements were approved by the Ethical Committee Experimental Animal Center of Shandong University (Grant Number: 2016020). We identified 148 potential targets including signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), vascular endothelial cell growth factor A (VEGFA), RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT1), and nuclear factor-kappa B/p65 (RELA). The potential targets are largely associated with the biological processes of inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Additional pathways relate to cancer, VEGF signaling, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling, along with other signaling pathways. Pharmacodynamic experiments showed that EhD could significantly reduce the content of inflammatory factors and the degree of lung injury of ALI mice. Western blot revealed that EhD could significantly decrease the expression of NF-κB/p65 and upregulate the expression of NF-kappa-B inhibitor alpha (IκBα). From the perspective of network pharmacology, the mechanisms of EhD in the treatment of ALI is consistent with the characteristics of multiple ingredients, multiple targets and multiple pathways. This research provides a reference for further study of the mechanism of this traditional Chinese medicine.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906371

ABSTRACT

Xiao chengqitang is recorded in Treatise on Febrile Diseases written by ZHANG Zhong-jing in the Eastern Han dynasty. It is composed of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex and Aurantii Fructus Immaturus, which is mainly used to treat mild exogenous Yangming Fu-viscera excess syndrome. This formula has been included in the Catalogue of Ancient Classical Prescription (The First Batch). However, the processing specifications and doses recorded in the original formula are different from the modern usage, which results in some difficulties in the research and development of Xiao Chengqitang granules. For clarifying the key information, such as historical evolution of prescription, dose conversion, the origin and processing specifications of each medicine in the prescription, the paper systematically analyzes the ancient medical books and related literature in the past dynasties and refers to the life experience of ZHANG Zhong-jing. Then the modern prescription and decocting methods of Xiao Chengqitang were determined as follows:composing 55.2 g of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (Rheum officinale) washed with wine, 27.6 g of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex (Magnolia officinalis) processed with ginger and 39.0 g of stir-fried Aurantii Fructus Immaturus (Citrus aurantium), adding 800 mL of water, decocting to 240 mL and filtrating.

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