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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904816


@#Endodontic microsurgery is one effective method for preserving teeth affected by periapical disease, and is also an essential technique for treating difficult cases. However, due to the restricted operating space at the posterior site and the proximity of the root apex to the maxillary sinus, endodontic surgery in the posterior maxillary area represents great challenges. This article summarizes the anatomical relationship between the maxillary sinus and the maxillary posterior teeth, the influence on endodontic microsurgery, and the application of assistive techniques on maxillary posterior teeth, such as 3D-printed surgical guides and ultrasonic osteotomes. Literature review results show that the spatial relationship between the apex of maxillary posterior teeth and the maxillary sinus is usually divided into three categories: the apex enters the maxillary sinus; the apex contacts the bottom of the maxillary sinus; and there is a distance between the apex and the bottom of the maxillary sinus. CBCT should be performed before the operation, and the periapical state of the tooth and the maxillary sinus and the distance between the lesions and the sinus floor should be considered to evaluate the difficulty of the operation. Meanwhile, during surgery, equipment such as surgical guides, endoscopes and ultrasonic osteotomes should be used to ensure that the operation is safer, reliable, precise and less invasive, but the clinical popularity of ultrasonic osteotomes still needs further promotion. Moreover, high-quality clinical studies on the long-term effects of micro-apical surgery in the posterior maxillary area are still lacking.