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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-54937


OBJECTIVE: Rikkunshito, an herbal medicine, is widely prescribed in Japan for the treatment of anorexia and functional dyspepsia, and has been reported to recover reductions in food intake caused by cisplatin. We investigated whether rikkunshito could improve chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) and anorexia in patients treated with cisplatin. METHODS: Patients with uterine cervical or corpus cancer who were to receive cisplatin (50 mg/m² day 1) and paclitaxel (135 mg/m² day 0) as first-line chemotherapy were randomly assigned to the rikkunshito group receiving oral administration on days 0–13 with standard antiemetics, or the control group receiving antiemetics only. The primary endpoint was the rate of complete control (CC: no emesis, no rescue medication, and no significant nausea) in the overall phase (0–120 hours). Two-tailed p<0.20 was considered significant in the planned analysis. RESULTS: The CC rate in the overall phase was significantly higher in the rikkunshito group than in the control group (57.9% vs. 35.3%, p=0.175), as were the secondary endpoints: the CC rate in the delayed phase (24–120 hours), and the complete response (CR) rates (no emesis and no rescue medication) in the overall and delayed phases (63.2% vs. 35.3%, p=0.095; 84.2% vs. 52.9%, p=0.042; 84.2% vs. 52.9%, p=0.042, respectively), and time to treatment failure (p=0.059). Appetite assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) appeared to be superior in the rikkunshito group from day 2 through day 6. CONCLUSION: Rikkunshito provided additive effect for the prevention of CINV and anorexia.

Administration, Oral , Anorexia , Antiemetics , Appetite , Cisplatin , Drug Therapy , Dyspepsia , Eating , Herbal Medicine , Humans , Japan , Nausea , Paclitaxel , Time-to-Treatment , Vomiting
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-377092


<b>Objective: </b>The aim of this study was to establish the proper definitions of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and bleeding events for a healthcare database in Japan.<br><b>Study Design: </b>Validation study.<br><b>Methods: </b>The study comprised patients with VTE or who had undergone orthopedic surgery of the lower extremities and whose outpatient or inpatient medical information from April 1, 2008 to September 30, 2013 was available.  The source population of the database was derived from 100 acute-care hospitals.  The endpoints were VTE events (deep venous thrombosis [DVT], pulmonary thromboembolism [PE]) and bleeding events (bleeding requiring blood transfusion, intracranial hemorrhage, intraocular hemorrhage, upper gastrointestinal [GI] bleeding, and lower GI bleeding).  The frequent events with laboratory data were randomly extracted and evaluated, while all the infrequent events with laboratory data were extracted and evaluated.  Positive predictive value (PPV) was defined as the proportion of events judged to be clinical by medical experts of all the extracted events.  First, we conducted a test with a small number of cases and then revised the definitions of events.  Second, we extracted and evaluated data in 50 patients for VTE and bleeding events patients, based on which we defined the target PPV level between 60 and 70%.<br><b>Results: </b>Of the 5,044,743 patients in the database, 36,947 patients underwent orthopedic surgeries of the lower extremities and 3,578 patients experienced a VTE event.  The PPV at the first evaluation was 80.0% (8/10) for DVT, 57.1% (4/7) for PE, and 27.3% (6/22) for bleeding events.  At the second evaluation using the revised definitions, the PPV were 75.0% (42/56) for VTE and 73.3% (33/45) for bleeding events.  Overall, the PPVs for VTE and bleeding events were over 70%.  The PPV of the VTE events were 76.9% (30/39) for DVT and 70.6% (12/17) for PE.  The PPVs of each type of bleeding event were over 70% except for intracranial hemorrhage (44.4%, 4/9).<br><b>Conclusion: </b>The PPV was high for VTE events (75.0%) and bleeding events (73.3%).  The definitions used in this study are rational for the identification of VTE, DVT, PE, and bleeding events in the healthcare database in Japan.  The definition for each type of bleeding event should be investigated in further studies.

Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-376968


Based on the history of pharmacovigilance activities in Japan, the expectations for MIHARI Project from the perspective of academia are discussed. First, drug safety and risk-benefit related activities should be enhanced from the early stage of drug development and/or in the regulatory approval stage. Second, more collaboration with regulatory authorities and academia should be promoted. Third, knowledge obtained from MIHARI Project should be published timely and continuously which contribute to related safety activities conducted by other than regulators.

Medical Education ; : 205-210, 2012.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-375290


  In Japan, few health care professionals have a basic understanding(core competency)of the design of clinical research and statistical analysis. We developed a blended distance–learning program comprising face–to–face lectures with e–learning for busy health care professionals who work in the clinical settings to achieve core competency in clinical research. The purpose of this study was to examine the educational effects of this program.<br>1)Four months after the end of the program, 64% of the participants had started to conduct clinical research.<br>2)This program may increase the number of research colleagues that can discuss clinical research.<br>3)This program could enhance the confidence(self–efficacy)of health care professionals in clinical research.

Palliative Care Research ; : 403-407, 2012.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-374751


The primary aim of this study was to estimate the number of cancer patients who wanted home death based on the bereaved family survey.A postal survey performed on 1,137 bereaved family members in 4 regions to clarify the degree what they believed that the patient actually died where s/he had wanted on the Good Death Inventory, and to explore the preferred place of death. We calculated estimated number of patients who had wanted home death as a total of (1) the actual number of home death × the percentages of the family members who agreed that the patient actually died where s/he had wanted, and × the actual number of hospital death × the percentages of the family members who disagreed that the patient actually died where s/he had wanted and home was the preferred place of death. Estimated number of cancer patients who wanted home death was 32.8%[95%C.I., 31.7, 33.9] in the surveyed regions, and 31.2%[95%C.I., 31.1, 31.4] for national data.

Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 458-462, 2005.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-331855


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the statistical property of the estimators on exposure effect and value of propensity score methods in practical use.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Simulation data, propensity score methods (PSM) were conducted to assess bias and efficiency, under both with/without model misspecification conditions.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Under model misspecification conditions, propensity score methods had better robustness than model based methods.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>For large and complicated data, propensity score methods had more flexibility in practical use than model based methods.</p>

Algorithms , Bias , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Humans , Models, Statistical , Monte Carlo Method , Research Design , Risk Adjustment