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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920738

ABSTRACT

Under the dual pressure of emerging zoonoses and the difficulty in eliminating conventional zoonoses, many uncertainties in global control of infectious diseases are challenging the achievement of sustainable development goals set by the United Nations General Assembly. One Health, developed on the basis of understanding the relationship between human diseases and animal diseases, is conducive to the prevention and control of zoonoses. The connotation of “One Health” is mainly explained by three aspects, namely the systems thinking mode of “unity of environment and man”, the practice guidance of “multi-sectoral concert” and the economic evaluation strategy of “cost-effectiveness analysis”. One Health approach has been successfully applied in the control of major infectious diseases in China, such as schistosomiasis, leading to remarkable achievements; however, there are still multiple challenges. This review proposes that much attention should be paid to top-level design, the difference between emerging zoonoses and conventional zoonoses, and the dynamic process of One Health governance during the development and application of One Health.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907312

ABSTRACT

In order to ensure that children with Kawasaki disease avoid the risk of cardiovascular accidents and even sudden cardiac death during exercise, it is of important clinical significance to formulate scientific, effective and safe exercise guidance for all children with Kawasaki disease.Physical activity mainly includes three types: activities of daily living, leisure sports and competitive sports, which are divided into low-intensity, medium-intensity and high-intensity according to the activity intensity.All sports activities are a combination of static exercise and dynamic exercise.Increasing static exercise requires a higher percentage of maximum voluntary contraction, while increasing dynamic exercise requires a higher oxygen consumption.For all children with Kawasaki disease, physical activities and sports management should be carried out according to the risk of coronary artery disease.When giving exercise guidance, the four factors including exercise frequency, intensity, time and type should be fully considered based on medical history, physical examination and necessary auxiliary examinations, and should be dealt with from dynamic exercise and static exercise.Children will be given safe and beneficial individualized guidance to ensure the best physical condition.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905848

ABSTRACT

Tumors are new organisms formed by uncontrollable cell proliferation of local tissues driven by various oncogenic factors. The cause of tumors is unknown with life-threating outcome. Tumors can be classified into benign tumors, borderline tumors, and malignant tumors according to their pathological properties. Among them, malignant tumor is commonly known as cancer, with no specific medicines or reliable cure means, so this is a hot spot and difficult point in current medical research. In ancient literatures, there are many records about the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine in treating tumor, and modern pharmacological researches have shown that more and more active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) have gradually highlighted their inhibitory effect on various types of tumor. Caulis sinomenii has been used for treatment of rheumatic diseases in TCM for a long history. Sinomenine is a major bioactive alkaloid presented in C. sinomenii, which has demonstrated a wide range of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammation, immunosuppression, analgesia and sedation, and due to its slightly soluble in water, it is commonly used in clinic in the form of hydrochloride, with its commercial name of Zhengqing Fengtongning. Recent studies show that sinomenine alone or combined with chemoradiotherapy can inhibit growth of several tumors significantly or in a synergistic way, so it is termed as an inhibitor of tumors. Anti-tumor effect of sinomenine involve inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, induction of tumor cell apoptosis, blockade of tumor cell cycle, suppression of tumor invasion and metastasis, induction of autophagy of tumor cells, and reversal of multidrug resistance of tumor cells. Upon combination with nanomaterials, it can enhance efficiency and reduce toxicity. Here we summarized and reviewed recent advances on basic anti-tumor research of sinomenine, and then made a classification and description according to its in vivo and in vitro pharmacological action and mechanism of action, so as to elucidate the great potential of sinomenine as a promising anti-tumor drug, and provide reference for further research on its anti-tumor mechanism.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882343

ABSTRACT

Kawasaki disease is a disease based on systemic vasculitis, which has become the most common disease in children with acquired heart disease, but its etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear.The homeostasis of the gut microbiota plays an important role in the maturation of the body′s immune system and immune regulation.The disorder of the gut microbiota is involved in a variety of inflammatory and immune diseases in children.Studies have found that there are changes in the composition of gut microbiota in children with Kawasaki disease.Gut microbiota disorders are related to the occurrence and development of Kawasaki disease, with the immune system function affected.Various mechanisms such as intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction, immune inflammation, oxidative stress and metabolite effects promote the pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease.This article reviews the research on the relationship between gut microbiota and Kawasaki disease.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882081

ABSTRACT

Objective To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of ceftazidime/avibactam(CAZ/AVI) in the treatment of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae(CRE) or carbapenem-resistance Klebsiella pneumonia (CRKP), and to provide evidence-cased reference for clinic therapy. Methods A comprehensive literature search from PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI and VIP database was conducted for the CAZ/AVI therapy on CRE/CRKP infections published before May.2020. Two reviewers independently screened literatures according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted data, and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. The results were analyzed by RevMan 5.3 statistical software. Results Five studies in English involving 392 patients were included for the analysis. In terms of effectiveness, the results showed CAZ/AVI group significantly increased the clinical cure rate[OR=3.57, 95% CI (2.03, 6.26), P<0.00001] compared with the control group. Also CAZ/AVI group significantly decreased the 28/30 day all-cause mortality [OR=0.27, 95% CI (0.14, 0.50), P<0.0001]. There were no significant difference between the two groups in the clinical remission rate [OR=1.92, 95% CI (0.93, 3.97), P=0.08] and the infection recurrence rate [OR=0.44, 95% CI (0.11, 1.85), P=0.26]. In terms of safety, the incidence of adverse events in CAZ/AVI group were lower than those in control group [OR=0.29, 95% CI (0.10, 0.80), P=0.02]. There was no significant difference between two groups in the incidence of serious adverse events[OR=0.33, 95% CI (0.09, 1.19), P=0.09]. Conclusion The current evidence shows that CAZ/AVI therapy has advantage in survival rate for the treatment of CRE/CRKP infections without increase of SAEs. Limited by the quality and quantity of the included studies, the above conclusions need to be verified with more high-quality RCTs.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882042

ABSTRACT

With the deepening of the schistosomiasis research, risk assessment models have been widely used in schistosomiasis research and control. This paper reviews the theoretical basis and applications of common schistosomiasis risk assessment models and the Bayesian model, so as to provide insights into national schistosomiasis elimination program in China.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882026

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of current advanced schistosomiasis cases in China, so as to provide the scientific evidence for the precision management and medical care of advanced schistosomiasis. Methods The baseline data pertaining to the current advanced schistosomiasis cases in China were collected from the Epidemiological Dynamic Data Collection Platform (EDDC) operated by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The demographic characteristics, population and regional distribution and medical care of advanced schistosomiasis cases were analyzed with a descriptive method. Results A total of 31 889 cases with advanced schistosomiasis were reported in China by the end of June, 2019, and these cases were mainly identified in Hubei Province (7 737 cases) followed by in Jiangxi Province (7 256 cases), Hunan Province (5 615 cases), Anhui Province (5 236 cases) and Jiangsu Province (2 908 cases), accounting for 90.2% (28 752/31 889) of total cases in China. The current advanced schistosomiasis cases had a male/female ratio of 1.5∶1, and a mean age of (67.0 ± 11.2) years, with 92.6% (29 521/31 889) detected in individuals at ages of over 50 years. There were 97.6% (31 109/31 889) of the cases with an educational level of junior high school and lower, and 95.2% (30 359/31 889) with an occupation of farmers. Ascites (72.6%, 23 164/31 889) and splenomegaly types (26.3%, 8 386/31 889) were predominant in current advanced schistosomiasis cases in China, and there was a significant difference in the constituent ratio of disease types among current advanced schistosomiasis cases with different age groups (χ2 = 362.31, P < 0.01), with the ascites type as the predominant type of advanced schistosomiasis. Among the current advanced schistosomiasis cases, 88.9% (28 358/31 889) and 18.7% (5 973/31 889) had received medical treatment and surgical treatment, respectively. Conclusions The current advanced schistosomiasis cases are predominantly reported in five marshland and lake endemic provinces of China where schistosomiasis is not eliminated, and are mostly categorized as the ascites and megalosplenia types, with minor differences seen in gender and disease-type distributions. Precision medical care should be reinforced according to the epidemiological features of the current advanced schistosomiasis cases, and early screening and standard management and follow-up is required.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882025

ABSTRACT

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2020, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai Municipality, Zhejiang Province, Fujian Province, Guangdong Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, and Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces maintained the criteria of transmission interruption, while Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces maintained the criteria of transmission control by the end of 2020. A total of 450 counties (cites, districts) were found to be endemic for schistosomiasis in China, with 28 376 endemic villages covering 71 370 400 people at risk of infections. Among the 450 endemic counties (cities, districts), 74.89% (337/450), 21.87% (98/450) and 3.33% (15/450) achieved the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2020, 29 517 cases with advanced schistosomiasis were documented in China. In 2020, 11 117 655 individuals received inquiry examinations and 1 798 580 were positive; 5 263 082 individuals received serological tests and 83 179 were sero-positive. A total of 273 712 individuals received stool examinations and 3 were positive, including one case of acute schistosomiasis. In 2020, snail survey was performed in 19 733 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 309 villages, accounting for 37.04% of all surveyed villages, with 15 villages identified with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey covered an area of 736 984.13 hm2 and 206 125.22 hm2 snail habitats were found, including 1 174.67 hm2 emerging snail habitats and 1.96 hm2 habitats with infected snails. In 2020, 544 424 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis-endemic areas of China, and 147 887 received serological examinations, with 326 positives detected, while 130 673 bovines received stool examinations, with no positives identified. In 2020, there were 19 214 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 964 103 person-time individuals and 266 280 herd-time bovines were given expanded chemotherapy. In 2020, molluscicide treatment was performed in 136 141.92 hm2 snail habitats, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 71 980.22 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 1 464.03 hm2. Data from the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections were both zero in humans and bovines in 2020, and no S. japonicum infection was detected in snails. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic status of schistosomiasis remains at a low level in China and the goal of the National Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for Schistosomiasis Control was achieved as scheduled; however, the endemic situation of schistosomiasis rebounded in local areas. Precision schistosomiasis control and intensified monitoring of the endemic situation and transmission risk of schistosomiasis are required to be performed to facilitate the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis steadily.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876715

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the distribution characteristics of Oncomelania hupensis in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, so as to provide insights into the assessment of the risk of schistosomiasis transmission and the scientific formulation of the schistosomiasis surveillance strategy. Methods From 2015 to 2019, a total of 19 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, including 4 fixed sites and 15 mobile sites. Snail survey was performed by means of systematic sampling in combination with environmental sampling, and the infection of Schistosoma japonicum was detected by the crushing method combined with loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay. Results From 2015 to 2019, snail habitats were detected at areas of 17 040 to 39 527 m2, including 6 214 m2 emerging snail habitats and 16 563 m2 re-emerging snail habitats. The overall mean density of living snails was 0.019 2 snails/0.1 m2 and the occurrence of frames with snails was 1.11% in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites; however, no S. japonicum infection was identified in snails. The area of snail habitats increased by 121.46% in the national surveillance sites in 2019 as compared to that in 2015; however, 50.34% (Z = −0.422, P > 0.05) and 42.85% (χ2 = 130.41, P < 0.01) reductions were seen in the overall means density of living snails and the occurrence of frames with snails. All snail habitats were distributed in the 4 fixed surveillance sites, and were mainly found in ditches, paddy fields and dry lands, with weeds as the primary vegetation type. Conclusions There are still risk factors leading to re-emergent transmission of schistosomiasis in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, such as local snail spread, and the monitoring of schistosomiasis remains to be reinforced to further consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination in the region.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876704

ABSTRACT

Objective To create a model based on meteorological data to predict the regions at risk of schistosomiasis during the flood season, so as to provide insights into the surveillance and forecast of schistosomiasis. Methods An interactive schistosomiasis forecast system was created using the open-access R software. The schistosomiasis risk index was used as a basic parameter, and the species distribution model of Oncomelania hupensis snails was generated according to the cumulative rainfall and temperature to predict the probability of O. hupensis snail distribution, so as to identify the regions at risk of schistosomiasis transmission during the flood season. Results The framework of the web page was built using the Shiny package in the R program, and an interactive and visualization system was successfully created to predict the distribution of O. hupensis snails, containing O. hupensis snail surveillance site database, meteorological and environmental data. In this system, the snail distribution area may be displayed and the regions at risk of schistosomiasis transmission may be predicted using the species distribution model. This predictive system may rapidly generate the schistosomiasis transmission risk map, which is simple and easy to perform. In addition, the regions at risk of schistosomiasis transmission were predicted to be concentrated in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River during the flood period. Conclusions A schistosomiasis forecast system is successfully created, which is accurate and rapid to utilize meteorological data to predict the regions at risk of schistosomiasis transmission during the flood period.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876703

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the monitoring data of Oncomelania hupensis in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2015 to 2019, so as to understand the changes of Oncomelania snail status in the schistosomiasis-endemic areas of China and to provide the scientific evidence for Oncomelania snail control. Methods According to the requirements of National Scheme for Schistosomiasis Surveillance in China (2014 Edition), national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in all schistosomiasis-endemic counties (cities, districts) and the potential endemic counties (cities, districts) in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas, and Oncomelania snail status was monitored according to different epidemic types. In endemic areas, Oncomelania snail survey was performed by means of systematic sampling and environmental sampling, and the occurrence of frames with Oncomelania snails and the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections in Oncomelania snails were calculated, while in potential endemic areas, the risk of imported Oncomelania snails and Oncomelania snails in floating debris were monitored. Results Oncomelania snail survey was performed covering an area of 116 834.16 hm2 in the national schistosomiasis surveillance of China from 2015 to 2019, with 35 007.62 hm2 Oncomelania snail habitats identified. A total of 6 908 292 frames were surveyed during the 5-year period, and there were 364 555 frames detected with Oncomelania snails, with a 5.28% mean occurrence of frames with Oncomelania snails. Among 997 508 living Oncomelania snails captured, no S. japonicum infections were detected, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay detected 18 positive mixed Oncomelania snail samples. During the period from 2015 to 2019, 147.20 hm2 emerging Oncomelania snail habitats were identified, with an overall tendency towards a rise seen in the proportion of emerging Oncomelania snail habitats in plain regions with waterway networks (0.12% to 92.00%), a tendency towards a rise followed by decline seen in marshland and lake regions (0 to 96.72%), and a large fluctuation in hilly regions (0 to 88.49%). A total of 831.10 hm2 re-emerging Oncomelania snail habitats were found in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2015 to 2019, with an overall tendency towards a rise seen in the proportion of re-emerging Oncomelania snail habitats in marshland and lake regions (16.05% to 79.66%), an overall tendency towards a decline seen in hilly regions (19.25% to 81.00%), and a minor fluctuation in plain regions with waterway networks (1.10% to 10.14%). During the 5-year period from 2015 to 2019, a total of 48 656 kg floating debris were captured in 4 surveillance sites in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas, and 2 204 snails were found, with no Oncomelania snails identified. Conclusions The areas of Oncomelania snail habitats tended to be stable in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China during the period from 2015 to 2019, however, there was a gradual rise in the area of Oncomelania snail habitats year by year, and LAMP assay identified positive Oncomelania snail samples, suggesting Oncomelania snail control is far from optimistic in China.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876702

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the morbidity due to Schistosoma japonicum in national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2015 to 2019, so as to provide insights into schistosomiasis control and elimination and provide the scientific evidence for formulating the new scheme for schistosomiasis surveillance in China. Methods According to the requirements of National Scheme for Schistosomiasis Surveillance in China (2014 Edition), national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in all schistosomiasis-endemic counties (cities, districts) and the potential endemic counties (cities, districts) in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas, and S. japonicum infections were monitored in local residents, mobile populations and livestock according to different epidemic types. The sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections, adjusted prevalence of human S. japonicum infections, characteristics of egg-positive individuals and prevalence of S. japonicum infections livestock were analyzed. Results S. japonicum infections were monitored in 453 schistosomiasis-endemic counties (cities, districts) from 13 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) and 4 potential endemic counties (cities, districts) from the Three Gorges Reservoir areas in China from 2015 to 2019. During the 5-year period from 2015 to 2019, the sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections reduced from 3.35% to 1.63% among local residents and from 1.15% to 0.75% among mobile populations, while the adjusted prevalence of infections reduced from 0.05% to 0 among local residents and from 0.20% to 0.001 03% among mobile populations. There were significant differences in the sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections among local residents and mobile populations in terms of province, occupation and age (all P values < 0.05). A total of 132 egg-positives were identified during the 5-year period, including 97 local residents (inter-quartile range for ages, 47 to 61 years), and 35 mobile populations (inter-quartile range for ages, 26 to 48 years), and there was a significant difference in the age distribution between local residents and mobile populations (P < 0.05). There were totally 6 bovines (5 in 2015 and 1 in 2016) identified with S. japonicum infections in national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China, with no S. japonicum infections detected in bovines from 2017 to 2019. Conclusions The prevalence of schistosomiasis is very low in China. Further surveillance including more mobile surveillance sites seems justified to identify the risk of schistosomiasis as soon as possible and interrupt the transmission route, so as to facilitate the elimination of schistosomiasis in China.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873741

ABSTRACT

Since 2015 when the transmission of schistosomiasis was controlled in China, the country has been moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis, with the surveillance-response as the main interventions for schistosomiasis control. During the period of the 13th Five-Year Plan, the transmission of schistosomiasis had been interrupted in four provinces of Sichuan, Jiangsu, Yunnan and Hubei and the prevalence of schistosomiasis has been at the historically lowest level in China. As a consequence, the goal set in The 13th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China is almost achieved. However, there are multiple challenges during the stage moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China, including the widespread distribution of intermediate host snails and complicated snail habitats, many types of sources of Schistosoma japonicum infections and difficulty in management of bovines and sheep, unmet requirements for the current schistosomiasis control program with the currently available tools, and vulnerable control achievements. During the 14th Five-Year period, it is crucial to consolidate the schistosomiasis control achievements and gradually solve the above difficulties, and critical to provide the basis for achieving the ultimate goal of elimination of schistosomiasis in China. Based on the past experiences from the national schistosomiasis control program and the challenges for schistosomiasis elimination in China, an expert consensus has been reached pertaining to the objectives, control strategy and measures for The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China, so as to provide insights in to the development of The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873739

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis was once endemic in 12 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) along and south of the Yangtze River basin, which seriously damages human health and hinders socioeconomic developments in China. Following the concerted efforts for 70 years, remarkable achievements have been gained in the national schistosomiasis control program of China. However, there are still multiple challenges for elimination of schistosomiasis in the country. This paper describes the current status of schistosomiasis and the challenges during the progress towards the elimination of schistosomiasis, and proposes the goals, key points and research priorities of schistosomiasis control in China during the 14th Five-Year Plan Period.

15.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 134-140, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The symptomatic bradyarrhythmia is Class I indication for pacing therapy which is not a radical cure. The present study aimed to assess the feasibility and to present the initial results of the restricted ablation of the parasympathetic innervation surrounding sinus and atrioventricular (AV) nodes for treating patients with bradyarrhythmia.@*METHODS@#A total of 13 patients with cardiogenic syncope were included from May 2008 to June 2015. Under the guidance of fluoroscopy and /or three-dimensional geometry by 64-slice spiral computed tomography, atrial activation sequence in sinus rhythm was mapped. Chamber geometry was reconstructed manually or automatically using the Niobe II magnetic navigation system integrated with the CARTO-remote magnetic technology (RMT) system. Cardioneuroablation was targeted at the high-amplitude fractionated electrograms surrounding the regions of His bundle and the site with the earliest activation in sinus rhythm. Areas surrounding the sinus node, AV node, and the phrenic nerve were avoided.@*RESULTS@#Thirteen patients completed the studies. Ablation was successfully performed in 12 patients and failed in one. The high-frequency potential was recorded in atrial electrograms surrounding the sinus or AV nodes in all the patients and disappeared in 15 s after radiofrequency applications. The vagal reaction was observed before the improvement of the sinus and AV node function. No complications occurred during the procedures. Patients were followed up for a mean of 13.0 ± 5.9 months. During the follow up ten patients remained free of symptoms, and two patients had a permanent cardiac pacemaker implanted due to spontaneous recurrence of syncope. The heart rate of post-ablation was higher than pre-ablation (69.0 ± 11.0 vs. 49.0 ± 10.0 beats/min, t = 4.56, P = 0.008). The sinus node recovery time, Wenckebach block point, and atrium-His bundle interval were significantly shorter after ablation (1386.0 ± 165.0 vs. 921.0 ± 64.0 ms, t = 7.45, P = 0.002; 590.0 ± 96.0 vs. 464.0 ± 39.0 ms, t = 2.38, P = 0.023; 106.0 ± 5.0 vs. 90.0 ± 12.0 ms, t = 9.80, P = 0.013 before and after ablation procedure, respectively).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Ablation of sinoatrial and AV nodal peripheral fibrillar myocardium electrical activity might provide a new treatment to ameliorate paroxysmal sinus node dysfunction, high degree AV block, and vagal-mediated syncope.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812930

ABSTRACT

Objective To quantitatively evaluate the diagnostic value of variable-temperature and isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques in the detection of schistosomiasis japonica using a meta-analysis. Methods The publications pertaining to the nucleic acid detection of schistosomiasis japonica were searched in electronic databases, including Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Data, PubMed and ScienceDirect, and the compilations and proceedings of schistosomiasis were manually searched. In addition, the citations of publications associated with the nucleic acid detection of schistosomiasis japonica were traced using a document tracing method. The retrieved literatures were screened according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and data were extracted from the included literatures. The quality of the included literatures was assessed using the software RevMan version 5.3, and a meta-analysis was performed using the software MetaDiSc version 1.4. Results A total of 19 publications covering 24 groups of studies were enrolled, including 5 Chinese publications and 14 English publications. There were 17 groups of studies reporting the comparison between the variable-temperature nucleic acid amplification technique and the golden standard, and 7 groups of studies showing the comparison between the isothermal nucleic acid amplification technique and the golden standard. Assessment of the literature quality indicated a minor overall bias of the included literatures, and the Deek funnel plot showed a possible publication bias in the documents reports variable-temperature nucleic acid amplification techniques. There was a heterogeneity caused by non-threshold effect among the studies associated with the variable-temperature amplification technique, and the random effects model was therefore used to combine the effects. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of the variable-temperature amplification technique were 0.81 (0.79 to 0.83) and 0.73 (0.71 to 0.74) for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica, and area under the SROC curve was 0.944 3. There was no heterogeneity among the studies associated with the isothermal amplification technique, and the fixed effects model was therefore used to combine the effects. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of the isothermal amplification technique were 0.96 (0.94 to 0.98) and 0.95 (0.94 to 0.97) for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica, and area under the SROC curve was 0.989 9. Conclusions Both variable-temperature and isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques have a high efficiency for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica, and the isothermal amplification technique shows a relatively higher accuracy than the variable-temperature amplification technique.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837609

ABSTRACT

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2019, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 455 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, Sichuan Province achieved transmission interruption, Jiangsu newly achieved the standard of transmission interruption and 5 provinces of Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan maintained transmission control by the end of 2019. There were 450 endemic counties (cities, districts) endemic for schistosomiasis, including 28 500 endemic villages covering 70 667 800 people at risk of infections. Among the 450 endemic counties (citis, districts), 66.89% (301/450), 28.44% (128/450) and 4.67% (21/450) kept the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2019, a total of 30 170 advanced schistosomiasis cases were documented in China. In 2019, a total of 12 090 712 individuals received inquiry examinations and 1 740 764 were positive; 5 158 369 individuals received serological tests and 89 753 were seropositive. A total of 327 475 individuals received stool examinations and 5 were positive, including one case of acute schistosomiasis. In 2019, snail survey was performed in 19 726 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 322 villages, accounting for 37.12% of all surveyed villages, with 6 villages with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey covered an area of 585 286.24 hm2 and 174 270.42 hm2 snail habitats were found, including emerging snail habitats of 64.20 hm2; however, no infected snails were identified. In 2019, a total of 605 965 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China, and 183 313 received serological examinations, with 1 176 positives detected, while 134 978 bovines received stool examinations, with 7 positives identified. In 2019, there were 28 557 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and expanded chemotherapy was given to 1 008 083 person-times; there were 7 bovines with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 296 053 herd-times expanded chemotherapy was given to bovines. In 2019, snail habitats at an area of 128 754.26 hm2 were given chemical treatment, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 69 605.55 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 2 847.00 hm2. Data from the 455 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean Schistosoma japonicum infection rates were both zero in humans and bovines in 2019, and no infected snails were found. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic situation of schistosomiasis remains at a lower infection level in China; however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission. To achieve the target set in the National Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for Schistosomiasis Control and consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis control, precision control on schistosomiasis still needs to be reinforced in China.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821627

ABSTRACT

Objective To characterize a species of the genus Tricula and parasitized trematodes in schistosomiasis-endemic areas of Yunnan Province using a molecular analysis, so as to understand their taxonomic positions. Methods Tricula spp. and Oncomelania snails were collected from Xiangyun County, Yunnan Province, and cercaria parasitizing snails were observed using crushing followed by microscopy. Cercaria parasitizing Tricula snails at various morphologies were sampled using a shedding method. Genomic DNA was extracted from snail soft tissues and cercariae, and the 16S rRNA, COI, 28S rDNA genes in snails and the ND1 and 28S rDNA genes in cercariae were amplified using a PCR assay and sequenced. The species of Tricula snails and their parasitized trematodes was characterized using sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. Results Among 382 Tricula snails detected, there were three types of trematode cercariae found, including the non-forked (20.94%, 80/382), double-forked (3.40%, 13/382) and swallow shapes (7.07%, 27/382). Sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that the 16S rRNA, COI and 28S rDNA gene sequences of this species of Tricula had high homology to those in Delavaya dianchiensis, and were clustered in a branch. Sequencing analysis of the ND1 and 28S rDNA genes revealed that the non-forked cercariae belonged to the family Pleu- rogenidae, the swallow-shaped cercariae belonged to the family Opecoelidae, and the double-forked cercariae belonged to another species of the genus Schistosoma that was different from S. sinensium and S. ovuncatum. Conclusion The species and taxonomy of Triculla spp. and their parasitized trematodes are preliminarily determined in schistosomiasis-endemic areas of Yunnan Province; however, further studies are required to investigate the more definite taxonomy and pathogenicity.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829578

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the implementation of schistosomiasis control activities in China during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, so as to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 epidemic on the national schistosomiasis control program in China. Methods On April 2020, 3 counties (districts) were randomly selected from each of the 12 schistosomiasis-endemic provinces (municipality, autonomous region), and a questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the implementation of schistosomiasis control activities in these counties (districts) from January to March 2020. Then, the impact of the COVID-19 epidemics on the national schistosomiasis control program of China was evaluated using a comparative analysis approach. Results Among the 36 counties (cities, districts) sampled from 12 provinces (municipality, autonomous region), 66.67% were at a high and medium risk of COVID-19 epidemics. The implementation of schistosomiasis control activities assignment, human schistosomiasis examination and treatment, snail control with chemical treatment and health education reduced by 44.26% to 91.56% as compared to 2019 during the same time period, and the schistosomiasis control program was more affected by COVID-19 in transmission-controlled provinces. The gross funds invested into the schistosomiasis control program reduced by 23.39% in relative to the expected, while the total expenditure increased by 41.22%. In addition, all 36 surveyed counties (districts) considered that the COVID-19 epidemic had a short-term impact on the schistosomiasis control program, with the most predominant impact on schistosomiasis control activities assignment, human resources and monitoring of endemic situation of schistosomiasis. Conclusions The COVID-19 epidemics affect the routine schistosomiasis control program across the endemic-foci of China. Policy and financial support should be strengthened to ensure the completion of the schistosomiasis control program.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829570

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the impact of the flood disaster on schistosomiasis transmission along the Yangtze River basin in 2020, so as to provide insights into schistosomiasis prevention and control in flood-affected areas. Methods The data pertaining to the endemic situation of schistosomiasis were collected from 5 provinces of Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Anhui and Jiangsu from 2013 to 2019, including Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans and livestock and snail distribution, and the warning water levels and actual water status were collected in water regions locating in these 5 provinces. The cumulative numbers of S. japonicum egg-positive individuals and bovines during the period from 2013 to 2019, the area of snail habitats in 2019 and the water level on July 12, 2020 were estimated at a county level and employed as parameters for classification of schistosomiasis transmission risk. Then, the cumulative value of each risk index was calculated to assess the risk of schistosomiasis transmission risk. Results After the flood disaster along the Yangtze River basin in 2020, there were 10, 5 and 9 counties (districts) at high risk of schistosomiasis transmission in 5 provinces of Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Anhui and Jiangsu based on number of egg-positive individuals, number of egg-positive bovines and snail distribution, respectively. Based on comprehensive risk indices, there were 10 (8 in Dongting Lake regions of Hunan Province and 2 in Poyang Lake regions of Jiangxi Province) and 15 counties (districts) (4 in Hubei Province, 7 in Hunan Province and 4 in Jiangxi Province) identified at grades 5 and 4 risk of schistosomiasis transmission. Conclusions Dongting Lake regions and Poyang Lake regions are the most severely flood-affected schistosomiasis-endemic foci of China in 2020, and the flood disaster may facilitate the transmission of schistosomiasis in affected areas. Therefore, schistosomiasis control requires to be intensified after the flood disaster to prevent the rebound of the disease.

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