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Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936605


We conducted a questionnaire survey to examine the association between loneliness and health with consideration of lifestyle and social relationships in a mountainous rural area of Japan. We used the Japanese versions of the short-form University of California, Los Angeles Loneliness Scale (UCLA score: 3-9 points) and the 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS score: 12-48 points). Among 108 respondents (47 men, 61 women), mean age was 74.1 years, 30 (28%) were obese, 40 (37%) had a smoking habit, and 38 (35.1%) had an alcohol habit. Negative social relationships were reported by5 (4.6%) respondents. Mean UCLA score was 4.08 ± 1.34 and mean WHODAS score was 7.68 ± 8.84. Respondents were classified into the loneliness group if the UCLA score was greater than 4 points (58/108, 53,7%) and into the healthy group if the WHODAS score was 7 points or less (66/108, 61.1%). In univariable analysis, lower health status was significantly associated with age > 75 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.73, p = 0.003), female sex (OR 2.82, 95%CI 1.15-7.09, p = 0.01), living alone (OR 0.44, 95%CI 0.14-1.33, p = 0.01), divorce, separation, or bereavement (OR 0.24, 95%CI 0.09-0.60, p < 0.001), ≤ 9 years of education (OR 0.18, 95%CI 0.07-0.46, p < 0.001), unemployed/looking for work (OR 0.9, 95%CI 0.26-0.27, p < 0.001), no alcohol habit (OR 2.66, 95%CI 1.05-7.05, p = 0.02), and loneliness (OR 0.29, 95%CI 0.11-0.72, p = 0.003). On multivariable analysis, loneliness was identified as an independent risk factor for poorer health status (OR 0.11, 95%CI 0.02-0.43, p =0.002) after adjusting for the other significant items on univariable analysis.

Journal of Rural Medicine ; : 216-221, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758314


Objective: Previous studies have investigated medical students’ interest in family medicine, as well as their intentions to work in rural areas after taking part in community-based clinical clerkships. Community-based clerkships are designed to teach medical students community healthcare and to increase the number of physicians working in rural communities following their graduation. However, few studies have examined which clerkship experiences, specifically, enhance medical students’ positive perceptions on community healthcare. This study aimed to examine the association between experiential learning in community-based clerkships and students’ positive perceptions on community healthcare.Patients and Methods: From 2015 to 2017, we conducted a questionnaire survey of 290 final year medical students, before and after completion of their community-based clerkships. The survey asked the students about their perceptions (categorized into “Worthwhile” and “Confident”) of community healthcare and experiential learning during their clerkships. We assessed 13 medical learning areas involving healthcare, medical care, welfare, and nursing care practice. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the factors associated with positive student perceptions.Results: Of the 290 students, 265 (91.3%) completed both the pre- and post-questionnaires. Of these, 124 (46.8%) were female, 67 (25.2%) were from small towns (of <100,000 people), and 87 (32.8%) selected clinical clerkships within depopulated areas. A total of 205 (73.3%) students reported positive perceptions on community healthcare. There was a significant association discovered between students’ positive perceptions on community-based healthcare and them taking part in experiential learning in mobile medical services (43 [16.2%] students experienced mobile medical services—adjusted odds ratio 6.65, 95%, confidence intervals 1.67–26.4, p = 0.007).Conclusion: Medical students’ positive perceptions on community healthcare were discovered to be associated with them taking part in experiential learning in mobile medical services during their community-based clerkships.

Medical Education ; : 1-7, 2014.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-378096


Objective: To evaluate gender differences in mentee’s preference for mentoring styles and topics in academic medicine in Japan.<br>Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of mentees at 6 graduate schools of medicine in Japan from December 2011 through January 2012. The study participants were 1700 Japanese-speaking graduate students and postdoctoral fellows. The primary outcome was the percentage of respondents who desired to be mentored with a particular style or topic.<br>Results: A total of 676 (227 women) mentees responded to the survey. Women were less likely than men to prefer a hierarchical mentoring relationship (men, 82%; women, 71%; p=0.001) but were more likely to desire a mentor for career consultation (men, 51%; women, 64%; p=0.001). Women were more likely than men to want guidance in developing a research portfolio (men, 85%; women, 90%; p=0.04), in computer skills/statistical skills (men, 68%; women, 81%; p=0.001), and in long-term career planning (men, 38%; women, 50%; p=0.003).<br>Conclusion: Women mentees in Japan express different preferences for mentoring styles and topics from men. Mentors in Japan must take these differences into consideration.

Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-375937


<b>Introduction</b> : Recommendations from healthcare providers are considered by vaccinees and their parents when they decide whether to receive an immunization. However, in Japan, the attitudes of primary care physicians toward vaccination are unknown. We assessed some practices and recommendations of, and barriers to, primary care physicians regarding vaccinations in Japan.<br><b>Methods</b> : A self-administered questionnaire was mailed (in 2012) to 3000 randomly selected physician-members of the Japan Primary Care Association. Excluded were physicians within two years after graduation, living abroad or retired. We described respondent practices, recommendations, and barriers to the provision of routine and voluntary vaccinations.<br><b>Results</b> : The overall response rate was 25.8%. The rates at which physicians gave routine and voluntary vaccines in their own practices were 29.0-91.4% and 15.2-89.5%, respectively. The vaccine recommendation rates for routine and voluntary vaccines were 58.2-70.2% and 14.1-50.9%, respectively. The physicians reported that their barriers to recommendation of routine vaccines were vaccination schedule complexity (32.9%), opinions of vaccinees and parents (28.9%), and vaccine safety (27.7%). They also reported that perceived vaccine safety (62.1%), lack of understanding of vaccine-preventable diseases (55.7%), and complexity of vaccine schedules (44.4%) were reasons given by vaccinees and parents for noncompliance. Physicians' barriers to recommendation of voluntary vaccines were cost (45.3%), safety (35.1%), and lack of information (30.1%). They reported that vaccinees and parents expressed concern about cost (61.8%), safety (51.8%), and lack of vaccine information (50.7%).<br><b>Conclusion</b> : We clarified practices, recommendations, and barriers to primary care physicians regarding routine and voluntary vaccination in Japan.

General Medicine ; : 32-39, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-374900


<b>Objective:</b> With the recent aging trend in the Japanese population, dysphagia appears to be increasing. However, few epidemiologic surveys have been conducted to determine the prevalence of dysphagia in local inhabitants. Ohkuma et al. prepared a highly reliable questionnaire using a simple test and safe examination method. We investigated the presence/absence of symptoms of dysphagia in local inhabitants, evaluated their association with subjective symptoms, and examined whether the inhabitants were following a particular diet, which is the most important factor in management of dysphagia.<br><b>Methods:</b> A cross-sectional study involving 743 inhabitants (age: over 20) of an isolated island was performed. Each subject was asked basic questions (awareness about the presence/absence of dysphagia and dietary habits), and the data was analyzed by chi-square test. Based on their responses, dysphagia incidence was determined and rated on a 3-category scale (severe, mild, and no dysphagia).<br><b>Results:</b> Responses were recollected from 368 subjects (response rate, 49.5%). The percentage of subjects aware of dysphagia in the severe, mild, and no dysphagia groups was 13.8%, 3.2%, and 0%, respectively and the percentage of subjects who changed their dietary habits was 17.2%, 2.6%, and 0%. These percentages were significantly higher in the severe group than in the mild and no dysphagia groups, though the value was less than 20% in the 3 groups.<br><b>Conclusion:</b> Most subjects in the present study were unaware of dysphagia, suggesting that patients with dysphagia tend to be unaware of the key symptoms of dysphagia.

Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-376635


 In Horokanai town, Hokkaido, the policy of full subsidies for voluntary vaccinations against influenza, haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), varicella, mumps, pneumococcal for children and human papillomavirus (HPV) was introduced between 2008 and 2010. A campaign for community education about vaccination was initiated.<br> Vaccination coverage improved after the subsidy as follows : influenza vaccination increased from 57.4% to 60.1%, Hib from 2.9% to 52.2%, varicella from 0% to 30.0%, mumps from 2.8% to 38.2%, pneumococcal for children from 1.3% to 50.6%, and HPV from 0% to 81.3%.