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1.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2037-2043, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007671

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Primary malignant bone tumors are uncommon, and their epidemiological features are rarely reported. We aimed to study the incidence and death characteristics of bone tumors from 2000 to 2015.@*METHODS@#Population-based cancer registries submitted registry data to National Central Cancer Registry of China (NCCRC). The data collected from 501 local cancer registries in China were assessed using NCCRC screening methods and criteria. Incidence and mortality rates of primary bone tumor were stratified by age group, gender, and area. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were adjusted using the Chinese standard population in 2000 and Segi's world population. The annual percentage change (APC) in rate was calculated using the Joinpoint Regression Program.@*RESULTS@#Data from 368 registries met quality control criteria, of which 134 and 234 were from urban and rural areas, respectively. The data covered 309,553,499 persons. The crude incidence, age-standardized incidence, and crude mortality rates were 1.77, 1.35, and 1.31 per 100,000, respectively. Incidence and mortality rates were higher in males than those in females; they showed downward trends, with declines of 2.2% and 4.8% per year, respectively, and the rates in urban areas were lower than those in rural areas. Significant declining trends were observed in urban areas. Stable trends were seen in rural areas during 2000 to 2007, followed by downward trends. Age-specific incidence and mortality rates showed stable trends in the age group of 0 to 19 years, and downward trends in the age group elder than 19 years.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The incidence and mortality rates of primary malignant bone tumors in rural areas were higher compared to those in urban areas. Targeted prevention measures are required to monitor and control bone tumor incidence and improve the quality of life of affected patients. This research can provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of bone tumors, as well as basic information for follow-up research.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Young Adult , China/epidemiology , Incidence , Quality of Life , Bone Neoplasms/mortality , East Asian People
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1216-1224, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are rare tumors characterized by variable biology and delayed diagnosis. However, the nationwide epidemiology of NENs has never been reported in China. We aimed to estimate the incidence and survival statistics of NENs in China, in comparison to those in the United States during the same period.@*METHODS@#Based on the data from 246 population-based cancer registries covering 272.5 million people of China, we calculated age-specific incidence on NENs in 2017 and multiplied by corresponding national population to estimate the nationwide incidence in China. The data of 22 population-based cancer registries were used to estimate the trends of NENs incidence from 2000 to 2017 through the Joinpoint regression model. We used the cohort approach to analyze the 5-year age-standardized relative survival by sex, age group, and urban-rural area between 2008 and 2013, based on data from 176 high-quality cancer registries. We used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 program to estimate the comparable incidence and survival of NENs in the United States.@*RESULTS@#The overall age-standardized rate (ASR) of NENs incidence was lower in China (1.14 per 100,000) than in the United States (6.26 per 100,000). The most common primary sites were lungs, pancreas, stomach, and rectum in China. The ASRs of NENs incidence increased by 9.8% and 3.6% per year in China and the United States, respectively. The overall 5-year relative survival in China (36.2%) was lower than in the United States (63.9%). The 5-year relative survival was higher for female patients than male patients, and was higher in urban areas than in rural areas.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The disparities in burden of NENs persist across sex, area, age group, and site in China and the United States. These findings may provide a scientific basis on prevention and control of NENs in the two countries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , United States/epidemiology , Incidence , Neuroendocrine Tumors/pathology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Registries , Urban Population , China/epidemiology
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940672

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo establish the frozen section method of Ferula ferulaeoides, and to study the histochemical localization of volatile oil and coumarins in different organs of F. ferulaeoides. MethodThe roots, stems, petioles and leaves of F. ferulaeoides were used as materials to investigate the concentration of sucrose protectant, liquid nitrogen flash-freezing time, embedding conditions, section thickness, freezing temperature and time and post-treatment methods, the most suitable section conditions were screened by comparing the integrity, microscopic effect, elongation and clarity of frozen sections. Sudan Ⅳ staining method and fluorescence microscopy were used to locate the volatile oil and coumarins of F. ferulaeoides. ResultThe optimal conditions for frozen sections of the roots, stems, petioles and leaves of F. ferulaeoides were as follows:10%, 15% and 20% gradient sucrose as the protectant for roots, 10%, 20% and 30% gradient sucrose as the protectant for stems and petioles, 20%, 25% and 30% gradient sucrose as the protectant for leaves, glue-water (2∶1) as the embedding agent, quick-freeze in liquid nitrogen for 20 s, warmed up at -25 ℃ for 30 min, sliced at -20 ℃ with the thickness of 25 μm, rinsed with the same concentration of sucrose solution (gradient sucrose solution selected the last concentration), and the slices placed on the ice pack for a period of time and stored at room temperature. Among them, the concentration of sucrose protectant was the most important factor. The results of histochemical localization showed that volatile oil and coumarins in four organs of F. ferulaeoides were mainly distributed in resin canal. ConclusionFrozen section of F. ferulaeoides is established for the first time with high rate of slicing and simplified steps, its volatile oil and coumarins are mainly accumulated in resin canal.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-957173

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish an optimized automatic synthesis method of 18F-fallypride, and evaluate its biodistribution and microPET/CT characteristics. Methods:18F-fallypride was automatically prepared by AIO synthesis module and disposable cassette & reagents kit. The crude product was purified by a dedicated coupled column (HLB+ Alumin-N) to obtain the final product. Radiochemical purity and radiolabeling yield were determined. Parkinson′s disease (PD) model mice and rats were established. The radioactive distribution of different organs of PD model mice ( n=24) were monitored. The distribution process of the agent in the SD rat brain (PD model, n=6; normal rat, n=6) were evaluated by microPET/CT imaging. Results:The radiochemical yield of 18F-fallypride synthesized by automatic synthesis module was stable at (10±1)% ( n=5, no decay corrected). The total synthesis time was about 40 min. The radiochemical purity of 18F-fallypride was more than 95%, and the radiochemical purities were also over 95% after being stored in saline and serum for 120 min at room temperature. 18F-fallypride was mainly excreted by the kidneys, and it was less radioactive intake in the liver and spleen in PD mice. MicroPET/CT imaging showed that higher accumulation of 18F-fallypride was noted in corpus striatum and the SUV ratio of PD group was lower than that of control group (5.00±0.93 vs 6.53±1.96). Conclusion:18F-fallypride can be successfully prepared automatically by improved multifunctional module, with the advantages of convenient preparation, stable radiochemical yield, satisfying purity and quality control, so it can be used in the follow-up standardized production of Good Manufacture Practice (GMP) system.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801408

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To estimate the incidence and mortality rates of esophageal cancer in China in 2015. @*Methods@#Based on the data quality review and assessment, the esophageal cancer data from 368 cancer registries in 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) in China were included in this study. According to the national population data in 2015, the nationwide incidence and mortality of the esophageal cancer were estimated. Chinese standard population in 2000 and world Segi′s population were used to calculate the age-standardized (ASR) incidence and mortality rates (ASR China and world, respectively). @*Results@#The 368 cancer registries covered a total of 309 553 499 populations in China, accounting for 22.52% of the national population. There were 245 651 new esophageal cancer cases estimated in China in 2015, with a crude incidence rate of 17.87/100 000. The ASR China and ASR world were 11.14/100 000 and 11.28/100 000, respectively. The estimated number of esophageal cancer death was 188 044 in China in 2015, with a crude mortality rate of 13.68/100 000; The ASR China and ASR world mortality rates were 8.33/100 000 and 8.36/100 000, respectively. The ASR China incidence and mortality of esophageal cancer in males were higher in males (16.50/100 000 and 12.66/100 000) than those in females (5.92/100 000 and 4.17/100 000), and they were higher in rural areas (15.95/1100 000 and 11.67/100 000) than those in urban areas (7.59/100 000 and 5.87/100 000). @*Conclusion@#The incidence and mortality of esophageal cancer in China are higher than the global average. The disparity of the incidence and mortality rates of esophageal cancer significantly differed in genders and areas.

6.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1517-1521, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-800264

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To estimate the morbidity and mortality of gastric cancer and its distribution in China in 2015 and provide information for future cancer prevention and control study and policy decision.@*Methods@#In 2018, a total of 501 cancer registry systems reported data to the office of National Central Cancer Registry, and the data from 368 cancer registry systems met the criteria. The overall, gender specific, age specific and area specific morbidity and mortality rates of gastric cancer in China were estimated based on national population data in 2015. Chinese standard population in 2000 and World Segi’s population data were used to calculate the age-standardized rates (ASR) of morbidity and mortality, including ASR of China and the world.@*Results@#In 2015, the qualified 368 cancer registry system covered a total of 309 553 499 population in China, including 156 934 140 males and 152 619 359 females. We estimated that there were 403 000 new gastric cancer cases, with the crude morbidity rate of 29.31 per 100 000, ASR China of 18.68 per 100 000, ASR world of 18.57 per 100 000, and a cumulative rate of 2.29% for 0-74 years. There were 290 900 new gastric cancer deaths, with the crude mortality rate of 21.16 per 100 000, ASR China of 13.08 per 100 000, ASR world of 12.92 per 100 000, and a cumulative rate of 1.5% for 0-74 years. Gastric cancer ranked second as the most common cancers and third as the most common cancer causes of death in China. In general, both the morbidity rate (ASR China, male: 26.54 per 100 000; female: 11.09 per 100 000; rural area: 21.82 per 100 000; urban area: 16.37 per 100 000) and mortality rate (ASR China, male: 18.75 per 100 000; female: 7.72 per 100 000; rural area: 15.84 per 100 000; urban area: 11.05 per 100 000) were higher in males than those in females, and higher in rural area than those in urban area. The morbidity and mortality rates of gastric cancer increased from the age of 40 years and peaked in age group of 80-years. The case number of gastric cancer significantly increased from the age group of 50-years, peaked at 60-70 years, and the majority of cases occured in age group of 55-80 years. There was an overall consistent trend of the age-specific morbidity and mortality rates across different subgroups by sex and geographic areas, with the rates were higher in males than those in females, and higher in rural area than that in urban area.@*Conclusions@#The incidence of gastric cancer varied with sex, age and areas (urban area and rural area). The present analysis provides the latest data on the prevalence of gastric cancer in China, which can help optimize the current screening guidelines and the prevention and control strategies of gastric cancer to reduce the disease burden caused by gastric cancer in China.

7.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 721-727, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-796926

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Using updated population-based cancer registration (PBCR) data, we estimated nation-wide liver cancer statistics overall, by sex and by areas in China.@*Methods@#Qualified PBCR data of liver cancer in 2015 which met the data quality criteria were stratified by geographical locations, sex, and age groups. Age-specific incidence and mortality rates by sex and area were calculated. The burden of liver cancer was evaluated by multiplying these rates by the year of 2015 population. Chinese standard population in 2000 and World Segi′s population were used for the calculation of age-standardized rates (ASR) of incidence and mortality.@*Results@#Qualified 368 cancer registries covered a total of 309 553 499 populations in China, accounting for 22.52% of the national population. It is estimated that there were 370 000 new cases (274 000 males and 96 000 females) of liver cancer in China. The age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASR China) and World Segi′s population (ASR World) were 17.64 per 100 000 and 17.35 per 100 000, respectively. Rural areas showed higher incidence (ASR China: 20.07 per 100 000, ASR World: 19.67 per 100 000) than urban areas (ASR China: 15.90 per 100 000, ASR world: 15.67 per 100 000). Subgroup analysis showed that western areas of China had highest incidence rate of liver cancer, with the ASR China of 20.65 per 100 000 and 20.22 per 100 000 for ASR world, respectively. For new cases of liver cancer deaths, there were 326 000 new deaths (242 000 males and 84 000 females) in China, with age-standardized mortality rate by Chinese standard population and World Segi′s population of 15.33 per 100 000 and 15.09 per 100 000, respectively. Rural areas showed higher mortality (ASR China: 17.17 per 100 000, ASR world: 16.86 per 100 000) than urban areas (ASR China: 14.00 per 100 000, ASR World: 13.81 per 100 000).@*Conclusions@#There is still a heavy burden of liver cancer in China. Rural residents have higher incidence and mortality of liver cancer compared with urban counterparts. It is likely that many factors such as hepatitis virus infection, and aflatoxin exposure play a dominating role. Prevention and control strategies should be enhanced in the future.

8.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 19-28, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810379

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Data from local cancer registries were pooled to estimate cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2015.@*Methods@#Data submitted from 501 cancer registries were checked & evaluated according to the criteria of data quality control, and 368 registries′ data were qualified for the final analysis. Data were stratified by area (urban/rural), sex, age group and cancer sites, and combined with national population data to estimate cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2015. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi′s population were used for age-standardized.@*Results@#Total population covered by 368 cancer registries were 309 553 499 (148 804 626 in urban and 160 748 873 in rural areas). The percentage of morphologically verified cases (MV) and the percentage of death certificate-only cases (DCO) accounted for 69.34% and 2.09%, respectively, and the mortality to incidence ratio was 0.61. About 3 929 000 new cancer cases were reported in 2015 and the crude incidence rate was 285.83 per 100 000 population (males and females were 305.47 and 265.21 per 100 000 population). Age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 190.64 and 186.39 per 100 000 population, respectively, with the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) of 21.44%. The cancer incidence and ASIRC were 304.96/100 000 and 196.09/100 000 in urban areas and 261.40/100 000 and 182.70/100 000 in rural areas, respectively. About 2 338 000 cancer deaths were reported in 2015 and the cancer mortality was 170.05/100 000 (210.10/100 000 in males and 128.00/100 000 in females). Age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population (ASMRW) were 106.72/100 000 and 105.84/100 000, respectively, with the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) of 11.94%. The cancer mortality and ASMRC were 172.61/100 000 and 103.65/100 000 in urban areas and 166.79/100 000 and 110.76/100 000 in rural areas, respectively. The most common cancer cases including lung, gastric, colorectal, liver and female breast, the top 10 cancer incidence accounted for about 76.70% of all cancer new cases. The most common cancer deaths including lung, liver, gastric, esophageal and colorectal, the top 10 cancer deaths accounted for about 83.00% of all cancer deaths.@*Conclusions@#The burden of cancer showed a continuous upward trend in China. Cancer prevention and control faces the problem of the disparity in different areas and different cancer burden between men and women. The cancer pattern in China presents the coexistence of the cancer patterns in developed and developing countries. The situation of cancer prevention and control is still serious in China.

9.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 471-476, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805543

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To characterize the clinical epidemiological features of primary lung cancer patients based on massive clinical data.@*Methods@#The demographic and histological information of 8 081 primary lung cancer patients who were initially identified from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2013 in 16 hospitals from 6 provinces were retrospectively analyzed to determine the characteristics of different histological subtypes among different gender, age-group and birth cohort.@*Results@#Among the 8 081 lung cancer patients, 5 422 (67.10%) were male and 2 659 (32.90%) were female, the average age was (60.96±10.14) years. The most common histological subtypes of lung cancer successively were adenocarcinoma (ADC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), small cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma, and the proportions of these subtypes were 53.13%, 24.51%, 14.59% and 0.66%, respectively, which collectively accounted for 92.89%. The current highest smoking rate was observed in SCC patients, which was 62.45%, while lowest in ADC, which was 29.68%. The incidence of lung cancer in male was significantly higher that that of female, with a sex ratio of 2.04∶1. The highest sex ratio was observed in SCC, which was 9.14∶1, while lowest in ADC, which was 1.14∶1. The distribution of histological subtypes in male lung cancer patients was consistent with the general situation.While among the female lung cancer patients, the proportion of ADC was the highest (75.42%), followed by SCC (10.08%), squamous cell carcinoma (7.34%) and large cell carcinoma (0.39%). Analyzed by the birth cohort, the proportion of ADC gradually increased with the age, while the reduced tendency was observed in SCC (P<0.000 1).@*Conclusion@#Adenocarcinoma is the most important histological subtype of lung cancer, and the distribution characteristics of histological subtypes of lung cancer differs among genders, age and birth cohort.

10.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 315-320, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805067

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The registration data of local cancer registries from 2008 to 2012 were collected by National Central Cancer Registry to estimate the incidence and mortality of female breast cancer in China.@*Methods@#Data from 135 registries were qualified and selected in the final analysis, and each registry at least has submitted data from 2010 to 2012. Cancer incidence and mortality analyses were stratified by area (urban/rural, eastern/middle/western areas) and age group. The age composition of standard population of Chinese census in 2000 and Segi′s population were used for age-standardized incidence and mortality in China and worldwide, respectively.@*Results@#A total of 135 registries were recruited in the analysis, covering 629 333 910 person-years (382 669 450 in urban and 246 664 460 in rural). About 13, 258 cases of female breast cancer were diagnosed and 32 205 cases were dead between 2008 and 2012. Female breast cancer incidence was 42.67/100, 000 and age-standardized rate calculated by worldwide standard population was 28.87/100, 000. The crude incidence of urban area was 51.85/100, 000, higher than 28.29/100, 000 of rural area, and the crude incidence of eastern area was 46.35/100, 000, higher than 36.38/100, 000 of middle area and 27.60/100, 000 of western area. The age-specific incidence increased with age and reached the peak at age 55-59 (96.36/100, 000), and declined at age 60. The age-standardized incidence rate by Chinese standard population increased 30.56% from 2003 to 2012. The increase rate of rural area was 72.32%, faster than 23.48% of urban area. Female breast cancer mortality was 10.36/100, 000 and the age-standardized rate calculated by worldwide standard population was 6.61/100, 000. The crude mortality of urban area was 11.64/100, 000, higher than 8.36/100, 000 of rural area, and the crude mortality of eastern area was 10.81/100, 000, higher than 7.38/100, 000 of middle area and 9.90/100, 000 of western area. The age-specific incidence increased with age and reached the peak at age above 85 (61.25/100, 000). Age-standardized incidence rate by Chinese standard population remained stable during the period of 2003-2012 (6.23%). The mortality rate mainly increased in rural area (54.94%), while decreased 2.32% in urban area over the 10 years.@*Conclusions@#Although the incidence and mortality of breast cancer in China are comparatively low worldwide, in China the incidence and mortality of female breast cancer have rose to the first and sixth place respectively among all the female cancers. The disease burden of breast cancer is very different between urban and rural area. Therefore, the targeted measure and strategy of control and prevention according to the area difference are needed.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-753275

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the value of ultrasonic guidance-fine needle aspiration biopsy (UG-FNAB) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. Methods The clinical data of 160 patients (186 nodules) with conventional ultrasound suspected malignant thyroid nodules from January to December 2016 in Central Hospital of Enshi Autonomous Prefecture were retrospectively analyzed. The pathological results were used as the diagnostic gold standard to compare the value of UG-FNAB and CEUS in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. Results Malignant thyroid nodules were characterized by low enhancement, uneven enhancement, unclear boundary and slow enhancement. The incidences in malignant thyroid nodules were significantly higher than those in benign thyroid nodules, and there were statistical differences (P<0.01); there was no statistical difference in recession speed between benign thyroid nodules and malignant thyroid nodules (P>0.05). The sensitivity of CEUS in the diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules was 75.56% (98/128), the specificity was 72.41% (42/58), the missed diagnosis rate was 23.44% (30/128), the misdiagnosis rate was 27.59% (16/58), the positive predictive value was 85.96% (98/114), and the negative predictive value was 58.33% (42/72); the sensitivity of UG-FNAB in the diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules was 93.75% (120/128), the specificity was 93.10% (54/58), the missed diagnosis rate was 6.25% (8/128), the misdiagnosis rate was 6.90% (4/58), the positive predictive value was 96.77% (120/124), and the negative predictive value was 87.10% (54/62). The sensitivity and specificity of UG-FNAB in the diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules were significantly higher than those in CEUS, and there were statistical differences (χ2=14.957 and 8.700, P<0.01). Conclusions Malignant thyroid nodules has unique CEUS characteristics. UG-FNAB has higher sensitivity and specificity in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules, compared with CEUS.

12.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 894-899, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810351

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The incidence and mortality of gallbladder cancer from Chinese cancer registries in 2014 were analyzed to describe the prevalence of gallbladder cancer in China.@*Methods@#Incidence and mortality data of gallbladder cancer in 2014 derived from registration data in 2017, collected by the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR). Qualified data from 339 cancer registries were calculated after evaluating. According to the national population data of 2014, the gallbladder cancer incidence and mortality of China in 2014 were stratified by the area, gender and age.The age composition of standard population of Chinese census in 2000 and Segi′s population were used for age-standardizes incidence and mortality in China and worldwide.@*Results@#339 cancer registries cover a total of 288 243 347 population including 146 203 891 males and 142 039 456 females (144 061 915 in urban and 144 181 432 in rural areas). The mortality to incidence ratio of gallbladder cancer was 0.74. The morphologically verified cases (MV%) and death certificate-only cases (DCO%) were 48.38% and 2.66%, respectively. Unclear diagnosis cases (UB%) was 0.48%. The crude incidence of gallbladder cancer in China in 2014 was 3.82/100 000, which accounted for 1.37% of new cancer cases (4.48/100 000 in urban areas and 3.01/100 000 in rural areas, 3.59/100 000 for male and 4.05/100 000 for female). Age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASR China) and world standard population (ASR world) were 2.38/100 000 and 2.37/100 000, respectively, and the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) was 0.27%.Besides, the crude mortality of gallbladder cancer was 2.86/100 000 (3.47/100 000 in urban areas and 2.12/100 000 in rural areas, 2.59/100 000 for male and 3.14/100 000 for female). Age-standardized mortality rates by ASR China and ASR world were 1.72/100 000 and 1.71/100 000, with a cumulative mortality rate (0-74 age years old) of 0.19%.@*Conclusion@#The incidence and mortality of gallbladder cancer were significantly different between the city and country, while not obviously different between the female and male.

13.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 647-652, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810183

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To estimate the incidence and mortality of bladder cancer in China based on the cancer registration data in 2014, collected by the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR).@*Methods@#There were 449 cancer registries submitted bladder cancer new cases and deaths occurred in 2014 to NCCR. After evaluating the data quality, 339 registries′ data were finally accepted for analysis. According to the national population data of 2014, the nationwide incidence and mortality of bladder cancer were estimated by stratification in the area (urban or rural), gender, and age. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi′s population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates.@*Results@#All 339 cancer registries covered a total of 288 243 347 populations (144 061 915 in urban and 144 181 432 in rural areas). The percentage of morphologically verified cases and death certificate-only cases were 74.86% and 1.45%, respectively. The mortality to incidence ratio was 0.41. The estimates of new bladder cancer cases were 78 100 in China in 2014, with a crude incidence rate of 5.71/100 000. The age-standardized incidence rates by China standard population (ASR China) and world standard population (ASR world) of bladder cancer were 3.61/100 000 and 3.56/100 000, respectively. Cumulative incidence rate of bladder cancer in China was 0.41%. The crude and ASR China incidence rates in urban areas were 6.88/100 000 and 4.07/100 000, respectively, whereas those were 4.29/100, 000 and 2.96/100 000 in rural areas. The estimates of bladder cancer deaths caused by bladder cancer were about 32 100 in China in 2014, with a crude mortality rate of 2.35/100 000. The ASR China and ASR world mortality rates were both 1.30/100 000 with a cumulative mortality rate (0-74 years old) of 0.12%. The crude and ASR China mortality rates were 2.79/100 000 and 1.41/100 000 in urban areas, respectively, whereas those were 1.81/100 000 and 1.14/100 000 in rural areas.@*Conclusions@#The incidence and mortality pattern of bladder cancer were different in urban and rural areas. The incidence and mortality were higher in urban areas than that in rural areas, and higher for male than for female. We should focus on strengthening the prevention and control of bladder cancer in key population, especially men in urban areas.

14.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 543-549, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810079

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the age distribution characteristics of different cancers in the world according to the database from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents published by the International Association of Cancer Registries, and to compare the age differences of cancer incidence in different regions.@*Methods@#Cancer incidence data from volume XI of Cancer Incidence in Five Continents including 339 population-based cancer registries in 65 countries during 2008-2012 have been extracted. The average age of cancer incidence in different regions, gender and cancer sites were analyzed and stratified according to the human development Index and the level of national or regional development UN Development. The Segi′s world standard population (world standard) was standardized to calculate the average age of the cancer incidence and to analyze the effect of age structure of the population on the average age of cancer diagnosis.@*Results@#This study included 4 812 008 148 person-years in the global population (including 2 367 458 302 men and 2 444 549 846 women), and 21 892 093 of the new cancer cases, including 11 450 515 men and 10 441 578 women. The analysis showed that the average age of cancer incidence in the world was 65.73 years, and men and women were 66.70 and 64.67 years old, respectively. Among them, the average incidence age of testicular cancer was the youngest, with an average age of 36.67 years, and that of gallbladder cancer was the highest with average age of 71.55 years. After adjusting for population structure, the average incidence age was highest in gallbladder cancer, followed with bladder cancer and prostate cancer, and the testicular was with the lowest average age of incidence, followed by bone cancer and brain tumor. The results showed that the average age of cancer incidence in developed countries or regions was 66.38 years old, and that in less developed countries or regions was 61.75 years old, but in China it was 63.47 years old. According to the human development index (HDI), the higher the country or region with HDI, the higher the average age of cancer incidence, and the difference is reduced after the adjustment of the age structure of the population.@*Conclusions@#There are different characteristics of the age distribution for different cancer sites. In terms of the age of cancer incidence, those of gallbladder cancer and bladder cancer are relatively old, while those of the testis, bone and thyroid cancer are relatively young. The average age of cancer incidence in China is between developed and less developed countries. Prevention and control of cancer should be carried out according to the age distribution characteristics of different cancers.

15.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 5-13, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-809796

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The registration data of local cancer registries in 2014 were collected by National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR)in 2017 to estimate the cancer incidence and mortality in China.@*Methods@#The data submitted from 449 registries were checked and evaluated, and the data of 339 registries out of them were qualified and selected for the final analysis. Cancer incidence and mortality were stratified by area, gender, age group and cancer type, and combined with the population data of 2014 to estimate cancer incidence and mortality in China. The age composition of standard population of Chinese census in 2000 and Segi′s population were used for age-standardized incidence and mortality in China and worldwide, respectively.@*Results@#Total covered population of 339 cancer registries (129 in urban and 210 in rural) in 2014 were 288 243 347 (144 061 915 in urban and 144 181 432 in rural areas). The mortality verified cases (MV%) were 68.01%. Among them, 2.19% cases were identified through death certifications only (DCO%), and the mortality to incidence ratio was 0.61. There were about 3, 804, 000 new cases diagnosed as malignant cancer and 2, 296, 000 cases dead in 2014 in the whole country. The incidence rate was 278.07/100, 000 (males 301.67/100, 000, females 253.29/100, 000) in China, age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population were 190.63/100, 000 and 186.53/100, 000, respectively, and the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) was 21.58%. The cancer incidence and ASIRC in urban areas were 302.13/100, 000 and 196.58/100, 000, respectively, whereas in rural areas, those were 248.94/100, 000 and 182.64/100, 000, respectively. The cancer mortality in China was 167.89/100, 000 (207.24/100, 000 in males and 126.54/100, 000 in females), age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population were 106.98/100, 000 and 106.09/100, 000, respectively. And the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) was 12.00%. The cancer mortality and ASMRC in urban areas were 174.34/100, 000 and 103.49/100, 000, respectively, whereas in rural areas, those were 160.07/100, 000 and 111.57/100, 000, respectively. Lung cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, female breast cancer, esophageal cancer, thyroid cancer, cervical cancer, encephala and pancreas cancer, were the most common cancers in China, accounting for about 77.00% of the new cancer cases. Lung cancer, liver cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, encephala, leukemia and lymphoma were the leading causes of death and accounted for about 83.36% of cancer deaths.@*Conclusions@#The progression of cancer registry in China develops rapidly in these years, with the coverage of registrations is expanded and the data quality was improved steadily year by year. As the basis of cancer prevention and control program, cancer registry plays an important role in making the medium and long term of anti-cancer strategies in China. As China is still facing the serious cancer burden and the cancer patterns varies differently according to the locations and genders, effective measures and strategies of cancer prevention and control should be implemented based on the practical situation.

16.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 805-811, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-807660

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To estimate lung cancer incidence and mortality in China using population-based cancer registry data in 2014 collected by National Central Cancer Registry of China (NCCRC).@*Methods@#449 cancer registries submitted cancer registry data in 2014. All datasets were evaluated and 339 registries′ data which met the quality control criteria of NCCRC were analyzed. Numbers of new lung cancer cases and deaths were estimated using calculated incidence and mortality rates and corresponding national population stratified by areas, sexes and age groups. The standard population of Chinese census in 2000 and world Segi′ s population were applied to calculate age-standardized incidence and mortality rates in China and worldwide, respectively.@*Results@#A total of 781, 500 new lung cancer cases were diagnosed in 2014. The crude incidence rate was 57.13 per 100 000 and the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 36.71 per 100 000 and 36.63 per 100 000, respectively. The cumulative incidence rate (0-74 years old) was 4.50%. Lung cancer was the most common cancer in male (ASIRW: 50.04 per 100 000) and the second most common cancer in female (ASIRW: 23.63 per 100 000). The incidence rates were slightly similar in urban areas and in rural areas (ASIRW: 36.64 per 100 000 vs 36.56 per 100 000). A total of 626 400 lung cancer deaths were reported. The crude mortality rate was 45.80 per 100 000 and the age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population (ASMRW) were 28.49 per 100 000 and 28.31 per 100 000, respectively. The cumulative mortality rate (0-74 years old) was 3.32%. Lung cancer was the most common cause of cancer deaths both in male (ASMRW: 40.21 per 100 000) and female (ASMRW: 16.88 per 100 000). The mortality rate was slightly higher in rural areas than in urban areas (ASMRW: 28.63 per 100 000 vs 28.04 per 100 000). Both lung cancer incidence and mortality rates increased with age, and the peak age was 80-84 years group.@*Conclusions@#The disease burden of lung cancer is heavy in China. Efficient national health policies and prevention and control strategies against lung cancer should be promoted.

17.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 736-743, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-807548

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To estimate the incidence and mortality of laryngeal cancer in China based on the cancer registration data in 2014, collected by the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR), and to provide support data for the control and prevention of laryngeal cancer.@*Methods@#The incident and death data of laryngeal cancer in 2014 from 339 cancer registries met the quality criteria of NCCR, and then adopted for analysis. The incident and death number, crude rate, age standardized rate, truncated rate and proportion which stratified by areas (urban/rural) and age were calculated. The nationwide incidence and mortality of laryngeal cancer in 2014 were estimated by combining with those data on national population in 2014. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi′s population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates.@*Results@#It was estimates that 23.4 thousand new cases of laryngeal cancer occurred in China in 2014. There were 20.8 thousand males and 2.6 thousand females. And 14.5 thousand occurred in urban areas, while 8.9 thousand in rural areas. The age standardized rates of incidence by world standard population (ASRs world) in male, female and both genders were 2.05/100, 000, 0.24/100, 000 and 1.14/100, 000, respectively, whereas those were 1.22/100, 000 and 1.03/100, 000 for urban and rural areas. The incidence was much higher in males than females, and slightly higher in urban areas than those in rural areas. Moreover, it was estimates that 13.2 thousand death cases of laryngeal cancer occurred in China in 2014. There were 11.5 thousand males and 1.7 thousand females. And 7.8 thousand occurred in urban areas, while 5.4 thousand in rural areas. The age standardized rates of mortality by ASRs world in male, female and both genders were 1.08/100, 000, 0.14/100, 000 and 0.60/100, 000, respectively, whereas those were 0.60/100, 000 and 0.59/100, 000 for urban and rural areas. The mortality was much higher in males than females, and slightly higher in urban areas than those in rural areas. In males, the age specific incidence and mortality of laryngeal cancer increased greatly from 40-44 and 45-44 years old, respectively, and peaked at age group of 75-79 and >85 years old. In females, the age specific incidence and mortality increased slowly from 50-54 and 60-64 years old, respectively, and peaked at age group of 80-84 and >85 years old. The trends remained similar in urban and rural areas, except for the different peak ages.@*Conclusions@#The incidence and mortality of laryngeal cancer in China are at middle-low levels worldwide, and there are obvious differences between urban and rural areas with distinct gender disparity. Comprehensive prevention and control strategies should be carried out according to local status and age groups.

18.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 566-571, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-807220

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To estimate the incidence and mortality of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in China based on cancer registration data in 2014, collected by the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR).@*Methods@#449 cancer registries submitted nasopharyngeal carcinoma incidence and deaths occurred in 2014 to NCCR. After evaluating the data quality, 339 registries′ data were accepted for analysis and stratified by area (urban/rural) and age group. Combined with data on national population in 2014, the nationwide incidence and mortality of nasopharyngeal carcinoma were estimated. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi′s population were used for age-standardized incidence and mortality rates.@*Results@#The estimates of new nasopharyngeal carcinoma incident cases and deaths were 44.6 thousands and 24.2 thousands, respectively. The crude incidence rate was 3.26/100 000 (Male 4.51/100 000, Female 1.94/100 000). Age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC, 2000) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 2.48/100 000 and 2.33/100 000, respectively. Male to female ratio was 2.32∶1. The ASIRC in urban and rural areas were all 2.48/100 000. The crude mortality rate of nasopharyngeal carcinoma was 1.77/100 000 (Male 2.55/100 000, Female 0.95/100 000). Age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC, 2000) and by world standard population(ASMRW) were 1.23/100 000 and 1.20/100 000, respectively. The ASMRC in urban and rural areas were all 1.23/100 000. The cumulative incidence and mortality rates(0-74 years old)were 0.25% and 0.14%, respectively.@*Conclusions@#Incidence and mortality of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in China in 2014 were at high levels in the world. Corresponding prevention and control measures should be established according to the epidemic characteristics and risk factors of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-806764

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the trends of cancer incidence and age changes in China with using cancer registration data, and to provide evidence for the development of cancer prevention and control.@*Methods@#Twenty-two cancer registries with continuous (2000-2014) data were selected. The incidence of different sex and regional population, the standardized incidence rate by Chinese population, the average annual change percentage (AAPC) and annual change percentage(APC) were calculated. Age-period-cohort model were used to analyze the changes of cancer incidence, age-adjusted mean ages. The age-standardized proportion of 2000 and 2014 with were compared.@*Results@#The cancer incidence in China increased by 3.9% (95%CI: 3.7%-4.1%) from 2000 to 2014 in APC, and the age-standardized incidence rate increased by 1.2% (95%CI: 1.0%-1.4%) in AAPC. The age-specific incidence showed that each age groups increased significantly in female, ranged between 0.9% to 6.0%. The APC in male aged from 60 years old showed decline trend, the APC in 60-69, 70-79, ≥80 years old were -0.2, -0.3, -0.3, while in the population aged 0-29, 30-39 years old increased dramatically, APC were 3.5, 2.0. Female under 60 also increased, and APC in 0-29, 30-39, 40-49, 0-59 years old were 5.7, 6.0, 3.4, 2.9, respectively. The mean age of patients diagnosed with cancer were increased during the past 15 years, with about 0.11 years per year increased. However, the mean age of the patients diagnosed with cancer showed decreased trend by 0.13 years after age structure adjusted.@*Conclusion@#The trend of mean age for cancer incidence in China were getting younger than before, and the trend in women is more obviously than in man.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-806763

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the trend of cancer incidence and age changes among men in cancer registration areas of China from 2000 and 2014.@*Methods@#We select the information of national cancer registry with continuous data from 2000 to 2014, review and organize the monitoring data at the above registries. A total of 22 monitoring registries were included in this study. The covering population of male were about 314 330 648 person years. The information on the incidence of all male prostate cancer patients with C61 was extracted from the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision (ICD-10). To understand the incidence of male prostate cancer in each year, the age-standardized rate by Chinese population (ASR), average annual percent change (AAPC), adjusted mean age at onset were calculated. Incidence rates stratified by regions and age groups were also calculated. The linear regression model was employed to analyze the relationship between mean age at onset and year.@*Results@#The prostate cancer incidence in China increased by 11.5% (95%CI: 10.3%-12.7%) from 2000(4.62/100 000) to 2014(21.62/100 000), the age-standardized incidence rate increased by 7.1% (95%CI: 6.0%-8.1%) and the growth of rural was greater than that of urban. The age-specific incidence showed that the incidence rate increased significantly among the age group of 50 years; the incidence rates in men who have the same age but with different birth years showed a significant increase as birth years increased. The adjusted mean age at diagnosis of prostate cancer in cancer registry areas was 74.09 years old in the year of 2000, reduced by 0.13 year old to 72.35 years old in 2014 (β=-0.13, P<0.001). The adjusted mean age at onset declined significantly over time in urban areas (β=-0.13, P<0.001).@*Conclusion@#The trend of prostate cancer incidence among men in cancer registry regions generally increased, and the average age at diagnosis declined slightly from 2000 to 2014.

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