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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194081


The integrity of blood vessels controls vascular permeability and extravasation of blood cells, across the endothelium. Thus, the impairment of endothelial integrity leads to hemorrhage, edema, and inflammatory infiltration. However, the molecular mechanism underlying vascular integrity has not been fully understood. Here, we demonstrate an essential role for A-kinase anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12) in the maintenance of endothelial integrity during vascular development. Zebrafish embryos depleted of akap12 (akap12 morphants) exhibited severe hemorrhages. In vivo time-lapse analyses suggested that disorganized interendothelial cell-cell adhesions in akap12 morphants might be the cause of hemorrhage. To clarify the molecular mechanism by which the cell-cell adhesions are impaired, we examined the cell-cell adhesion molecules and their regulators using cultured endothelial cells. The expression of PAK2, an actin cytoskeletal regulator, and AF6, a connector of intercellular adhesion molecules and actin cytoskeleton, was reduced in AKAP12-depleted cells. Depletion of either PAK2 or AF6 phenocopied AKAP12-depleted cells, suggesting the reduction of PAK2 and AF6 results in the loosening of intercellular junctions. Consistent with this, overexpression of PAK2 and AF6 rescued the abnormal hemorrhage in akap12 morphants. We conclude that AKAP12 is essential for integrity of endothelium by maintaining the expression of PAK2 and AF6 during vascular development.

A Kinase Anchor Proteins/genetics , Animals , Blood Vessels/abnormalities , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , Down-Regulation , Embryo, Nonmammalian/abnormalities , Gene Deletion , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Hemorrhage/embryology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Intercellular Junctions/genetics , Kinesins/genetics , Myosins/genetics , Zebrafish/embryology , p21-Activated Kinases/genetics
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727563


The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortex (HPA) axis is the central mediator of the stress response. The supramammillary (SuM) region is relatively unique among the hypothalamic structures in that it sends a large, direct projection to the hippocampal formation. It has been shown that mild stress could activate the SuM cells that project to the hippocampus. However, the role of these cell populations in modulating the stress response is not known. The present study examined the effect of stress on different populations of SuM cells that project to the hippocampus by injecting the fluorescent retrograde tracer, fluorogold (FG), into the hippocampus and utilizing the immunohistochemistry of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF), serotonin (5-HT), glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and NADPH-d reactivity. Immobilization (IMO) stress (2 hr) produced an increase in the expression of ChAT-immunoreactivity, and tended to increase in CRF, 5-HT, GAD, TH-immunoreactivity and nitric oxide (NO)-reactivity in the SuM cells. Fifty-three percent of 5-HT, 31% of ChAT and 56% of CRF cells were double stained with retrograde cells from the hippocampus. By contrast, a few retrogradely labeled cells projecting to the hippocampus were immunoreactive for dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and NO. These results suggest that the SuM region contains distinct cell populations that differentially respond to stress. In addition, the findings suggest that serotonergic, cholinergic and corticotropin releasing cells projecting to the hippocampus within the SuM nucleus may play an important role in modulating stress-related behaviors.

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Animals , Axis, Cervical Vertebra , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Dopamine , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Glutamate Decarboxylase , Hippocampus , Immobilization , Immunohistochemistry , Nitric Oxide , Rats , Serotonin , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase