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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-707196

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the correlation between CD169 expression of monocytes and disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV )-infected patients .Methods Sixty HIV-infected patients and 30 healthy controls were recruited .According to the CD4 + T lymphocyte counts ,HIV-infected patients were divided into three groups including < 200 cells/μL ,200 — 350 cells/μL and > 350 cells/μL groups . The differences in monocytes counts ,the proportions of CD16 + and CD169 + monocytes were analyzed among the three groups and healthy controls .The correlations between proportion of CD169 + monocytes and CD4 + T lymphocyte counts ,viral load ,and proportion of CD16 + monocytes were analyzed .Results The monocyte counts in CD4 + T lymphocytes < 200 cells/μL group , (200 — 350 ) cells/μL group , >350 cells/μL group and healthy control group were (342 ± 99) ,(396 ± 145) ,(365 ± 80) ,and (404 ± 106)/μL ,respectively ,which were not significantly different (F= 2 .55 , P > 0 .05) .The proportions of CD16 + monocytes in the four groups were (19 .8 ± 8 .8)% ,(14 .3 ± 2 .8)% ,(9 .7 ± 2 .0)% and (4 .0 ± 0 .8)% ,respectively ,which were significantly different ( F = 30 .90 , P < 0 .05 ) . The proportions of CD169 + monocytes in the four groups were (72 .6 ± 11 .4)% ,(59 .4 ± 14 .7)% ,(33 .3 ± 14 .5)% and (2 .6 ± 0 .8)% ,respectively ,which were significantly different (F = 152 .40 , P< 0 .05) .The proportion of CD169 + monocytes was negatively correlated with CD4 + T lymphocyte counts (r = 0 .792 , P< 0 .05) , while positively correlated with both viral load (r= 0 .485 ,P< 0 .05) and proportion of CD16 + monocytes (r= 0 .395 , P< 0 .05) .Conclusions The CD169 expressions of monocytes in HIV-infected patients are significantly increased and correlated with both monocyte activation and disease progression .

2.
Chinese Journal of Pathophysiology ; (12): 1189-1196, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-463104

ABSTRACT

[ ABSTRACT] AIM:To investigate the effect of phycocyanin on the apoptosis of human laryngeal cancer HEP-2 cells and to explore the inhibitory mechanism of phycocyanin to tumor.METHODS:Highly purified phycocyanin was ex-tracted from spirulina.The effects of phycocyanin at different concentrations on the growth of human laryngeal cancer HEP-2 cells were detected by MTT assay.In addition, the cell structures were observed under electron microscope.The cell ap-optosis was analyzed by flow cytometry.The production of reactive oxygen species ( ROS) was measured by flow cytometry. Enzymatic activities of caspase-3,-8 and-9 were measured by chemical colorimatry.The expression of Bax, Bcl-2, Fas, P53, caspase-3 and caspase-9 at mRNA and protein levels was determined by RT-PCR and Western blot.RESULTS:MTT test confirmed that phycocyanin inhibited the cell activity of HEP-2 cells with time and dose dependent manners.The result of electron microscope observation and flow cytometry indicated that phycocyanin induced the apoptosis of HEP-2 cells.The intracellular content of ROS was increased.The activities of caspase-3, -8 and -9 were increased.RT-PCR showed that the mRNA expression of Bax, Fas, P53, caspase-3, caspase-9 was increased and Bcl-2 was decreased.The results of Western blot were consistent with the results of RT-PCR.CONCLUSION:Phycocyanin might induce apoptosis of HEP-2 cells by down-regulating Bcl-2, up-regulating Bax, Fas and P53, and the transduction of apoptotic signals in the human laryngeal cancer cells.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-252651

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the drug resistance of enteric bacilli and its relation to the drug resistance gene cassette in the variable region and molecular evolution of class-I integron.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>K-B assay was applied to measure the drug resistance of E.coli, E.cloacae and A.baumannii isolated against twelve antibiotics. The class-I integron and drug resistance gene cassettes in the variable region of the integron were detected by PCR and sequencing of amplification products. The molecular evolution of drug resistance genes in the class-I integrons was analyzed using Clustal X and MEGA software.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>54.2%-100% of A.baumannii isolates were resistant to the penicillin and cephem antibiotics, while E.coli and E.cloacae isolates had resistance rates of 41.6%-62.5% to cephem antibiotics. 62.5%(15/24) of E.coli, 67.9%(19/28) of E.cloacae and 83.3%(20/24) of A.baumannii isolates were positive for class-I integrons. 81.5% (44/54) of class-I integrons showed 4 different single band spectrums and the other class-I integrons displayed 3 different double band spectrums. In the drug resistance gene cassettes in variable regions of class-I integrons there were 7 types in 4 groups of drug resistance genes, including aac(6'), sad(3"), aad(2"), cat(4') and dfr (types 7, A13 and 15), which induced the resistance to aminoglycosides and sulfamido antibiotics and chloromycin. The class-I integrons in the isolates might be divided into 4 molecular evolution groups according to the diversity of dihydrofolate reductase encoding gene sequences.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The enteric bacilli have a high drug resistance and frequently carry class-I integrons with 7 drug resistance gene cassettes which present 4 different evolutionary pathways.</p>


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Genetics , Enterobacteriaceae , Genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Integrons , Genetics
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-415746

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the genotypes of host killing genes and their single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Methods Three hundred and twenty strains of Escherichia coli that collected from the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College were analyzed. The first sample ( E1 ) contains 160 strains isolated during the years from 2002 to 2003. The second sample (E2) contains 160 strains covering the years from 2008 to 2009. The plasmids of Escherichia coli were extracted by alkaline lysis method. Solexa/Illumina sequencing technology was used to sequence plasmids metagenome. Solexa Genome Analysis System and Soap programs were used to analyze gene distribution, SNPs and lineage-specific mutations. Results 11 077 768 reads were generated and 0. 045% of them can map to the reference sequences from El sample. Whereas 9 377 792 reads were generated and 0. 053% of which mapped to the reference from E2 sample. There are nine host killing genes identified in the two samples, of which hok gene is the most prevalent. A total of 29 SNP sites dispersed in five genes of the two samples. Approximately 33% of them were non-synonymous mutations. One position of A and G is the most prevalent polymorphism. Conclusion The known nine genotypes of host killing genes were all identified in plasmids of Escherichia coli in Wenzhou. hok gene showed the highest frequency. There were SNPs in five genotypes.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-383564

ABSTRACT

Objective To research the distribution and the characteristics of the plasmid mediated quinolone resistant genes in Shewanella algae. Methods The qnr, qepA, aac(6')-Ib-cr genes were amplified by PCR, then the positive PCR products were sequenced to determine the gene type. The transferability of plasmid mediated quinolone resistance was ensured by conjugation experiment. MICs were measured by E-test. qnrA gene was mapped to plasmids to locate it. Results The qnrA gene were detected in the Shewanella algae, this is a newfound subgroup qnrA7, the GenBank accession no. was GQ463707, qnrB, qnrS,qnrC, qnrD, qepA and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes were not detected. qnrA7 reside in a plasmid about 33 kb, conjugation experiment was unsuccessful. The strain was susceptible to quinolones. Conclusion It deserves paying close attention to the report of an original qnrA subgroup in an isolate of water-borne species of Shewanella algae.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-383108

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the structures of the plasmids of Klebsiella pneumoniae KF3 at the genome metagenome level througth with whole plasmid DNA sequencing, to analyze the functional genes carried by plasmid and to identify the correlation of resistance and pathogenicity between the plasmids and the host strains. Methods The alkaline lysis method was used to extract plasmids. We constructed the small insert pUC18 library and the large insert Forsmid library, sequenced and used the Phred / Phrap / Consed package to assemble these sequences and gained a complete sequence. The open reading frame(ORFs) were predicted by the Glimmer software and annotated, analyzed the functions of these genes. Results We successfully constructed the pUC18 library and the Fosmid libraries for the plasmid DNA and obtained three circular double-stranded DNA plasmids: pKF3-70 (69 477 bp), pKF3-90 (91 327 bp) and pKF3-147 ( 147 416 bp). There were drug resistant genes, conjugative transfer genes and mobile DNA elements identified on three plasmids. Conclusion The three plasmids of KF3 could be transferred among different strains. It would lead to the dissemination of the resistant genes.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-380110

ABSTRACT

Objective High-throughout sequencing of all plasmid of 206 strains of Klebsiella pneu-moniae using Solexa/Illumina sequencing technology in order to investigate the resistance for plasmids in Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods Bacterial isolates were obtained over the years 2002-2008. Solexa/Illumi-na sequencing technology was used to sequence both samples (S1 and S2) to a depth of between 10-560 fold coverage. We used SOAP provided by BGI to find SNPS and use velvet package to assemble these sequences and gained some long sequences, and MAQ programs developed in the laboratory were used to annotate SNPs and compare lineage-specific mutations in SHV-ESBLs. Results The Metagenome of plasmid encodes a 13 variety of resistance-related genes with exceptionally high copy numbers, including ABC-type efflux pumps and 4 variety of β-lactamases, SHV-ESBLs is abroad presence. We systematically investigated single nucleo-tide substitutions in plasmids metagenome, and found an amount of nonsynonymous mutations in the SHV-ESBLs genes. Conclusion Probabily in press of positive selection, we can clearly see these nonsynonymous changes predominantly occurred in plasmid SHV-ESBLs genes. And our findings indicate a unspecial low-level resistance contribute to antimicrobial efflux in the metagenome of plasmid in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-381973

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the genotypes of OXA-51-like carbepenemases in Aeinetobacter beumannii and its association with drug resistance. Methods The susceptibility of 174 Acinetobacter baumannii against ceftazidime, cefotriaxon, amikacin and ciprofloxacin were detected with disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for meropenem and imipenem were determined with an agar dilution method. VIM, IMP, OXA-23, OXA-24, OXA-51 and OXA-58 β-lactamase genes were determined by PCR. DNA sequencing and genotyping were performed against OXA-51 positivestrains. Results All 174 isolates were negative by PCR for genes OXA-24, OXA-58, IMP and VIM. OXA-23 and OXA-51were amplified in 15.5% (27/174) and 72.4% (126/174) isolates, respectively. Therewere 15.5% (27/174) isolates producing OXA-51-like and OXA-23 carbapenemase simultaneously. Among126 OXA-51-like carbapenemase producing strains, 82.5% (104/126)were OXA-66 genotype, whereas theremaining 17.5% (22/126) strains belong to other genotype. Eight novel OXA-51-like Genotype were foundin this study. Conclusions OXA-66 were the primary genotype of OXA-51-like carbapenemases in A.baumannii. OXA-66 were related to low-level carbapenems resistance and may be associated with resistanceof other drugs. We found new OXA-51-like genotype in clinic isolates of A. baumannii in this study.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-593435

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To investigate the distribution of integron in Gram-negative isolates which are causing nosocomial infection the association with drug resistance,and it′s contribution in horizontal transfer of drug resistance.METHODS Drug resistance test was performed by K-B method.ESBL-positive strains were detected by double-disk synergy test.Integron was determined by PCR assay with integron-specific-primer.Conjugative transfer test,plasmid profile analysis,nested-PCR,and DNA sequence analysis were used to investigate the transferable mechanism of integron mediated.RESULTS 66.4% of Strains were shown to be positive for classes Ⅰ integron,no class Ⅱ and Ⅲ integrons were detected.Profiles of class Ⅰ integron were 11 types,which sized from 700bp to 2300bp,gene cassettes included genes encoding resistance to aminoglycosides(aadA1,aadA2,aadA5 and aacA4),sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim(dfrA12,dfrA5 and dfrA17) and chloramphenicol(catB8).Strains positive for class Ⅰ integron were highly related to multidrug resistance and ESBLs.Class Ⅰ integron could horizontal transfer along with plasmid among bacteria.CONCLUSIONS Class 1 integron is widespread in Gram-negative isolates which are causing nosocomial infection.Drug resistance is more liable to horizontal transfer via class Ⅰ integron along with plasmid.It implies the necessary for surveillance of horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance gene among bacteria genus.

10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1288-1292, 2003.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311697

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus genotype and its characteristics.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A SARS-associated coronavirus isolate named ZJ01 was obtained from throat swab samples taken from a patient in Hangzhou, Zhejing province. The complete genome sequence of ZJ01 consisted of 29,715 bp (GenBank accession: AY297028, version: gi: 30910859). Seventeen SARS-associated coronavirus genome sequences in GenBank were compared to analyze the common sequence variations and the probability of co-occurrence of multiple polymorphisms or mutations. Phylogenetic analysis of those sequences was done.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>By bioinformatics processing and analysis, the 5 loci nucleotides at ZJ01 genome were found being T, T, G, T and T, respectively. Compared with other SARS-associated coronavirus genomes in the GenBank database, an A/G mutation was detected besides the other 4 mutation loci (C:G:C:C/T:T:T:T) involved in this genetic signature. Therefore a new definition was put forward according to the 5 mutation loci. SARS-associated coronavirus strains would be grouped into two genotypes (C:G:A:C:C/T:T:G:T:T), and abbreviated as SARS coronavirus C genotype and T genotype. On the basis of this new definition, the ZJ01 isolate belongs to SARS-associated coronavirus T genotype, first discovered and reported in mainland China. Phylogenetic analysis of the spike protein gene fragments of these SARS-associated coronavirus strains showed that the GZ01 isolate was phylogenetically distinct from other isolates, and compared with groups F1 and F2 of the T genotype, the isolates of BJ01 and CUHK-W1 were more closely related to the GZ01 isolate. It was interesting to find that two (A/G and C/T) of the five mutation loci occurred in the spike protein gene, which caused changes of Asp to Gly and Thr to Ile in the protein, respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Attention should be paid to whether these genotype and mutation patterns are related to the virus's biological activities,epidemic characteristics and host clinical symptoms.</p>


Subject(s)
Genotype , Humans , Middle Aged , Mutation , SARS Virus , Genetics
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