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Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-375895


A Task Force team consisting of members from pharmaceutical companies --a central player to develop and implement RMP (Risk Management Plan)-- as well as health care professionals and members from academia was established in JSPE. The Task Force developed guidance for scientific approach to practical and ICH-E2E-compliant Pharmacovigilance Plan (PVP) stated in Japanese Risk Management Plan issued in April 2012 by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The guidance contains the following topics.<br>1.Introduction: JSPE's activities and this task force's objectives for pharmacovigilance activities<br>2.How to select Safety Specification (SS) and describe its characteristics<br>・Selection of SS<br>・Characterization of SS<br>・Association with Research Questions (RQ)<br>3.How to define and describe RQ<br>・What is RQ ?<br>・RQ interpretation in other relevant guidelines<br>・Methodology to develop RQ for PVP with examples<br>・Best approach to integrating PVP for whole aspects of safety concern<br>4.How to optimize PVP for specific RQ<br>・Routine PVP or additional PVP ?<br>・Additional PVP design (RQ and study design, RQ structured with PICO or GPP's research objectives, specific aims, and rationale)<br>・Checklist to help develop PVP<br>5.Epilogue:<br>・What can/should be “Drug use investigation” in the context of ICH-E2E-compliant PVP.<br>・Significance of background incidence rate and needs for comparator group<br>・Infrastructure for the future PVP activities<br>6.Appendix: Checklist to help develop PVP activities in RMP<br>The task force team is hoping that this guidance help develop and conduct SS and PVP in accordance with ICH E2E, as stated in Japanese Risk Management Plan Guideline.

Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-374840


The Standardized Structured Medical record Information eXchange (SS-MIX) was started in 2006 as the project supported by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) for promoting the exchange of the standardized medical information. Free soft wares developed in the project allow the storage of medical information to receive HL7 messages for prescription, laboratory test results, diagnoses and patient demographics in the hospital information system (HIS). We encourage the use of the SS-MIX standardized storage for postmarketing surveys and clinical studies. The recommendations consist of the following 7 parts. [1] In surveys and clinical studies, the information of drugs and laboratory test results in the SS-MIX standardized storage can be directly transferred to the electronic questionnaire and the investigators may obtain the information with high accuracy and granularity. [2] The SS-MIX standardized storage works as the backup system for the HIS because it can provide the minimum information essential in patient care even under the disastrous condition like earthquake or unexpected network failure. [3] The SS-MIX standardized storage may be useful to conduct a good pharmacoepidemiology study not only because it provides the information in the storage efficiently but also it can be used to identify “new users” who started the drug after some period of non-use.The “new user” design is often essential to have the unbiased results. [4] When the drug company conducts postmarketing surveys according to the current regulation, the use of the SS-MIX standardized storage will facilitate the fast and efficient collection of data to develop the timely measure to minimize the drug-related risk. With the SS-MIX standardized storage, it is also expected that many types of study design can be employed and the quality of data is improved in the survey. [5] The SS-MIX standardized storage maybe also useful to evaluate the risk minimization action plan by comparing the prescription pattern or incidence of the targeted adverse event between two periods before and after the implementation of the action plan. [6] In planning clinical trials, the SS-MIX standardized storage may be used to estimate the size of eligible patients. The storage may also allow conducting cross-sectional studies to know characteristics of diseases or drug treatment. In addition, cohorts of those who had coronary artery angiography, new users of a drug and those with a rare disease may be readily identified. Using such cohorts, investigators can initiate a case-control study nested within the cohort, pharmacogenomic studies and comparative effectiveness researches. [7] The SS-MIX standardized storage may be used as the formal data source in clinical trials in the future when some conditions are satisfied. For instance, the formal agreement should be reached between industry, government and academia on the use of standards of data structure in Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) and on the operation of computerized system validation (CSV) in the clinical trials.

Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-374834


Appropriate observational studies with sufficient external validity are apparently warranted to assess comparative effectiveness and safety of treatment with approved drugs in real world clinical practice. This kind of study must register patients consecutively without any arbitrariness, assess outcome carefully, (e.g. cardiovascular events) and automatically extract clinical data including results from laboratory tests and prescribed drugs. Clinical trials for the assessment of efficacy of newly developing drugs may also need such patients' registry. Data storage system by SS-MIX may be appropriate for this purpose. (Jpn J Pharmacoepidemiol 2013;18(1):31-34)

Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-374818


<b>Objective</b>: To propose the best pharmacovigilance plan in Japan by comparing post marketing safety studies in Japan and the U.S.<br><b>Method</b>: Among all of the newly approved medicines in Japan in 2010, 12 marketed products in the U. S. are selected. First, to examine the U. S. system, post-marketing safety concerns over those drugs at the time of approval in the U. S. were collected as well as its postmarketing requirements (PMR) which are studies or clinical trials that sponsors are required to conduct under one or more statutes of regulations. Then, the same drugsʼ safety issues discussed as special cautions listed during the approval process in Japan and the corresponding postmarketing safety studies were reviewed.<br><b>Result</b>: Both countries have many safety concerns in common, however, in Japan, ongoing studies are only conventional studies, such as post-marketing surveillance studies or all-cases studies, while the U. S. conducts studies to meet each individual requirement need. Ideal post-marketing safety study designs proposed by the task force, seemed beyond sponsors capabilities, particularly with regard to conduct studies with control group, and require involvement of academia external research organizations, or establishment of the national registry system for cancer and other major diseases.<br><b>Conclusion</b>: In Japan, Risk Management Plan (RMP) will soon be implemented in 2013, and that is expected to secure patientsʼ safety by the scientific pharmacovigilance plan with the international standard. It is an urgent task to discuss what plan is feasible in Japan and how to make the corporation of industry-government-academia a reality. (Jpn J Pharmacoepidemiol 2012; 17 (1): 55-66)

Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-377934


For the purpose of pharmacists to be able to be more involved clinically, the pharmacy education system in Japan was revised in April 2006 and the term length of pharmacy education was extended from 4 years to 6 years.<Br> The Japanese Society for Pharmacoepidemiology is deeply concerned about the new curriculum which will be adopted for the 6-year course, especially the handling of pharmacoepidemiology education. Two questionnaire surveys were sent to the dean of all schools of pharmacy to inquire whether they lecture pharmacoepidemiology and, if not, what study in pharmaceutical sciences would be most closely related to pharmacoepidemiology. The surveys were conducted just before and just after the introduction of the new system, in October 2005 and July 2007. The recovery of the first and second survey were 90% and 76%, respectively.<Br> In the first survey only 17 universities (31%) had lectures on pharmacoepidemiology but in the second survey 31 universities (57%) did, and in 55% of these 31 universities the lecture was required. The result indicates that the understanding of professors of pharmacy school regarding the lecture have been gradually promoted and they feel that pharmacoepidemiology is going to be considered to be one of the essential lectures in pharmacy education in Japan. However, many responders indicated that pharmacoepidemiology was still an immature field of study and there are few appropriate textbooks and no teaching experts, and therefore, the society should take these matters into reconsideration.