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1.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740598

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to analyze the effect that oral health literacy of adults has on perceived oral health state and to identify the factors that affect perceived oral health status. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire survey was distributed to 554 adults who lived in the Daegu or Gyeongbuk areas and visited dental institutions located in the Daegu area. For adults who were 60 years old or older, direct interviews were conducted. Statistical analysis was performed with t-tests, analysis of variance, and multiple regression using SPSS RESULTS: Between oral health literacy and perceived oral health status, a significant positive correlation was revealed (r=0.142, P<0.01). A significant positive correlation was revealed between oral health literacy and knowledge (r=0.397, P<0.01). A significant but weakly positive correlation was revealed between oral health knowledge and perceived oral health status (r=0.086, P<0.05). To identify factors affecting perceived oral health status, multiple regression analysis was conducted, and the result showed that oral health literacy was a statistically significant factor (β=0.105, p<0.05). Among general characteristics, age was a statistically significant negatively affecting factor, as it showed a negative relationship with perceived oral health status (β=−0.140, P=0.001, adjusted R2=0.049). CONCLUSIONS: When these study results are taken into consideration, oral health literacy is a factor affecting perceived oral health status, and as such, oral health literacy of the research targets should be taken into consideration when implementing oral health education to promote oral health.


Subject(s)
Adult , Education , Health Literacy , Humans , Literacy , Oral Health
2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-719892

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to identify the relations between multiple chronic diseases and peridontal diseases in Korean adults. METHODS: A total of 4,142 cases was set for analysis, who aged 35 and over and finished with the third year health survey and oral health check-up of the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey(2012). Peridontal disease was defined if community periodontal index(CPI) was 3(formation of paradental cyst of more than 4mm) or 4(formation of paradental cyst of more than 6mm). RESULTS: The subjects consisted of 48.5% male and 51.5% female. The prevalence rate of peridontal disease was found to be 30.1% in total. In peridontal disease the more the age increased, and the lower the education level and income level as well as the more where the residential area was rural, the higher the prevalence rate was(p < 0.01). According to the number of multiple chronic conditions the prevalence rate of periodontal disease accounted for 27.8%, 31.9%, 33.1%, and 35.2% when there were 0, 1, 2, and 3 or more chronic diseases respectively. As a result of logistic regression analysis, gender, age, education level, residential area, current smoking, and use of oral hygienic products were found to be significant factors on peridontal disease. CONCLUSIONS: This research revealed the prevalence rate of peridontal disease was 30.1% in Korean adults and health behaviors affecting on periodontal disease were more significant.


Subject(s)
Adult , Chronic Disease , Education , Female , Health Behavior , Health Surveys , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Male , Oral Health , Periodontal Diseases , Prevalence , Smoke , Smoking
3.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-714954

ABSTRACT

The Korean Association of Medical Colleges (KAMC) developed graduate outcomes based on “The role of Korean doctor, 2014” to serve as guidelines regarding outcome-based education in Korea. The working group in this study analyzed 65 competencies proposed in “The role of Korean doctor, 2014” according to the developmental principle that certain outcomes should be demonstrated at the point of entry into the graduate medical education. We established 34 competencies as “preliminary graduate outcomes” (PGOs). The advisory committee consisted of 11 professors, who reviewed the validity of PGOs. Ultimately, a total of 19 “revised graduate outcomes” (RGOs) were selected. We modified the RGOs based on opinions from medical schools and a public hearing. In November 2017, the KAMC announced the “graduate outcomes for basic medical education,” which serves as a guide for basic medical education for the 40 medical schools throughout Korea. Medical schools can expand the graduate outcomes according to their educational goals and modify them according to their own context. We believe that graduate outcomes can be a starting point for connecting basic medical education to graduate medical education.


Subject(s)
Advisory Committees , Competency-Based Education , Education , Education, Medical , Education, Medical, Graduate , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Hearing , Korea , Physician's Role , Republic of Korea , Schools, Medical
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-719790

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe and understand self-care status of the aged diabetic patients with noncompliance after hospital discharge. METHODS: A qualitative research method was used for the study design. The participants were 15 diabetic patients aged 65 or older who had been admitted more than two times for hyperglycemia in the past 1 year in a general hospital in Daegu. Data were collected from November 1 2015 to March 1 2016 through in-depth personal interview. RESULTS: Patients' knowledge level on causes and symptoms of diabetes was low. Most participants rarely and irregularly checked blood sugar at home. They were under a lot of stress from their family. Due to old age and illness they did not have sufficient physical activity and they have had rarely regular meals. They considered the self-care education program unnecessary and there was limitations of accessibility for education. CONCLUSIONS: The aged diabetic patients who had the repeat admission did not perform self-care activities properly and had problems especially in blood glucose check, support from their family, and health education after returning home. More personalized and community-based self-management education programs will be necessary.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Education , Health Education , Hospitals, General , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Meals , Methods , Motor Activity , Qualitative Research , Self Care
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-719932

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was to investigate the knowledge, health belief, and vaccination behavior on hepatitis A among university students. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted from 3(rd) to 25(th) March, 2014 and 197 subjects were enrolled in statistical analysis. RESULTS: The result showed that the score for knowledge of the subjects on hepatitis A was 4.59±3.06 out of 15 points, for health belief 2.39±0.28 out of 4 points, and the vaccination rate of the subjects was 12.7%. There was significant difference in hepatitis A knowledge score according to experience of hepatitis A check-up and hepatitis A vaccination history of family members, and in health belief according to gender. For hepatitis A vaccination there was significant difference according to experience of hepatitis A check-up, family history of liver disease, hepatitis A vaccination history of family members, and education history of hepatitis A. As a result of logistic regression analysis experience of hepatitis check-up and hepatitis A vaccination history of family members were significant factors for hepatitis A vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: The level of knowledge, health belief for hepatitis A of the subjects was low and vaccination rate also low. The experience of hepatitis A check-up and hepatitis A vaccination history of family members were factors affecting hepatitis A vaccination. It would be necessary to develop programs for improving level of knowledge and health belief and raising the rate of hepatitis A vaccination for the university students in Korea.


Subject(s)
Education , Hepatitis A , Hepatitis , Humans , Korea , Liver Diseases , Logistic Models , Vaccination
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-719930

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate health behaviors of patients before and after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: The subjects of this study were 120 men and women whose age ranged from 40 years to 69 years among the patients who received percutaneous coronary intervention in Y university hospital that was located in Daegu city and who had diagnosed for 3 months or more and less than 2 years. Structured questionnaire was used to conduct self-administered survey from May 15 to October 12 in 2012. RESULTS: Patients's health behavior score was ranged from 46 to 94 points after the PCI intervention. The score was 65.42±12.99 points before and significantly increased up to 72.53±10.18 points after the PCI intervention (p<.001). According to subcategory of health behavior, significant differences were found in scores of health responsibility (increased interest in health, watching of lecture on health and behavior to be punctual on counseling or medical treatment), diet, smoking, and drinking (p<.001, p=.039, p=<.001). However, no significant change was found in practice efforts such as exercise, eating habits and relaxation for stress management. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, it is necessary to provide education and counseling that enabling patients to improve smoking, drinking, practicing exercise and healthy eating habits.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Vessels , Counseling , Diet , Drinking , Eating , Education , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Relaxation , Smoke , Smoking
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-213656

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aims at making a survey on health care service providers' cultural competence and making an appraisal of Chinese medical tourists on service quality, health care service providers' cultural competence, perceived value, and satisfaction. METHODS: The data was collected from August until November, 2014 and 150 health care service providers and 65 Chinese medical tourists from 12 medical institutions in Daegu were enrolled in analysis. RESULTS: The results showed that health care service provider's knowledge on Chinese culture was very low with 33.5% of correct answer. Health care service providers were found to get 3.82 point on a 5 point-scale in cultural perception, 3.53 points in cultural sensitivity, and 2.85 points in cultural skills. Chinese medical tourists were analyzed to give 4.08 points on a 5-point scale to satisfaction on health care service, followed by 4.01 points to health care service quality, 4.00 points to perceived value of health care service, and last 3.85 points to a health care service providers' cultural skills. However, there was a difference in points in cultural skills between health care service providers and Chinese medical tourists. Chinese medical tourists' satisfaction with health care service in Daegu was found to be comparatively high, but in relation to satisfaction with communication, it was found to be relatively low. CONCLUSION: Through this research, health care service providers' knowledge level of Chinese culture and cultural skills were low while they seemed to take a half-hearted attitude towards educational experience for building up cultural competence and foreign patient service response.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Cultural Competency , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Health Services Research , Humans
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-201522

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted for comparison of salty taste assessment, salty taste preference, high-salt dietary attitude, and high-salt dietary behavior by stages of behavior change among school-aged children and adolescents. METHODS: A total of 1,595 students (1,126 school- aged children, 469 adolescents) from 43 elementary schools and 17 middle and high schools in Daegu were tested using salty taste kits and surveyed using questionnaires on stages of behavior change, high-salt dietary attitude, and behavior. RESULTS: Adolescents showed a significantly higher result for salty taste assessment than school-aged children (p < 0.01). In salty taste assessment, the students of pre-contemplation stage (n = 498) and contemplation stage (n = 686) showed higher scores than students of action stage (n = 351) and maintenance stage (n = 60). Regarding the salty taste preference, students of maintenance stage preferred the lower two samples (0.08%, 0.16%) and students of pre-contemplation stage preferred the higher two samples (0.63%, 1.25%). High-salt dietary attitude scores and dietary behavior scores were highest for students of pre-contemplation stage and were lowest for students of maintenance stage. CONCLUSION: Salty taste assessment, high-salt dietary attitude, and high-salt dietary behavior were significantly different by stages of behavior change among school-aged children and adolescents. This study suggests the need for examination of the stages of behavior change before nutrition education for effective education.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Education , Humans
9.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-89552

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate longitudinal changes of the utilization of operational and surgical medical care inside and outside a metropolitan area over 10 years, analyzing the residential areas of patients and the locations of medical facilities for major cardiovascular surgery. METHODS: Data analysis was conducted by classifying the addresses of patients and the locations of medical care facilities of metropolitan cities and provinces, using data from the National Health Insurance Corporation from January 2003 to December 2013. RESULTS: There is serious concentration of major heart surgery to medical facilities in Seoul; this problem has not improved over time. There were differences in percentages of surgical procedures performed in the metropolitan areas according to major diseases. In the case of Busan and Daegu provinces, at least 50% of the patients underwent surgery in medical facilities in the city, but there are other regions where the percentage is less than 50%. In the case of provinces, the percentage of surgical procedures performed in medical facilities in Seoul or nearby metropolitan cities is very high. CONCLUSION: Policies to strengthen the regional capabilities of heart surgery and to secure human resources are required to mitigate the concentration of patients in the capital area. Many regional multi-centers must be designated to minimize unnecessary competition among regional university hospitals and activate a win-win partnership model for medical services.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Bypass , Health Facilities , Hospitals, University , Humans , Korea , National Health Programs , Seoul , Statistics as Topic , Thoracic Surgery
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-719944

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of oral exercise on oral function and denture satisfaction of the elderly using dentures. METHODS: The study was conducted with targets of the elderly in the 13 senior community centers in Cheongsong-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do from September 2013 to April 2014. The study subjects were divided into two groups, the intervention group provided with 8 week oral exercise program and the control group without exercise. The data on oral function, denture satisfaction and oral health related quality of life (OHIP-14) were analyzed among the 79 subjects from the intervention group and the 71 subjects from the control group. RESULTS: For oral function, salivary flow rate, mouth opening, pronunciation and salty taste were significantly improved in the intervention group (p<0.01). There were significant differences in salivary flow rate, mouth opening, pronunciation and salty taste between the two groups (p<0.01). For denture satisfaction, there were significant differences in masticatory function, fixing function, general treatment satisfaction and total denture satisfaction between the two groups (p<0.05). There were significant differences between the two groups in the total points of oral health related quality of life. CONCLUSION: Oral exercise was effective in improving oral function and denture satisfaction of the elderly using dentures. To improve oral health related quality of life of the elderly further researches and programs will be necessary.


Subject(s)
Aged , Dentures , Humans , Mouth , Oral Health , Quality of Life
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-85937

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study compares differences between male and female nursing students in terms of the level of stress experienced during clinical practice settings, stress coping mechanisms and clinical competency. METHOD: The study population was nursing students who had taken a clinical practice course at one of five general hospitals in city D. Data were collected from September 15 to October 15, 2013 through a structured self-administered questionnaire survey given to 319 subjects (156 male students, 163 female students) enrolled in a statistical analysis course. RESULTS: Male nursing students experienced lower stress levels during clinical practice and higher clinical competency than female students. In terms of stress coping mechanisms, male students were significantly more active than female students in deploying coping strategies. Among all students, students with higher clinical practice stress and concomitant stress coping scores exhibited higher clinical competency. CONCLUSION: Noticeable differences between male and female nursing students in terms of stress levels arising in the course of clinical practice, stress coping strategies, and clinical competency were revealed. However, further identification of specific stressful situations for male and female nursing students and subsequent management of clinical training circumstances are required.


Subject(s)
Female , Hospitals, General , Humans , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires , Students, Nursing
12.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-180660

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of metabolic syndrome and to identify five components as metabolic syndrome predictors. The final study included 1,095 subjects enrolled in a rural part of Daegu Metropolitan City, Korea for a cohort study in 2003. Of these, 762 (69.6%) subjects had participated in the repeat survey. During the five-year follow-up, incidence density was significantly higher for women than for men (men, 30.0/1,000 person-years; women, 46.4/1,000 person-years). In both men and women, incidence of metabolic syndrome showed a significant increase with increasing number of metabolic syndrome components at baseline. Compared with individuals presenting none of components at baseline, relative risks were increased 1.22 (men; 95% CI, 0.43-3.51), 2.21 (women; 95% CI, 0.98-4.97) times more for individuals with one component of metabolic syndrome and 5.30 (men; 95% CI, 2.31-12.13), 5.53 (women; 95% CI, 2.78-11.01) times more for those who had two components. In multivariate analysis, the most powerful risk factor for metabolic syndrome was abdominal obesity in men and low HDL-cholesterol in women (adjusted relative risk, 3.28, 2.53, respectively). Consequently, finding a high risk group for metabolic syndrome according to gender and prevention of metabolic syndrome through lifestyle modification are essential.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertriglyceridemia/complications , Incidence , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Obesity, Abdominal/complications , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-719835

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to evaluate an education program for cardiocerebrovascular high-risk patients. METHODS: This program was developed according to Tyler's model for curriculum development. To evaluate the effects of this program, we measured clinical outcome change (weight, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure) and behavior change stages (checking blood pressure, blood sugar levels, doing physical activity, consistent maintenance of food intake, eating low amounts of salt, abstention from tobacco and alcohol) before and 4 weeks after participation in the education program. The group of subjects consisted of High-risk group patients who attended basic program(32 patients), and staged program(37 patients) during KHyDDI meetings from Oct. 2009 to May 2010. RESULTS: The staged educational program was developed three aspects(disease, nutrition and exercise)and three stages(basic, in-depth and individual education). In the staged education program, the evaluations were made by measuring clinical outcome and stage of behavior before and after education. Significant differences were found in waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, consistent maintenance of food intake(p<0.05), and eating low salt(p<0.001) and their self efficacy. CONCLUSION: In the practice-oriented staged education program, significant differences were found in the clinical outcomes and stage of behavior before and after education. Possible limitations of the study include the small number of participating subjects and the short follow-up management period, but the results indicate that continued application of this program could contribute to the prevention of cardiocerebrovascular diseases for the elderly patients with long periods of chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
Aged , Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Chronic Disease , Curriculum , Eating , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypertension , Motor Activity , Tobacco , Waist Circumference
14.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-185569

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Masked hypertension is associated with metabolic risks and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency of and risk factors of masked hypertension in Korean workers. METHODS: The study was conducted among 121 employees at a hotel in Gyeongju, Korea, from December 2008 to February 2009. We measured blood pressure (BP) both in the clinic and using 24-hour ambulatory BP monitors for all subjects. Hypertension was defined independently by both methods, and subjects were classified into four groups: true normotension, masked hypertension, white coat hypertension, and sustained hypertension. RESULTS: The frequency of masked hypertension in our study group was 25.6%. Compared with true normotension, the factors related to masked hypertension were male gender (odds ratio [OR], 10.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41 to 81.09), aging one year (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.99), clinic BP 120-129/80-84 mmHg (OR, 8.42; 95% CI, 1.51 to 46.82), clinic BP 130-139 / 85-89 mmHg (OR, 12.14; 95% CI, 1.80 to 81.85), smoking (OR, 5.51; 95% CI, 1.15 to 26.54), and increase of total cholesterol 1 mg / dL (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.08). In males only, these factors were clinic BP 120-129 / 80-84 mmHg (OR, 15.07; 95% CI, 1.55 to 146.19), clinic BP 130-139 / 85-89 mmHg (OR, 17.16; 95% CI, 1.56 to 189.45), smoking (OR, 11.61; 95% CI, 1.52 to 88.62), and increase of total cholesterol 1 mg/dL (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.09). CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of masked hypertension was high in our study sample. Detection and management of masked hypertension, a known strong predictor of cardiovascular risk, could improve prognosis for at-risk populations.


Subject(s)
Adult , Age Factors , Blood Pressure , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Hypertension/ethnology , Lipids/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/ethnology , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Smoking/adverse effects , Socioeconomic Factors , Stress, Psychological/complications , Workplace/psychology
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-719860

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of married Korean women regarding marriage and childbirth, and their awareness of childbirth-related issues such as low birth rates, sex preferences and sex imbalances in Korea. METHODS: A total of 453 married women aged 20 or older were randomly selected from four urban districts and five rural districts out of 25 districts in Gyeongju, a consolidated city located in Gyeongsangbuk-do Province, South Korea. The survey was conducted from December 2005 to February 2006. A total of 392 out of 453 questionnaires(86.5% response rate) were collected, and 44 incomplete questionnaires were excluded, leaving 348 completed questionnaires to be used for data analysis. Age was divided into three groups as below 49, 50-69, 70 or older. RESULTS: Women's perceptions of marriage were associated with age(p<0.01). Perceptions about childbirth were also significantly related to age(p<0.01), type of residential area (p<0.01) and education level(p<0.05). Sex preferences were significantly related to age(p<0.05) and occupation(p<0.01). Of the respondents aged 49 or younger, 34.8% indicated that the ideal number of children is two, while 25.5% of respondents aged 50 to 69 and 15.3% of respondents aged 70 and 33.7% of respondents aged 70 or older considered four children to be the ideal number. Perceptions of sex imbalance were significantly related to socioeconomic status(p<0.01) and occupation(p<0.01). The largest number of respondents cited "economic burden" as the main reason for low birth rates. Multiple logistic regressions were performed for all three age groups using male sex preference as the dependent variable under the assumption that respondents can have only a single child. Socioeconomic status (p<0.01) and residential area (p<0.05) were significant variables for those aged 49 or below. Education level(p<0.05) and residential area (p<0.01) were statistically significant variables on preferring son in case of having only one child for respondents aged 50 to 69. We did not detect any significant independent variables in respondents who were 70 or older. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the necessity of developing policies and public education programs to explain the consequences of low birth rates and sex imbalances in Korea. As increasing numbers of women work outside the home, it is important for the government and employers to provide social and working environments where women do not consider marriage and childbirth to be obstacles to social and business activities.


Subject(s)
Aged , Birth Rate , Child , Commerce , Female , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Male , Marriage , Parturition , Republic of Korea , Social Class , Statistics as Topic , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-53040

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to assess the concentration of urine cadmium and health risks of residents in the vicinity of abandoned metal mines in Gyeongsangbuk-do. METHODS: The concentration of cadmium in the soil, water, and agricultural crops was measured in Gyeongsangbuk-do, Butdeun and Suksan, which have abandoned metal mines. We measured the concentration of cadmium in the urine of residents from the following areas: 78 from village A, 99 from village C and 147 from control areas. Other health-risk assessments were performed on each resident, such as measuring the concentration of beta2-MG and a bone density test. RESULTS: In abandoned mine areas, the mean concentration of cadmium was higher in agricultural soil and in the crops than in that of control areas. The concentration of cadmium in the stream exceeded the guideline level. In regard to provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) of cadmium, the actual intake rate through crops was 33.81%, 72.74% in abandoned mine areas and 5.03%, 6.16% in control areas. Residents in abandoned mine areas, A village and C village had a geometric mean of urine Cd of 1.90 microgram/g cr and 1.45 microgram/g cr. These measurements were significantly higher than those of residents in control areas, B village and D village, 0.59 microgram/g cr and 0.65 microgram/g cr (p<0.01). Following adjustments for age, sex, smoking habit, and occupational history, the concentration of urine cadmium of residents in the Butdeun abandoned meta mine was higher by 1.62 microgram/g cr as compared with the control group (p<0.01). Residents from the Suksan abandoned metal mine also had a higher concentration by 1.07 microgram/g cr (p<0.01). A multiple linear regression analysis was performed for the factors associated with T-score, and this showed that the concentration of urine cadmium was not an influential factor. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these measurements, areas with abandoned metal mines contaminated streams, agricultural soil, and crops of the adjacent areas, with cadmium. Because residents in the adjacent areas intake contaminated crops, their urine cadmium was increased. Despite a lack of evidence demonstrating the detrimental effect of increased urine cadmium in residents, an additional study is needed to assess the health risks of residents in the vicinity of abandoned metal mines.


Subject(s)
Bone Density , Cadmium , Crops, Agricultural , Korea , Linear Models , Rivers , Smoke , Smoking , Soil , Water
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-720022

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study, as for activating measures for capable medical physicians to penetrate into the public health sector, is to provide a basic informations which are used for the enlargement of human resources of physicians in the public health sector, by investigating the perception of physicians, who are now working in the public health center, on the training and development of physicians in the public health sector. METHODS: The subjects of this study were 126 individuals. The data was analyzed by frequency analysis using SPSS ver. 17.0K. RESULTS: According to the investigation of 'how to support physicians in public health sector', the necessity of almost questions is considered to be important. Especially, regarding to investigation on 'obstacles of physicians' entrance to public health sector', 'relatively low salary' and 'lack of promotion chances' were thought to be considerable. The most significant education programs to work for public health sector is to improve the ability of health administration planning and service performance. CONCLUSIONS: The important methods to reinforce and easily obtain the human resources of physicians in public health sector are not only to improve the penetration of physicians to public health sector, but also to enhance the ability of present physicians, even though sufficient recruitment of physicians is essential.


Subject(s)
Humans , Public Health
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-720017

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was to identify the changes of body fat, blood pressure, blood glucose and serum lipid of middle and old aged women after participation in exercise program which includes aerobic(dance sports) and anaerobic(dumbbell gymnastics) exercises. METHODS: One hundred women aged from 55 to 72 were surveyed before and after an exercise program. The exercise program was provided to the subjects performed during 6 months from July, 2007 to December, 2007 at a public health subcenter in Gumi City. Questionnaire survey for general characteristics, anthropometric measurement and blood test were taken before starting the program and anthropometric measurement and blood test after completing the program. RESULTS: Body Weight, body fat and blood pressure showed significant change after the exercise program(p0.05). Waite circumference decreased, however did not show statistically significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: It was effective to participate in dance sports and dumbbell gymnastics exercise regularly. All of the positive changes through the study showed that there should be the program for middle and old aged women to exercise actively and also the middle and old aged women need have a active exercise habits as regular as possible. Additional studies confirming the results of this study are needed to compare the effects of the dance sports and dumbbell gymnastics exercise on the other age groups.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Aged , Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Body Weight , Cholesterol , Female , Glucose , Gymnastics , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Public Health , Sports , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 170-178, 2009.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-166192

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Intraoperative frozen sectioning (FS) of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) is widely used to determine whether total axillary lymph node dissection should be performed in patients with breast cancer. We evaluated the usefulness and limitations of the FS protocol, which has been used in our institution for the intraoperative SLN examination. METHODS: We analyzed the FS results of SLNs in 807 invasive breast carcinoma patients who underwent intraoperative SLN biopsy between January 2005 and December 2007. Lymph nodes larger than 5 mm were sliced at 2 mm intervals and all the slices were submitted for FS. The remaining tissue of the SLN was formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded for permanent sectioning (PS). If the FS result was negative for tumor cells, then immunohistochemical stain for pancytokeratin was performed. The metastatic SLNs were graded according to the AJCC cancer staging manual (6th edition). The results of FS and PS were compared with regard to the pathologic diagnosis. RESULTS: The average number of SLNs was 2.9 per patients. A total of 204 (25.3%) patients were reported to have a metastatic SLN(s) on the FS. Among the 603 patients with negative FS results, 34 (5.6%) patients showed metastasis on the PS. Another 10 (1.7%) patients who had negative results on FS showed isolated tumor cells on the PS or on the cytokeratin immunohistochemistry. Twenty-nine of the 34 (85.3%) false negative cases showed micrometastasis on the PS. Ten (29.4%) false negative results were caused by interpretation errors and 24 (70.6%) were caused by technical problems. CONCLUSION: The false negative rate of our protocol for FS of a SLN was low. The failure of FS was largely caused by the failure to detect micrometastasis. FS is a reliable method for an intraoperative SLN examination if a very stringent protocol is used.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Frozen Sections , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Keratins , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm Micrometastasis , Neoplasm Staging , Nitriles , Pyrethrins , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-214619

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to examine the cognitive function change related to aging, the incidence of cognitive impairment, and the association between apolipoprotein E polymorphism and cognitive impairment through a follow-up of the elderly with normal cognitive ability at baseline. METHODS: Two hundred and fifteen subjects aged 65 and over were surveyed in February, 1998 (baseline survey), and their cognitive function was assessed again in 2003 (1st follow-up) and the once again in 2006 (2nd follow-up). Ninety one subjects completed all surveys up through the 2nd follow-up and their cognitive function scores using MMSE-K (Korean Version of the Mini-Mental State Examination) and the distribution of apolipoprotein E allele were analyzed. RESULTS: The cognitive function scores decreased with aging and the difference between baseline and the 2nd follow-up scores of the study increased with the age group. The incidence rate of cognitive impairment through an 8-year follow-up was 38.5% and higher in older age groups. Age was the only significant factor for incidence of cognitive impairment, but there was no significant association between apolipoprotein E genotype and incidence of cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS: The cognition of the elderly decreased with aging and the association of apolipoprotein E genotype with incidence of cognitive impairment was not significant in this study. To confirm the association between apolipoprotein E polymorphism and incidence of cognitive impairment further studies will be needed.


Subject(s)
Aged , Apolipoproteins E/genetics , Cognition/physiology , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Female , Humans , Korea , Male , Polymorphism, Genetic
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