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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827269


BACKGROUND@#Preventing the need for long-term care (LTC) by identifying physical function risk factors are important to decrease the LTC burden. The objective of this study was to investigate whether grip strength and/or walking speed, which are components of the frailty definition, are associated with LTC in community-dwelling older and oldest people.@*METHODS@#The participants were 1098 community-dwelling older and oldest people who had not received LTC at the baseline. The endpoint was receiving LTC after the baseline survey. The independent variables were grip strength and walking speed, and participants were divided into two groups based on these variables. The confounding factors were age, sex, the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-J), hypertension, diabetes mellitus, stroke, joint diseases, living alone, body mass index, and serum albumin. We calculated the hazard ratio of receiving LTC using the Cox proportional hazard model.@*RESULTS@#Among the 1098 participants, 107 (9.7%) newly received LTC during the follow-up. Regarding the physical function, only slow walking speed was significantly correlated with LTC after adjusting for all confounding factors except the MoCA-J score (HR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.10-2.75, P = .018). However, slow walking speed was still a risk factor for LTC after adjusting for the MoCA-J score and other confounding factors (HR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.03-2.60, P = .037).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The findings from this study may contribute to a better understanding of slow walking speed as a factor related to LTC, which might be a criterion for disability prevention and could serve as an outcome measure for physical function in older people.

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Exercise , Independent Living , Japan , Long-Term Care , Proportional Hazards Models
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-376268


Physical performance measures, such as gait speed, one-legged stance and hand-grip strength, are known as assessment measures of motor function and predictors for adverse health outcomes, and widely used for assessing motor function in preventive programs for long-term care or screening of frail elderly. However, there is no standard assessment sheet for feedback of the results. In the present study, an assessment sheet on physical performance measures for community-dwelling older adults was developed. A pooled analysis of data from six cohort studies, including urban and rural areas was conducted as part of the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Longitudinal Interdisciplinary Study on Aging. The pooled analysis included cross-sectional data from 4683 nondisabled, community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older. Quintiles were derived according to age and sex group for six physical performance measures, i.e., hand-grip strength, one-legged stance, and gait speed and step length at both usual and maximum paces. The assessment sheets, which indicated the physical performance level according to age and sex, were developed by fitting third order polynomial curves to the data. The reference values in the present assessment sheet were considered to be derived from better represented community-dwelling older adults by using more large-scale population-based cohort data than that in the previous study. The assessment sheet should be useful for feeding back results on physical performance measures to elderly individuals and help them better understand their own physical performance levels.

Medical Education ; : 259-265, 2010.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-363012


The promotion of clinical research in Japan requires the establishment of a formal and systematic education and training program for clinicians to ensure they become effective clinician investigators. The first of its kind in Japan, a formal 1-year masters-degree-level training program (MCR course) was started at Kyoto University School of Medicine and Public Health. The first 28 students graduated in 2008, with most returning to their original clinical institutions. <br>1) As follow-up, we conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey of all 28 graduates (response rate, 86%) concerning the current status of clinical research and problems encountered at their institutions.<br>2) Almost 40% of respondents (n=24) reported &quot;no time&quot; or &quot;no research collaborators&quot; for clinical research.<br>3) Twenty respondents (83%) have attempted to promote clinical research at their hospital or workplace, but only 1 has received institutional support.<br>4) Over half of the respondents (54%) would like to be working in both clinical research and clinical practice at their hospital in the future (10-year timescale). Forty-two percent of respondents had a concrete image of the clinical researcher's career path. <br>5) Although open to improvement, the MCR program presents a concrete model for the education of clinical researchers. These findings suggest that promoting the conduct of clinical research requires the implementation of a support system and adjustment of personal and physical infrastructure.

Medical Education ; : 399-406, 1998.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-369625


This study examined the effectiveness of a communication program in undergraduate medical education in improving communication in physicians' clinical practice. The effectiveness of the program was assessed with a mail survey using self-rated questionnaires 9 years later. Ninety participants were follwed up in late 1994; 57.8% of them replied to the questionnaire. Of the respondents, 60% replied that programs concerned with active listening and role-playing had benefits on communicating with patients and families. In addition, 40% of respondents answered that case studies aimed at teaching comprehensive medicine with the team approach was effective in improving communication with co-medical staff. These results suggest that the communication program in undergraduate medical education is effective in improving clinical communication in clinical practice when students are highly motivated.