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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 666-677, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927735

ABSTRACT

Mucic acid is a hexaric acid that can be biosynthesized by oxidation of D-galacturonic acid, which is the main constituent of pectin. The structure and properties of mucic acid are similar to that of glucaric acid, and can be widely applied in the preparation of important platform compounds, polymers and macromolecular materials. Pectin is a cheap and abundant renewable biomass resource, thus developing a process enabling production of mucic acid from pectin would be of important economic value and environmental significance. This review summarized the structure and hydrolysis of pectin, the catabolism and regulation of D-galacturonic acid in microorganisms, and the strategy for mucic acid production based on engineering of corresponding pathways. The future application of mucic acid are prospected, and future directions for the preparation of mucic acid by biological method are also proposed.


Subject(s)
Hexuronic Acids/metabolism , Pectins/metabolism , Sugar Acids/metabolism
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927418

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of wheat-grain moxibustion on behavior, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and cortisol in the serum, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the hippocampus in rats with hypothyroidism complicated with depression, and to explore the possible mechanism of wheat-grain moxibustion on improving depression in rats with hypothyroidism.@*METHODS@#A total of 32 SPF SD rats were randomly divided into a blank group, a model group, a medication group and a wheat-grain moxibustion group, 8 rats in each group. Except for the blank group, the rats in the remaining groups were treated with intragastric administration of 0.1% propylthiouracil (PTU) suspension at 1 mL/100 g, once a day for 4 weeks to establish the rat model of hypothyroidism, and whether the rats were accompanied with depression-like behavior determined through behavioristics evaluation. The rats in the medication group were intervened with euthyrox at 0.9 mL/100 g, once a day, for 4 weeks; the rats in the wheat-grain moxibustion group were treated with wheat-grain moxibustion at "Dazhui" (GV 14), "Mingmen" (GV 4), "Shenshu" (BL 23) and "Pishu" (BL 20), 7 cones each acupoint, once a day, six times a week for 4 weeks. After the intervention, the depression status was observed by behavioristics test; the contents of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxine (TT4), 5-HT and cortisol in the serum were detected by ELISA; the protein expressions of MR and GR in hippocampus were detected by Western blot; the expressions of MR mRNA and GR mRNA in the hippocampus were detected by real-time PCR.@*RESULTS@#Before the intervention, compared with the blank group, the scores of open field test (OFT) were decreased and the immobility time of tail suspension test (TST) was prolonged (P<0.05); the serum TSH contents were increased and TT4 contents were decreased (P<0.01) in the other three groups. After the intervention, compared with the model group, the vertical score of OFT was increased and the immobility time of forced swimming test (FST) was prolonged in the medication group (P<0.05), while the scores of three items of OFT were increased (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the immobility time of FST and TST was shortened in the wheat-grain moxibustion group (P<0.01, P<0.05). Compared with the medication group, the immobility time of TST and FST in the wheat-grain moxibustion group was shorter (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the blank group, in the model group, the contents of serum TSH and cortisol were increased (P<0.01, P<0.001), while the contents of serum TT4 and 5-HT were decreased (P<0.01, P<0.001). Compared with the model group, the contents of serum TT4 and 5-HT were increased, while the contents of serum TSH and cortisol were decreased in the medication group and wheat-grain moxibustion group (P<0.01, P<0.05). Compared with the blank group, the protein and mRNA expression of MR, GR in the hippocampus in the model group was decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.001); compared with the model group, the protein and mRNA expression of MR in the hippocampus in the medication group were increased (P<0.05), and the protein expression of MR, GR and mRNA expression of MR in the hippocampus in the wheat-grain moxibustion group were increased (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the medication group, the expression of MR mRNA in the wheat-grain moxibustion group was increased (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Wheat-grain moxibustion could significantly improve thyroid function and depression in rats with hypothyroidism. Its mechanism may be related to up-regulating the protein and mRNA expression of MR and GR in the hippocampus, and then affecting the expression of serum cortisol and 5-HT.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Animals , Depression/therapy , Hippocampus/metabolism , Hydrocortisone/metabolism , Hypothyroidism/therapy , Moxibustion , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/metabolism , Receptors, Mineralocorticoid/metabolism , Serotonin , Thyrotropin/metabolism , Triticum/metabolism
3.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 541-546, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922950

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the efficacy of switching to co-formulated elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (E/c/F/TAF) combined with sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (SOF/VEL) in the treatment of previously untreated chronic hepatitis C patients with HIV/HCV co-infection and the changes in blood lipid levels. Methods This prospective cohort study was conducted among 10 previously untreated chronic hepatitis C patients with HIV/HCV co-infection who attended Department of Infectious Diseases in Tangdu Hospital from July 2019 to May 2021 and achieved continuous HIV suppression after antiretroviral treatment (ART). As for anti-HIV therapy, the ART regimen was switched to the E/c/F/TAF regimen for 32 weeks, and for anti-HCV therapy, the SOF/VEL regimen was started since week 4 after switching and lasted for 12 weeks. Related indices were monitored before and after switching to E/c/F/TAF for anti-HCV therapy and SOF/VEL for anti-HCV therapy, including body weight, body mass index, HCV genotype, alpha-fetoprotein, liver stiffness measurement, CD4 + T cell count, CD4 + T/CD8 + T ratio, hepatic and renal function parameters, blood lipids, HIV RNA, HCV RNA, SVR12, SVR24, and adverse reactions. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of continuous data between two groups, and a Spearman correlation analysis was performed. Results After 4 weeks of treatment with E/c/F/TAF, 10 patients (HCV genotypes 2a and 1b) had HIV RNA below the lower limit of detection (20 IU/ml) and a significant reduction in albumin ( Z =-2.801, P =0.003 7), with the other indices remaining stable, and the patients reported significant improvements in the adverse events of anti-HIV therapy with the former ART regimen. After 4 weeks of E/c/F/TAF combined with SOF/VEL, the patients had HCV RNA below the lower limit of detection (15 IU/ml), and both SVR12 and SVR24 reached 100%; after 12 weeks of anti-HCV therapy, there were significant reductions in alanine aminotransferase ( Z =-2.732, P =0.004 8) and aspartate aminotransferase ( Z =-2.501, P =0.010 7) and significant increases in total cholesterol (TC) ( Z =-2.797, P =0.003 9) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ( Z =-2.343, P =0.018 5), with a significantly positive correlation between them ( r =0.87, P < 0.001), and all the other indices were normal. Conclusion For previously untreated chronic hepatitis C patients with HIV/HCV co-infection, switching to E/c/F/TAF combined with SOF/VEL has good efficacy, tolerability, and safety, and the combination of the two regimens can avoid drug interaction, achieve a high HCV cure rate, and maintain HIV suppression. Transient increases in TC and LDL-C are observed during combination treatment, which suggests dyslipidemia caused by HCV infection and the pharmacological action of this regimen.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2388-2398, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937056

ABSTRACT

In this study, dexamethasone (DXMS) and captopril (CAP) were co-loaded into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles with a surface coating of a phospholipid bilayer, and then the core-shell nanoparticles were modified with polyethylene glycol and integrin α8 antibody to obtain immunoliposome-nanoparticle hybrids (DXMS/CAP@PLGA-ILs). The role of nanoparticles on the renal targeting, anti-inflammatory effects, and macrophage differentiation were investigated. The results showed that the particle size of the nanoparticles was 115.9 ± 2.89 nm, and the core-shell structure could be observed under an electron microscope. The drug loading capacity of DXMS and CAP was 5.72% ± 0.37% and 7.51% ± 0.07%, respectively. The results of in vitro experiments showed that DXMS/CAP@PLGA-ILs could reduce the secretion of specific cytokines and the mRNA expression of markers in M2-type macrophages, thus promoting the differentiation of M2-type macrophages in the direction of unpolarized macrophages. In vivo experiments in mice showed that DXMS/CAP@PLGA-ILs had a significant renal targeting effect, which could restore the renal index, serum creatinine, and urea nitrogen levels of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis in mice. Moreover, DXMS/CAP@PLGA-ILs could reduce both the secretion of inflammatory cytokines and the mRNA expression levels of M1 and M2 macrophage markers in the kidney. All the animal experiments were in accordance with the regulations of Animal Ethics Committee of Sichuan Agricultural University. In conclusion, renal-targeting DXMS/CAP@PLGA-ILs could effectively regulate the polarization of macrophages and had an "anti-inflammatory/anti-fibrosis" therapeutic effect, providing a new strategy and basis for the targeted therapy of glomerulonephritis.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936358

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of dihydromyricetin (DHM) on cardiac insufficiency in diabetic rats and explore the underlying mechanism.@*METHOD@#Twenty-four male SD rats were randomized equally into normal control group, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) group fed on a high-glucose and high-fat diet for 6 weeks with low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) injection, metformin (MET) group with daily intragastric administration of MET (150 mg/kg) for 8 weeks after T2DM modeling, and dihydromyricetin (DHM) group with daily intragastric administration of DHM (250 mg/kg) for 8 weeks after modeling. The levels of fasting blood glucose, low density lipoprotein (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) of the rats were measured, and plasma levels of insulin and high mobility group protein-1 (HMGB1) were detected with ELISA. The cardiac function of the rats was assessed using color echocardiography, ECG was measured using a biological signal acquisition system, and myocardial pathology was observed with HE staining. The protein expressions of HMGB1, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and phospho-NF-κB p65 (p-NF-κB p65) in the myocardial tissue were detected using Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the rats in T2DM group showed significant anomalies in cardiac function after modeling with significantly increased plasma HMGB1 level and expressions of HMGB1, NF-κB p65 and p-NF-κB p65 proteins in the myocardial tissue (P < 0.05 or 0.01). Treatment with DHM significantly improved the indexes of cardiac function of the diabetic rats (P < 0.05 or 0.01), decreased plasma HMGB1 level and down-regulated the protein expressions of HMGB1 and p-NF-κB p65 in the myocardial tissue (P < 0.05 or 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#DHM treatment can improve cardiac function in diabetic rats possibly by down-regulation of HMGB1 and phospho-NF-κB p65 expressions in the myocardium.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Flavonols , HMGB1 Protein , Heart Failure , Male , Metformin/therapeutic use , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936287

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To clarify the functional effects of differential expression of ring finger and tryptophan-aspartic acid 2 (RFWD2) on dendritic development and formation of dendritic spines in cerebral cortex neurons of mice.@*METHODS@#Immunofluorescent staining was used to identify the location and global expression profile of RFWD2 in mouse brain and determine the co-localization of RFWD2 with the synaptic proteins in the cortical neurons. We also examined the effects of RFWD2 over-expression (RFWD2-Myc) and RFWD2 knockdown (RFWD2-shRNA) on dendritic development, dendritic spine formation and synaptic function in cultured cortical neurons.@*RESULTS@#RFWD2 is highly expressed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice, and its expression level was positively correlated with the development of cerebral cortex neurons and dendrites. RFWD2 expression was detected on the presynaptic membrane and postsynaptic membrane of the neurons, and its expression levels were positively correlated with the length, number of branches and complexity of the dendrites. In cultured cortical neurons, RFWD2 overexpression significantly lowered the expressions of the synaptic proteins synaptophysin (P < 0.01) and postsynapic density protein 95 (P < 0.01), while RFWD2 knockdown significantly increased their expressions (both P < 0.05). Compared with the control and RFWD2-overexpressing cells, the neurons with RFWD2 knockdown showed significantly reduced number of dendritic spines (both P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#RFWD2 can regulate the expression of the synaptic proteins, the development of the dendrites, the formation of the dendritic spines and synaptic function in mouse cerebral cortex neurons through ubiquitination of Pea3 family members and c-Jun, which may serve as potential treatment targets for neurological diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aspartic Acid/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex , Dendritic Spines/metabolism , Mice , Neurons/metabolism , Synapses , Tryptophan/metabolism
7.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 249-256, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935136

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the functional changes of key gut microbiota (GM) that produce lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients and to explore their potential role in the pathogenesis of AF. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study. Patients with AF admitted to Beijing Chaoyang Hospital of Capital Medical University were enrolled from March 2016 to December 2018. Subjects with matched genetic backgrounds undergoing physical examination during the same period were selected as controls. Clinical baseline data and fecal samples were collected. Bacterial DNA was extracted and metagenomic sequencing was performed by using Illumina Novaseq. Based on metagenomic data, the relative abundances of KEGG Orthology (KO), enzymatic genes and species that harbored enzymatic genes were acquired. The key features were selected via the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) analysis. The role of GM-derived LPS biosynthetic feature in the development of AF was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and logistic regression analysis. Results: Fifty nonvalvular AF patients (mean age: 66.0 (57.0, 71.3), 32 males(64%)) were enrolled as AF group. Fifty individuals (mean age 55.0 (50.5, 57.5), 41 males(82%)) were recruited as controls. Compared with the controls, AF patients showed a marked difference in the GM genes underlying LPS-biosynthesis, including 20 potential LPS-synthesis KO, 7 LPS-biosynthesis enzymatic genes and 89 species that were assigned as taxa harbored nine LPS-enzymatic genes. LASSO regression analysis showed that 5 KO, 3 enzymatic genes and 9 species could be selected to construct the KO, enzyme and species scoring system. Genes enriched in AF group included 2 KO (K02851 and K00972), 3 enzymatic genes (LpxH, LpxC and LpxK) and 7 species (Intestinibacter bartlettii、Ruminococcus sp. JC304、Coprococcus catus、uncultured Eubacterium sp.、Eubacterium sp. CAG:251、Anaerostipes hadrus、Dorea longicatena). ROC curve analysis revealed the predictive capacity of differential GM-derived LPS signatures to distinguish AF patients in terms of above KO, enzymatic and species scores: area under curve (AUC)=0.957, 95%CI: 0.918-0.995, AUC=0.940, 95%CI 0.889-0.991, AUC=0.972, 95%CI 0.948-0.997. PLS-SEM showed that changes in lipopolysaccharide-producing bacteria could be involved in the pathogenesis of AF. The key KO mediated 35.17% of the total effect of key bacteria on AF. After incorporating the clinical factors of AF, the KO score was positively associated with the significantly increased risk of AF (OR<0.001, 95%CI:<0.001-0.021, P<0.001). Conclusion: Microbes involved in LPS synthesis are enriched in the gut of AF patients, accompanied with up-regulated LPS synthesis function by encoding the LPS-enzymatic biosynthesis gene.


Subject(s)
Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
8.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 125-132, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933768

ABSTRACT

Objective:To summarize the clinical manifestation and imaging of superficial siderosis of the central nervous system and explore the potential etiology.Methods:The clinical and imaging data of 7 patients diagnosed as superficial siderosis of the central nervous system in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from May 2013 to November 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. The etiology and follow-up prognosis through phone call were analyzed.Results:There were 7 patients included (3 male and 4 female) with an average age of 53 years (41-58 years). The cardinal manifestations were sensorineural deafness (all 7 cases), cerebellar ataxia (all 7 cases) and pyramidal signs (all 7 cases). Dizziness (6 cases), bladder disturbance (5 cases), headache (3 cases), double vision (2 cases) and congnitive impairment (1 case) could also happen. Magnetic resonance imaging showed symmetrical well-defined curvilinear homogeneous low signal on T 2 or blood-sensitive sequences (T 2* gradient echo or susceptibility-weighted imaging) over the superficial surface of cerebellar, brain stem, and spinal cord or cranio-cervical junction. All the 7 patients showed cerebellar atrophy especially the upper vermis. The potential causes included trauma history in 3 cases, intraspinal fluid-filled collection which indicated dural defect or duropathologies in 3 cases, intraspinal mass in 1 case and vertebral and disc degeneration in all 7 patients. The 5 patients who successsfully got follow-up showed exacerbation of variable degree. Conclusions:Classical superficial siderosis of the central nervous system is a rare disease with cardinal manifestation of progressive ataxia, sensorineural deafness and pyramidal signs. T 2WI of magnetic resonance imaging showing low signal over the superficial surface of cerebellar, brain stem, and spinal cord could indicate the diagnosis, and blood-sensitive sequences such as T 2* gradient echo or susceptibility-weighted imaging were more sensitive. Duropathologies or dural defect may be the most probable causes of the disease and should be examined and treated carefully.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929241

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial disorder of the nervous system where a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons exist. However, the pathogenesis of PD remains undefined, which becomes the main limitation for the development of clinical PD treatment. Demethylenetetrahydroberberine (DMTHB) is a novel derivative of natural product berberine. This study was aimed to explore the neuroprotective effects and pharmacological mechanism of DMTHB on Parkinson's disease using C57BL/6 mice. A PD model of mice was induced by administration of MPTP (20 mg·kg-1) and probenecid (200 mg·kg-1) twice per week for five weeks. The mice were administered with DMTHB daily by gavage at the dose of 5 and 50 mg·kg-1 for one- week prophylactic treatment and five-week theraputic treatment. The therapeutic effects of DMTHB were evaluated by behavior tests (the open field, rotarod and pole tests), immunohistochemical staining of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), Nissl staining and biochemical assays. The molecular mechanisms of DMTHB on the key biomarkers of PD pathological states were analyzed by Western blot (WB) and qRT-PCR. DMTHB treatment alleviated the behavioral disorder induced by MPTP-probenecid. Nissl staining and TH staining showed that the damage of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra was remarkably suppressed by DMTHB treatment. Western blot results showed that the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and TH increased, but the level of α-synuclein (α-syn) was remarkably reduced, which indicated that the apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons in mice was significantly reduced. The protein phosphorylation of p-PI3K, p-AKT and p-mTOR also increased about 2-fold, compared with the model group. Furthermore, qRT-PCR results demonstrated that the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α, were reduced, but the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 increased after DMTHB treatment. Finally, the cellular assay displayed that DMTHB was also a strong antioxidant to protect neuron cell line PC12 by scavenging ROS. In this study, we demonstrated DMTHB alleviates the behavioral disorder and protects dopaminergic neurons through multiple-target effects includubg anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dopaminergic Neurons/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Parkinson Disease/pathology , Parkinsonian Disorders/chemically induced , Substantia Nigra
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942370

ABSTRACT

Small private online course (SPOC), an emerging network-based, student-centered blended teaching model, combines the advantages of online teaching and flipped classroom, aiming to effectively improve students’ autonomous learning ability and learning efficiency. Considering a remarkable decline in the course of Human Parasitology, we built an SPOC-based blended teaching model for Human Parasitology, covering pre-course learning, intra-course leaning, post-course consolidation and evaluation, and such a model was applied among grade 2019 students with specialty of clinical medicine. Following the application of the SPOC-based blended teaching model, most students had improvements in autonomous learning ability and activity, and understanding of human parasitology knowledge, and the examination score disparity was avoided.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940426

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the effect and mechanism of Mori Folium extract on the glucose and lipid metabolism disorders in the liver of rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor α/carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (PI3K/Akt/PPARα/CPT-1) signaling pathway. MethodThe T2DM model was induced by the high-fat diet combined with the intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The model rats were randomly divided into a model group, a metformin (0.2 g·kg-1) group, and a Mori Folium water extract (4.0 g·kg-1) group according to blood glucose and body weight. In the 8-week administration, fasting blood glucose was measured at the same time every week. The histomorphological and fat changes in the rat liver were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and oil red O staining. The levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the serum were measured by biochemical methods. Western blot (WB) was used to quantitatively detect the protein expression of p-PI3K,PI3K,p-Akt,Akt,PPARα,and CPT-1 in the rat liver. ResultAfter 8-week administration, the blood glucose of rats was higher in the model group than that in the control group (P<0.01), and lower in the Mori Folium water extract group than that in the model group (P<0.01). The results of HE staining showed that the liver tissue structure of the control group was complete, and the hepatocytes were arranged radially around the central vein, while the hepatocyte injury in the model group was obvious. Compared with the model group, the Mori Folium water extract group showed improved vacuolar degeneration and no lesions such as small bile duct hyperplasia. Oil red O staining showed that there was no obvious steatosis and necrosis in the hepatocytes of rats in the control group, and no lipid droplets in the hepatocytes were observed, while the model group showed increased lipid droplets. Mori Folium significantly reduced the lipid droplets in the liver. Biochemical analysis showed that the levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, AST, and ALT in the model group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.01). The levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, AST, and ALT in the Mori Folium water extract group were significantly lower than those in the model group (P<0.05,P<0.01). WB showed that the protein expression of p-PI3K/PI3K, p-Akt/Akt, PPARα, and CPT-1 in the model group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.01). Mori Folium water extract could increase the protein expression of p-PI3K/PI3K, p-Akt/Akt, PPARα, and CPT-1 (P<0.05 or P<0.01). ConclusionThe hypoglycemic mechanism of Mori Folium water extract may be related to the regulation of the PI3K/Akt/PPARα/CPT-1 signaling pathway.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939847

ABSTRACT

The complexity of oral ulcerations poses considerable diagnostic and therapeutic challenges to oral specialists. The expert consensus was conducted to summarize the diagnostic work-up for difficult and complicated oral ulcers, based on factors such as detailed clinical medical history inquiry, histopathological examination, and ulceration-related systemic diseases screening. Not only it can provide a standardized procedure of oral ulceration, but also it can improve the diagnostic efficiency, in order to avoid misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Consensus , Humans , Oral Ulcer/therapy
13.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 311-315, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920774

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the health-seeking intention for urinary incontinence among adult women in Gansu Province, so as to provide insights into the management of female urinary incontinence.@*Methods @#Women at ages of 20 years and older who lived in 8 communities and 8 villages of Gansu Province for at least one year were recruited using the multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted from October 2019 to February 2020, and the demographic features, urinary incontinence status and health-seeking intention were collected and descriptively analyzed.@*Results@#A total of 3 580 questionnaires were allocated and 3 485 were recovered, with a recovery rate of 97.35%. The respondents had a mean age of ( 51.18±17.13 ) years, with 1 759 respondents ( 50.47% ) that lived in urban areas, and 1 726 ( 49.53% ) that lived in rural areas. There were 1 150 respondents with self-reported urinary incontinence ( 33.00% prevalence ), including 340 cases with stress urinary incontinence ( 29.57% ), 78 cases with urge urinary incontinence ( 6.78% ) and 732 cases with mixed urinary incontinence ( 63.65% ). The overall proportion of health-seeking intention for urinary incontinence was 41.57%, and the proportions of health-seeking intention were 51.76%, 39.74% and 37.02% for stress, urge and mixed urinary incontinence, respectively. The proportion of health-seeking intention for urinary incontinence appeared a tendency towards a decline with the increase in household monthly income per capita and frequency of urinary leakage, and appeared a tendency towards a rise with the increase in educational levels ( P<0.05 ). In addition, a higher proportion of health-seeking intention for urinary incontinence was seen in women living in urban areas than in rural areas (5 3.63% vs. 31.98%, P<0.05 ), and a higher proportion was found in women with mental labors than in those with physical labors ( 60.81% vs. 40.24%, P<0.05 ), while a higher proportion was found in married women than in divorced or widowed women ( 44.33% vs. 23.53%, P<0.05 ).@*Conclusions@#There is a low proportion of health-seeking intention for urinary incontinence among adult women in Gansu Province. Age, occupation, place of residence, educational level, income, marital status, and frequency of urine leakage may affect the intention to seek medical care for urinary incontinence among adult women.

15.
Journal of Stroke ; : 21-40, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915946

ABSTRACT

Hypertriglyceridemia is caused by defects in triglyceride metabolism and generally manifests as abnormally high plasma triglyceride levels. Although the role of hypertriglyceridemia may not draw as much attention as that of plasma cholesterol in stroke, plasma triglycerides, especially nonfasting triglycerides, are thought to be correlated with the risk of ischemic stroke. Hypertriglyceridemia may increase the risk of ischemic stroke by promoting atherosclerosis and thrombosis and increasing blood viscosity. Moreover, hypertriglyceridemia may have some protective effects in patients who have already suffered a stroke via unclear mechanisms. Therefore, further studies are needed to elucidate the role of hypertriglyceridemia in the development and prognosis of ischemic stroke.

16.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 200-205, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#It has been a global trend that increasing complications related to pelvic floor surgeries have been reported over time. The current study aimed to outline the development of Chinese pelvic floor surgeries related to pelvic organ prolapse (POP) over the past 14 years and investigate the potential influence of enhanced monitoring conducted by the Chinese Association of Urogynecology since 2011.@*METHODS@#A total of 44,594 women with POP who underwent pelvic floor surgeries between October 1, 2004 and September 30, 2018 were included from 22 tertiary academic medical centers. The data were reported voluntarily and obtained from a database. We compared the proportion of each procedure in the 7 years before and 7 years after September 30, 2011. The data were analyzed by performing Z test (one-sided).@*RESULTS@#The number of different procedures during October 1, 2011-September 30, 2018 was more than twice that during October 1, 2004-September 30, 2011. Regarding pelvic floor surgeries related to POP, the rate of synthetic mesh procedures increased from 38.1% (5298/13,906) during October 1, 2004-September 30, 2011 to 46.0% (14,107/30,688) during October 1, 2011-September 30, 2018, whereas the rate of non-mesh procedures decreased from 61.9% (8608/13,906) to 54.0% (16,581/30,688) (Z = 15.53, P < 0.001). Regarding synthetic mesh surgeries related to POP, the rates of transvaginal placement of surgical mesh (TVM) procedures decreased from 94.1% (4983/5298) to 82.2% (11,603/14,107) (Z = 20.79, P < 0.001), but the rate of laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy (LSC) procedures increased from 5.9% (315/5298) to 17.8% (2504/14,107).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The rate of synthetic mesh procedures increased while that of non-mesh procedures decreased significantly. The rate of TVM procedures decreased while the rate of LSC procedures increased significantly.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER@#NCT03620565, https://register.clinicaltrials.gov.


Subject(s)
China , Female , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Humans , Pelvic Floor/surgery , Pelvic Organ Prolapse/surgery , Surgical Mesh/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Vagina
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889723

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The occurrence pattern of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) induced by immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) in cancer treatment remains unclear. @*Materials and Methods@#Phase II-III clinical trials that evaluated ICI-based treatments in cancer and were published between January 2007 and December 2019 were retrieved from public electronic databases. The pooled median time to onset (PMT-O), resolution (PMT-R), and immune-modulation resolution (PMT-IMR) of irAEs were generated using the metamedian package of R software. @*Results@#Twenty-two eligible studies involving 23 clinical trials and 8,436 patients were included. The PMT-O of all-grade irAEs ranged from 2.2 to 14.8 weeks, with the longest in renal events. The PMT-O of grade ≥ 3 irAEs was significantly longer than that of all-grade irAEs induced by programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors (27.5 weeks vs. 8.4 weeks, p < 0.001) and treatment of nivolumab (NIV) plus ipilimumab (IPI) (7.9 weeks vs. 6.0 weeks, p < 0.001). The PMT-R of all-grade irAEs ranged from 0.1 to 54.3 weeks, with the shortest and longest in hypersensitivity/infusion reaction and endocrine events, respectively. The PMT-IMR of grade ≥ 3 irAEs was significantly shorter than that of all-grade irAEs caused by PD-1/PD-L1 blockade (6.9 weeks vs. 40.6 weeks, p=0.002) and NIV+IPI treatment (3.1 weeks vs. 5.9 weeks, p=0.031). @*Conclusion@#This study revealed the general and specific occurrence pattern of ICI-induced irAEs in pan-cancers, which was deemed to aid the comprehensive understanding, timely detection, and effective management of ICI-induced irAEs.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888789

ABSTRACT

Brucea javanica oil emulsion (BJOE) has been used to treat tumor in China for more than 40 years. However, its components and effectiveness in the treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and its mechanism of anti-cancer activity remain unknown. In the current study, high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) was used to analyze the components of BJOE. Then, the anti-leukemia effects of BJOE were examined both in vitro and in vivo using ALL Jurkat cells and the p388 mouse leukemia transplant model, respectively. The primary ALL leukemia cells were also used to confirm the anti-leukemia effects of BJOE. The apoptotic-related results indicated that BJOE induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells and were suggestive of intrinsic apoptotic induction. Moreover, BJOE inhibited Akt (protein kinase B) activation and upregulated its downstream targets p53 and FoxO1 (forkhead box gene, group O-1) to initiate apoptosis. The activation of GSK3β was also involved. Our findings demonstrate that BJOE has anti-leukemia effects on ALL cells and can induce apoptosis in Jurkat cells through the phosphoinositide3-kinase (PI3K) /Akt signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Brucea/chemistry , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Humans , Jurkat Cells , Mice , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics , Seeds/chemistry , Signal Transduction
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2293-2306, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887797

ABSTRACT

Mouse hybridoma monoclonal antibody is the most commonly used antibody in immunology because of its stable source, easy preparation in later stage and high yield. The traditional time-consuming and laborious hybridoma preparation technology could not meet the growing market demand. In this paper, we describe the rapid preparation techniques involved in antigen design and screening, B cell enrichment and screening, transgenic myeloma cells, fusion technology improvement, positive hybridoma cell screening and rapid detection of monoclonal antibody performance, to provide a reference for rapid preparation of mouse hybridoma monoclonal antibody.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antigens , B-Lymphocytes , Hybridomas , Mice
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886102

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the current situation of college students' knowledge, attitude and practice of new infectious diseases, to explore the influencing factors, and to provide references for the prevention and control of new infectious diseases among college students. Methods During the epidemic period, questionnaire on college students' knowledge, attitude and practice of new infectious diseases was used to conduct an online survey of college students nationwide. Results There were significant differences in the scores of knowledge among the students of different gender, major and province (F values were -8.26, 15.30, P < 0.01); The compliance rates of wearing masks and washing hands among the students of different gender were different (P < 0.01); The score of cognition level outside Hubei Province was higher than that in Hubei Province (P < 0.01); The compliance rates of wearing masks among the students with or without suspected cases were different (P < 0.05); There was a significant difference in the compliance rate of home quarantine between Hubei Province and other provinces (P < 0.01); There was a significant difference in the belief scores of college students of different majors (P < 0.01); The sources of Covid-19 knowledge included microblog, Wechat, QQ, and major forums, accounting for 95.1%, TV, radio, and newspaper, accounting for 89.5%, news website, accounting for 86.4%, family or friends, accounting for 64.50%, and community Village Committee propaganda, accounting for58.50%. College Students' knowledge and belief were positively correlated with behaviors (β = 0.079, 0.076, P < 0.05). Conclusion In view of the different characteristics of college students, different publicity plans should be formulated. The key to improve their prevention and control behavior is to strengthen the publicity of new infectious diseases knowledge and enhance their belief.

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