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Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-376095


<b>Objectives</b> : Mediastinitis results in significant morbidity in pediatric patients after cardiac surgery. The management of mediastinitis is not well established in the pediatric population. Our strategy for pediatric mediastinitis after cardiac surgery consists of rapid introduction of simple vacuum-assisted drainage system and sternal closure without plombage under aseptic conditions. The efficacy of our strategy was examined. <b>Methods</b> : The records of 7 pediatric patients with mediastinitis after cardiac surgery managed with this drainage system from May 2006 to May 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. The median age of the patients was 20.5 months and median body weight was 9.7 kg. Mediastinitis occurred 1-3 weeks after surgery. The mediastinum was re-explored immediately under general anesthesia after the diagnosis was made, and continuous drainage was used after extensive debridement was performed. We developed a simple vacuum-assisted drainage system consisting of conventional polyurethane foam, surgical drape containing povidone-iodine, and 1 to 3 silicone drainage tubes connected to a drain aspirator (-99 cmH<sub>2</sub>O). Patients were allowed oral intake and resumption of daily activity after extubation. The components of the drainage system were exchanged every 2-3 days. The sternum was closed without the use of the omentum or muscle for plombage of the mediastinum after two negative topical swab cultures were obtained. <b>Results</b> : Negative topical swab cultures were obtained in all cases (3-12 days after the drainage commencement) and the sternum was closed 7-19 days after the drainage commencement. The median duration of hospital stay was 31 days (range, 14-47). Although one patient with prenatal infection died of aortic rupture, the remaining six children survived and did not experience recurrence after hospital discharge. <b>Conclusion</b> : The simple vacuum-assisted drainage system enabled rapid control of wound bacterial infection and sternal closure in postoperative pediatric mediastinitis without the need for special, and expensive devices.

Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-374417


A 48-year-old man underwent an non-anatomical bypass surgery for aortic coarctation when he was 38 years old, when a bypass laid between the left subclavian artery and the descending aorta with a prosthesis (10 mm, internal diameter). Four years after the first surgery, aortic aneurysms at the proximal and distal sites of the coarctation were detected. Six years from then, we decided to perform another surgery when the maximum diameters of the proximal and distal sites exceeded 60 and 47 mm, respectively. We performed the aortic replacement from the proximal left subclavian artery to the descending aorta at eighth thoracic vertebra. The approach to the aortic aneurysm was through the extended left thoracotomy with the transection of the sternum. The cardiopulmonary bypass was established with an antegrade aortic perfusion (from the ascending aorta) and drainage from the right atrium. The circulatory arrest was obtained under deep hypothermia at 20°C measured by deep body temperature. After the surgery, the pressure differences between upper and lower extremities decreased to 10 mmHg, which had been 40 mmHg before surgery. Macroscopic observation showed the coarctation site was completely obstructed by an old thrombus. From this observation, we surmise that one of the reasons for the aneurysmal formation at the proximal site of coarctation might be an insufficient depressurization by the non-anatomical bypass grafting from the left subclavian artery to the descending aorta at the first surgery. We consider that a severe coarctation might become thrombotic sooner or later after a non-anatomical bypass surgery due to a change of blood flow, and a radical anatomical surgery would be recommended for adult coarctation cases.