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1.
Tropical Biomedicine ; : 81-85, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886075

ABSTRACT

@#Simulium (Simulium) thimphuense sp. nov. is described from a pupa and a mature larva in Bhutan. This new species is placed in the S. multistriatum species-group, and is characterized by the pupal gill with eight thread-like filaments divergent basally at an acute angle when viewed laterally and the cocoon slipper-shaped with several small openings anterolaterally. Four species of Simulium (Simulium) are newly recorded from Bhutan: S. barraudi Puri in the S. multistriatum species-group, S. nodosum Puri in the S. nobile species-group, S. chiangmaiense Takaoka & Suzuki in the S. striatum species-group and S. himalayense Puri in the S. variegatum species-group. Our study increases the number of black fly species known from Bhutan from 18 to 23.

3.
Tropical Biomedicine ; : 926-937, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787776

ABSTRACT

@#Some species of the Anopheles dirus species complex are considered to be highly competent malaria vectors in Southeast Asia. Anopheles dirus is the primary vector of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax while An. cracens is the main vector of P. knowlesi. However, these two species are difficult to distinguish and identify based on morphological characters. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of antennal sensilla to distinguish them. Large sensilla coeloconica borne on the antennae of adult females were counted under a compound light microscope and the different types of antennal sensilla were examined in a scanning electron microscope. The antennae of both species bear five types of sensilla: ampullacea, basiconica, chaetica, coeloconica and trichodea. Observations revealed that the mean numbers of large sensilla coeloconica on antennal flagellomeres 2, 3, 7, 10 and 12 on both antennae of both species were significantly different. This study is the first to describe the types of antennal sensilla and to discover the usefulness of the large coeloconic sensilla for distinguishing the two species. The discovery provides a simple, reliable and inexpensive method for distinguishing them.

4.
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health ; 2000 ; 31 Suppl 1(): 111-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-34958

ABSTRACT

Comparative DDT-susceptibility status as well as glutathione S-transferase activity and DDTase activity of Anopheles minimus (A). An. annularis and Culex quinquefasciatus were investigated to ascertain the role of these enzymes in DDT-resistance. The standard WHO susceptibility test kits was used to discriminate between resistant and susceptible populations. GST activity was measured in microtiter plates whereas DDTase activity was determined by HPLC quantitation of DDT metabolites. This is the first report of DDT-resistance in the Thai malaria vector, An. minimus species A. A positive correlation of DDT-resistance and DDTase activity was observed in this species as well as in the suspected vector, An. annularis. However, GST activity was not correlated to DDT-resistance in either species. Statistical analysis and scatter plots demonstrated the non-correlation between DDTase and GST activity in An. annularis. Studies in Culex quinquefisciatus revealed difference in GST/ DDTase and the relationship to DDT-resistance compared to the anopheline species. The Culex GST activity is correlated to DDTase activity. These results suggested that a positive correlation of GST and DDTase activity might be species dependent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/enzymology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Culex/enzymology , DDT/metabolism , Glutathione Transferase/metabolism , Linear Models , Lyases/metabolism , Species Specificity , Thailand
5.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-31059

ABSTRACT

Two karyotypic forms of laboratory-raised Anopheles sinensis, ie Form A (XY1) and Form B (XY2), were experimentally infected with various indigenous strains of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax using an artificial membrane feeding technique, and a rodent malaria, P. yoelii, using a direct feeding technic and dissected 7-9 days and 10-15 days after feeding for oocyst and sporozoite rates, respectively. The results revealed that two forms of An. sinensis were refractory vectors for P. falciparum and P. yoelii since 0% of oocyst and sporozoite rates were obtained, but poor vectors for P. vivax since 0.00-85.71% and 0.00-5.88% of oocyst and sporozoite rates were recovered. The sporozoite-like crystal found in the median lobe of the salivary gland of An. sinensis which could be a misleading factor in identification of true sporozoites in the salivary glands is reported for the first time.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/parasitology , Life Cycle Stages , Plasmodium falciparum/growth & development , Plasmodium vivax/growth & development , Plasmodium yoelii/growth & development
6.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-30855

ABSTRACT

Transmission of forest-related malaria was observed entomologically and epidemiologically for 2 transmission seasons in 1990 and 1991 in 5 villages of Mae Sariang district, Mae Hong Son Province, north-west Thailand. The entomological study included collections of mosquitos and determination of infection rate by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the residential villages and the farm huts. The epidemiological study included fortnightly visits to 30% of the households to interview and record movement activities and illness of villagers. Circumsporozoite proteins, in most cases of Plasmodium falciparum, were detected in Anopheles minimus species A, An. dirus s.l., An. maculatus s.s. and An. sawadwongporni in residential villages and/or farm huts, suggesting transmission could occur there. Movement of people away from their residences occurred throughout the year for several reasons with a sharp peak in July for agricultural activity, mainly ploughing and planting for rice cultivation. The relative risk of infection for people engaged in agricultural activity was 3 times that of people living in the residential villages. Although a higher biting density of vectors was generally evident at the farm huts, the estimated inoculation rates in the 2 settings were similar. Movement for forest activity increased after harvesting rice in the cool dry season and carried the highest malaria risk, suggesting different epidemiological and probably entomological conditions which need further investigation. The significance is discussed of discrepancies between the case classification system used by this study and that used by malaria sector staff.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/parasitology , Emigration and Immigration , Humans , Incidence , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Seasons , Thailand/epidemiology
7.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-31387

ABSTRACT

Wild caught zoophilic Anopheles and suspected malaria vector species collected in northwest Thailand were experimentally infected with local human malaria parasites using a membrane feeding. One week post-feeding a number of mosquitos were dissected for oocyst examination. The remainder were kept for another one week or more, and then the salivary glands were examined for the presence of sporozoites. The results revealed that An. vagus, An. kochi and An. annularis were susceptible to both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax whereas An. barbirostris and An. sinensis were susceptible to only P. vivax. The non-susceptibility to P. falciparum of these two mosquito species may indicate their poor vector status of this malaria species in the field.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Humans , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Malaria, Falciparum/parasitology , Malaria, Vivax/parasitology , Plasmodium falciparum/physiology , Plasmodium vivax/physiology , Thailand
8.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-41499

ABSTRACT

Two cases of intestinal capillariasis were presented from new locations in northern Thailand, i.e., Phayao and Chiang Mai provinces. Both of them had chronic voluminous diarrhea and malabsorption. It was believed that they acquired the infection indigenously. Both adult worms and their eggs, presented in the feces, were identified as Capillaria philippinensis but with morphological variation. The infection was treated effectively with a prolonged administration of mebendazole.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Capillaria , Humans , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/diagnosis , Male , Nematode Infections/diagnosis , Thailand/epidemiology
9.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-42869

ABSTRACT

A preliminary survey for Bancroftian filariasis in villagers of Ban Prabat Heuy Tom, Tambol Na-Sai, Amphoe Li, Lamphun Province was performed between July 12, 1986 and March 19, 1987. A total of 1,435 villagers comprising 668 females and 767 males were examined for microfilaraemia in peripheral blood. Microfilariae were found in five males of which two cases were found to have developed hydrocele at a lesser degree and all of them had formerly resided in an endemic area of Tak Province. Microfilarial periodicity was studied in two cases, and it was shown to be nocturnally subperiodic.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Developing Countries , Elephantiasis, Filarial/epidemiology , Female , Filariasis/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Rural Health , Thailand , Wuchereria bancrofti
10.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-31255

ABSTRACT

From February 1987 to January 1988, biological and ecological studies were made to obtain the basic knowledge of Japanese encephalitis vectors, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. gelidus, and Cx. fuscocephala, in Amphoe Muang, Chiang Mai, northern Thailand. The following results were found. Peaks in the population densities of the vectors as measured four times a month, by UV-light trap and human-baited trap collections, occurred during rainy season. The JE vectors in rural areas showed a sharp rise in the population in July when most of the rice fields were ploughed and a marked decline in mosquito population densities occurred after transplanting in August when the fields were flooded. The average number of larvae plus pupae per m2 in rice fields was highest in July when the fields were ploughed, but in the period from transplanting to harvesting (August to November), the densities were very low. Daily survival rates of the adult females, as estimated from parous rates, were mostly as high as 0.7 throughout the year.


Subject(s)
Animals , Culex/growth & development , Ecology , Encephalitis, Japanese/transmission , Female , Insect Vectors/growth & development , Population Density , Seasons , Thailand
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-34263

ABSTRACT

The microfilariae found in carriers at Tak Province, Northwestern Thailand were morphologically and morphometrically studied. It was found that the parasites conformed to that of W. bancrofti microfilaria. The microfilarial periodicity as determined from four carriers was found to be nocturnally (early evening) subperiodic type showing a distinct peak at 1800 hours.


Subject(s)
Animals , Circadian Rhythm , Elephantiasis, Filarial/parasitology , Filariasis/parasitology , Humans , Microfilariae/anatomy & histology , Thailand , Wuchereria/anatomy & histology , Wuchereria bancrofti/anatomy & histology
13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-33919

ABSTRACT

A case of acute human isosporiasis in Thailand was reported. A 57-year-old man developed diarrhoea after prednisolone administration for the management of nephrotic syndrome. Stool examination revealed numerous Isospora oocysts. On the basis of parasite morphology and sporulation time, it was identified as Isospora belli Wenyon, 1923. The patient recovered for the diarrhoea without specific treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Coccidiosis/epidemiology , Humans , Isospora/growth & development , Male , Middle Aged , Parasite Egg Count , Thailand
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