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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918633


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Ginseng extract (GSE) and taurine (TR) are widely used antifatigue resources in functional foods. However, the mechanism underlying the antifatigue effects of GSE and TR are still unclear. Hence, we investigated whether GSE and TR have synergistic effects against fatigue in mice.MATERIALS/METHODS: L6 cells were treated with different concentrations of TR and GSE, and cell viability was determined using 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium. Oxidative stress was analyzed by immunocytochemistry using MitoTracker™ Red FM and an anti-8-oxoguanine antibody. Respiratory gas analysis was performed to investigate metabolism. Expression of an activated protein kinase was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Gene expression of cluster of differentiation 36 and pyruvate dehydrogenase lipoamide kinase isozyme 4 was measured using reverse transcription– polymerase chain reaction. Mice were orally administered TR, GSE, or their combination for 30 days, and then fatigue-related parameters, including lactate, blood urea nitrogen, and glycogen, were measured after forced swimming. @*RESULTS@#TR and GSE reduced oxidative stress levels in hydrogen peroxide-stimulated L6 cells and enhanced the oxygen uptake and lipid metabolism in mice after acute exercise. After oral administration of TR or GSE for 30 days, the fatigue-related parameters did not change in mice. However, the mice administered GSE (400 mg/kg/day) alone for 30 days could swim longer than those from the other groups. Further, no synergistic effect was observed after the swimming exercise in mice treated with the TR and GSE combination for 30 days. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Taken together, our data suggest that TR and GSE may exert antifatigue effects in mice after acute exercise by enhancing oxygen uptake and lipid oxidation.

Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 3396-3405, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-240156


<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Danshen (Radix Salvia miltiorrhizae) has been used as a traditional medicine in Asia for treatment of various microcirculatory disturbance related diseases. Tanshinones are mainly hydrophobic active components, which have been isolated from Danshen and show various biological functions. In this study, we observed the neuroprotective effect of tanshinone I (TsI) against ischemic damage in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) after transient cerebral ischemia and examined its neuroprotective mechanism.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The gerbils were divided into vehicle-treated-sham-group, vehicle-treated-ischemia-group, TsI-treated-sham-group, and TsI-treated-ischemia-group. TsI was administrated intraperitoneally three times (once a day for three days) before ischemia-reperfusion. The neuroprotective effect of TsI was examined using H&E staining, neuronal nuclei (NeuN) immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B staining. To investigate the neuroprotective mechanism of TsI after ischemia-reperfusion, immunohistochemical (IHC) and Western blotting analyses for Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD2), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) were performed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Treatment with TsI protected pyramidal neurons from ischemia-induced neuronal death in the CA1 after ischemia-reperfusion. In addition, treatment with TsI maintained the levels of SOD1 and SOD2 as determined by IHC and Western blotting in the CA1 after ischemia-reperfusion compared with the vehicle-ischemia-group. In addition, treatment with TsI increased the levels of BDNF and IGF-I determined by IHC and Western blotting in the TsI-treated-sham-group compared with the vehicle-treated-sham-group, and their levels were maintained in the stratum pyramidale of the ischemic CA1 in the TsI-treated-ischemia-group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Treatment with TsI protects pyramidal neurons of the CA1 from ischemic damage induced by transient cerebral ischemia via the maintenance of antioxidants and the increase of neurotrophic factors.</p>

Animals , Antioxidants , Metabolism , Blotting, Western , Brain Ischemia , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Metabolism , Abietanes , Therapeutic Uses , Gerbillinae , Hippocampus , Metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Metabolism , Male , Nerve Growth Factors , Metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase , Metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase-1
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 183-190, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57790


Hypoxia-ischemia leads to serious neuronal damage in some brain regions and is a strong risk factor for stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of tanshinone I (TsI) derived from Danshen (Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza root extract) against neuronal damage using a mouse model of cerebral hypoxia-ischemia. Brain infarction and neuronal damage were examined using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, hematoxylin and eosin histochemistry, and Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence. Pre-treatment with TsI (10 mg/kg) was associated with a significant reduction in infarct volume 1 day after hypoxia-ischemia was induced. In addition, TsI protected against hypoxia-ischemia-induced neuronal death in the ipsilateral region. Our present findings suggest that TsI has strong potential for neuroprotection against hypoxic-ischemic damage. These results may be used in research into new anti-stroke medications.

Animals , Brain , Brain Infarction , Abietanes , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Fluoresceins , Hematoxylin , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Mice , Neurons , Neuroprotective Agents , Risk Factors , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Stroke , Tetrazolium Salts
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194081


The integrity of blood vessels controls vascular permeability and extravasation of blood cells, across the endothelium. Thus, the impairment of endothelial integrity leads to hemorrhage, edema, and inflammatory infiltration. However, the molecular mechanism underlying vascular integrity has not been fully understood. Here, we demonstrate an essential role for A-kinase anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12) in the maintenance of endothelial integrity during vascular development. Zebrafish embryos depleted of akap12 (akap12 morphants) exhibited severe hemorrhages. In vivo time-lapse analyses suggested that disorganized interendothelial cell-cell adhesions in akap12 morphants might be the cause of hemorrhage. To clarify the molecular mechanism by which the cell-cell adhesions are impaired, we examined the cell-cell adhesion molecules and their regulators using cultured endothelial cells. The expression of PAK2, an actin cytoskeletal regulator, and AF6, a connector of intercellular adhesion molecules and actin cytoskeleton, was reduced in AKAP12-depleted cells. Depletion of either PAK2 or AF6 phenocopied AKAP12-depleted cells, suggesting the reduction of PAK2 and AF6 results in the loosening of intercellular junctions. Consistent with this, overexpression of PAK2 and AF6 rescued the abnormal hemorrhage in akap12 morphants. We conclude that AKAP12 is essential for integrity of endothelium by maintaining the expression of PAK2 and AF6 during vascular development.

A Kinase Anchor Proteins/genetics , Animals , Blood Vessels/abnormalities , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , Down-Regulation , Embryo, Nonmammalian/abnormalities , Gene Deletion , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Hemorrhage/embryology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Intercellular Junctions/genetics , Kinesins/genetics , Myosins/genetics , Zebrafish/embryology , p21-Activated Kinases/genetics