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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873741

ABSTRACT

Since 2015 when the transmission of schistosomiasis was controlled in China, the country has been moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis, with the surveillance-response as the main interventions for schistosomiasis control. During the period of the 13th Five-Year Plan, the transmission of schistosomiasis had been interrupted in four provinces of Sichuan, Jiangsu, Yunnan and Hubei and the prevalence of schistosomiasis has been at the historically lowest level in China. As a consequence, the goal set in The 13th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China is almost achieved. However, there are multiple challenges during the stage moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China, including the widespread distribution of intermediate host snails and complicated snail habitats, many types of sources of Schistosoma japonicum infections and difficulty in management of bovines and sheep, unmet requirements for the current schistosomiasis control program with the currently available tools, and vulnerable control achievements. During the 14th Five-Year period, it is crucial to consolidate the schistosomiasis control achievements and gradually solve the above difficulties, and critical to provide the basis for achieving the ultimate goal of elimination of schistosomiasis in China. Based on the past experiences from the national schistosomiasis control program and the challenges for schistosomiasis elimination in China, an expert consensus has been reached pertaining to the objectives, control strategy and measures for The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China, so as to provide insights in to the development of The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821655

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in national surveillance sites of Anhui Province from 2015 to 2018, so as to provide scientific evidence for schistosomiasis control and prevention in Anhui Province. Methods According to the National Schistosomiasis Surveillance Programme (2014 version), a total of 51 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in Anhui Province in 2015, and Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans and livestock and snail distribution were monitored from 2015 to 2018. Results A total of 89 638 local residents and 42 609 mobile populations received serological screening of schistosomiasis in 51 national surveillance sites of Anhui Province from 2015 to 2018, and the sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections was 1.41% to 3.69% in local residents and 0.84% to 2.13% in mobile populations, respectively. There were 5 egg-positive local residents and 1 egg-positive mobile populations detected in 2015, with occupations of farmers and fishermen. There were 6 405 livestock detected for S. japonicum infections, and no egg-positives were identified. Among an area of 12 661 hm2 surveyed in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Anhui Province from 2015 to 2018, the areas of snail habitats were 2 461.27 to 2 628.96 hm2, andthemeandensityoflivingsnailswas 0.3757 to 0.4330 snails/0.1 m2, with no S. japonicum infections identified in snails. Conclusions The endemic situation of schistosomiasis is at a low level in Anhui Province; however, the risk of schistosomiasis transmission remains in local regions of the province. The construction of the surveillance-responsesystemshouldbereinforcedtoconsolidatetheachievementsofschistosomiasis control in Anhui Province.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821624

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of Oncomelania hupensis snails and infected snails in the endemic areas of schistosomiasis in Anhui Province. Methods Based on the snail survey data in Anhui Province in 2016, the distribution of snails and infected snails were analyzed, and the spatial distribution of snails and spatial cluster patterns of infected snails were investigated in snail habitats in Anhui Province from 1950 to 2016. Results A total of 22 757 snail habitats and 5 004 infected snail habitats were identified in Anhui Province from 1950 to 2016, which appeared single-peak and double-peak patterns, with an inflection point seen in 1970. There were 141 000 hm2 historically accumulative snail habitats, 88.08% of which were firstly identified from 1950 to 1979, and totally 114 500 hm2 snail habitats were eradicated, 77.17% of which were eradicated from 1970 to 1999. There were 4 830 snail habitats identified until 2016, in which 1 051 were once detected with infected snails. In addition, 78.12% of current snail habitats had been present for over 40 years, and infected snails had been eliminated in 65.75% of the infected snail habitats within 10 years. There was a spatial autocorrelation of the living snail density in current snail habitats in Anhui Province (Moran’s I = 0.196, Z = 139.63, P < 0.001), and local hotspot analysis showed spatial clusters of living snails density in snail habitats, with high-value clusters in south of the Yangtze River and low-value clusters in north of the Yangtze River. The 21 high-value clusters of living snail density with statistical significance were distributed along the Yangtze River basin and its branches. Spatiotemporal scan analysis revealed spatiotemporal clusters of infected snails in 4 current snail habitats. Conclusions The current snail habitats have been present for a long period of time, and snails are difficult to be eliminated by chemical treatment alone, which requires the combination of environment improvements. There are spatial clusters of living snail density in current snail habitats in Anhui Province. The epidemic factors and risk of human and animal infections still remain in some clusters of historical infected snail habitats revealed by spatiotemporal scan analysis, which should be consid- ered as the key target areas for snail control in Anhui Province.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812941

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the current status and changing tendency of human hookworm infections in Anhui Province. Methods According to the unified national survey scheme, a total of 48 survey sites were sampled from 16 counties (cities) in 4 ecological regions of Anhui Province using a stratified cluster random sampling method from 2014 to 2015. The hookworm eggs were detected in the fecal samples from permanent residents at ages of over one year living in the survey sites using a modified Kato-Katz thick smear method, and the subjects’health knowledge and behaviors were investigated using questionnaire survey. Results A total of 12 300 persons were examined in the 48 survey sites from 4 ecological regions of Anhui Province between 2014 and 2015, and 259 subjects were identified with hookworm infections, with a mean prevalence of 2.11%. Among the four ecological regions, the North China Plain had the highest prevalence of human hookworm infections (3.02%) and in all survey sites, Linquan County had the highest prevalence (7.03%). Ancylostoma duodenale was the predominant hookworm species identified (62.16%), and 65.64% had mild infections. The prevalence of human hookworm infections was significantly greater in women than in men (χ2 = 4.16, P < 0.05), and showed a tendency towards a rise with ages (χ2trend = 113.36, P < 0.01). In addition, the prevalence of human hookworm infections varied in occupations (χ2 = 159.41, P < 0.01) and education levels (χ2 = 34.95, P < 0.01). Questionnaire survey showed low prevalence of human hookworm infections in subjects knowing the question“how hookworm infection occurs”and denying“using fresh stools for fertilization”(χ2 = 15.05, P < 0.01; χ2 = 4.19, P < 0.05). Conclusions The prevalence of human hookworm infections has greatly decreased in Anhui Province; however, the prevalence remains relatively high in some regions and populations. The North China Plain should be regarded as the key area for hookworm disease prevention and control, and housewives and populations with advanced ages and low educational levels are key targeted populations in Anhui Province.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818948

ABSTRACT

This paper reviews the evolution of the schistosomiasis control strategy in China at various stages after the founding of the People’s Republic of China, and analyzes the roles and main problems of the schistosomiasis control strategy at different stages. At the end stage of schistosomiasis elimination, the integrated strategy with emphasis on infectious source control should be continued to be sustained and the problems regarding the implementation of this integrated strategy are analyzed. In addition, the countermeasures to solve these problems are proposed.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818929

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the species and activities of wild animals infected with schistosome in hilly and mountain areas by using an infrared camera technique, so as to provide the evidence for the surveillance of schistosomiasis in these areas. Methods Six infrared cameras were selected and placed in 6 environments of the risk monitoring points of schistosomiasis in Shitai County in Anhui Province. The species and activities of the wild animals in the 6 environments were observed through the photographs and videos taken by the cameras. Results Through 5 day’s monitoring, 3 wild mammals, such as voles, hares and wild boars, were found in 4 monitoring environments, of which voles were found at 2 environments with snails, and hares, wild boars and voles were found in 2 environments adjacent to environments with snails respectively. The monitoring showed that the vole activity was most frequent in the monitored environment. Conclusion The use of infrared camera technique has a good effect in the investigation of wild animal infectious source of schistosomiasis, and it is also suitable for the monitoring work in other types of environments.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818496

ABSTRACT

This paper reviews the evolution of the schistosomiasis control strategy in China at various stages after the founding of the People’s Republic of China, and analyzes the roles and main problems of the schistosomiasis control strategy at different stages. At the end stage of schistosomiasis elimination, the integrated strategy with emphasis on infectious source control should be continued to be sustained and the problems regarding the implementation of this integrated strategy are analyzed. In addition, the countermeasures to solve these problems are proposed.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816573

ABSTRACT

Fallopian tube obstruction accounts for30%-50% of female infertility.In patients with com-plete or partial obstruction of the fallopian tube diag-nosed by hysterosalpinography(HSG),after performedby selective salpingography(SSG)and fallopian tuberecanalization(FTR)can not only eliminate the falsepositive results in most of the examinations,but alsodredge the fallopian tube and improve the patency ofthe fallopian tube.This is an important method to treatfallopian tube obstructive infertility.fallopian tube obstructioninfertilityin-

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-815887

ABSTRACT

China is one of the schistosomiasis-endemic countries with the highest burden of disease across the world. Following the control efforts for over 60 years, great successes have been achieved in schistosomiasis control in the country, and the control program is moving towards transmission interruption and elimination. To commemorate the 60th anniversary of publishing Chairman Mao Zedong’s two poems entitled “Farewell to the God of Plague”, a series of activities that disseminate schistosomiasis control achievements have been conducted in China throughout 2018, including the development of Chinese spirit on schistosomiasis control in the new era. After extensive discussion, collection and screening, and “Integration of all efforts, scientific control, willingness to dedication and swearing to wipe out the 'God of Plague' “ was proposed as Chinese spirit on schistosomiasis control in the new era. Integration of all efforts is a summary of administrative policy-making and population participation in Chinese schistosomiasis control programs; scientific control is the refinement of the Chinese national schistosmiasis control strategy that is developed and implemented tailoring to time and circumstances; willingness to dedication is a valuable spiritual wealth and inexhaustible source of power for Chinese schistosomiasis control professionals in the new era; and swearing to wipe out the “God of Plague” is a sacred mission assigned to Chinese professionals participating in the national schistosomiasis control program in the new era. Chinese spirit on schistosomiasis control in the new era will further strengthen our belief in achieving the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in China eventually.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818830

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the status of Oncomelania hupensis snails in Anhui Province in 2016, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the 13th Five-Year Plans for Schistosomiasis Control. Methods In 2016, a snail survey was conducted in Anhui Province according to the National Programme of the Oncomelania Snail Survey, covering all snail habitats or historical snail habitats and suspected environments of snail breeding, and the results of the survey were analyzed. Results In 2016, 22 848 environments were surveyed, and no schistosome-infected snails were found. There were 17 927 historical snail habitats in whole province, among which, the environments without changes, changed partly and changed completely accounted for 71.2%, 19.3% and 9.5%, respectively. The area of historical snail habitats was 1.410 billion m2. There were 4 830 environments with snail habitats covering an area of 0.265 billion m2 in 38 counties of 7 cities, including newly emerging area of 1 287.65 hm2 and reemerging area of 1 375.32 hm2. The density of living snails was 0.392 0 snails/0.1 m2, and the rate of frame with living snails was 12.93%. The type of marshland and lake regions, and the type of hilly and mountainous regions accounted for 22.4% and 77.6% of number of snail habitats, and accounted for 86.7% and 13.3% of areas of snail habitats, respectively. Among the different types of vegetation in snail habitats, grass was superior owe to accounting for 82.2% of the number of snail habitats, 57.3% of the area with snail habitats, and the highest density of living snails (0.413 9 snails/0.1 m2). Among the different types of environments in snail habitats, the ditch was superior owe to accounting for 56.8% of the number of snail habitats, the highest density of living snails (0.570 3 snails/0.1m2) and the highest rate of frame with living snails (18.57%), and the beach was superior owe to accounting for 87.8% of the area with snail habitats. In Anhui Province, the first year of snails and schistosome-infected snails being found was 1950 and 1952, respectively, and the latest year of schistosome-infected snails being found was 2012. The map showed that the most environments with snail habitats were distributed along the Yangtze River in Anhui Province. Conclusion For the first time, the investigation has built the database and map of snail spatial distribution, which truly reflect the historic and current status of snail distribution in Anhui Province and can provide the evidence for formulating the 13th Five-Year Plans for Schistosomiasis Control and improving the schistosomiasis prevention and control work in the future.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818708

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the status of Oncomelania hupensis snails in Anhui Province in 2016, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the 13th Five-Year Plans for Schistosomiasis Control. Methods In 2016, a snail survey was conducted in Anhui Province according to the National Programme of the Oncomelania Snail Survey, covering all snail habitats or historical snail habitats and suspected environments of snail breeding, and the results of the survey were analyzed. Results In 2016, 22 848 environments were surveyed, and no schistosome-infected snails were found. There were 17 927 historical snail habitats in whole province, among which, the environments without changes, changed partly and changed completely accounted for 71.2%, 19.3% and 9.5%, respectively. The area of historical snail habitats was 1.410 billion m2. There were 4 830 environments with snail habitats covering an area of 0.265 billion m2 in 38 counties of 7 cities, including newly emerging area of 1 287.65 hm2 and reemerging area of 1 375.32 hm2. The density of living snails was 0.392 0 snails/0.1 m2, and the rate of frame with living snails was 12.93%. The type of marshland and lake regions, and the type of hilly and mountainous regions accounted for 22.4% and 77.6% of number of snail habitats, and accounted for 86.7% and 13.3% of areas of snail habitats, respectively. Among the different types of vegetation in snail habitats, grass was superior owe to accounting for 82.2% of the number of snail habitats, 57.3% of the area with snail habitats, and the highest density of living snails (0.413 9 snails/0.1 m2). Among the different types of environments in snail habitats, the ditch was superior owe to accounting for 56.8% of the number of snail habitats, the highest density of living snails (0.570 3 snails/0.1m2) and the highest rate of frame with living snails (18.57%), and the beach was superior owe to accounting for 87.8% of the area with snail habitats. In Anhui Province, the first year of snails and schistosome-infected snails being found was 1950 and 1952, respectively, and the latest year of schistosome-infected snails being found was 2012. The map showed that the most environments with snail habitats were distributed along the Yangtze River in Anhui Province. Conclusion For the first time, the investigation has built the database and map of snail spatial distribution, which truly reflect the historic and current status of snail distribution in Anhui Province and can provide the evidence for formulating the 13th Five-Year Plans for Schistosomiasis Control and improving the schistosomiasis prevention and control work in the future.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-704234

ABSTRACT

Objective To set up and apply the evaluation standards for photography of schistosomiasis control theme,so as to offer the scientific advice for enriching the health information carrier of schistosomiasis control.Methods Through the litera-ture review and expert consultation,the evaluation standard for photography of schistosomiasis control theme was formulated. The themes were divided into 4 projects,such as new construction,natural scenery,working scene,and control achievements. Results The evaluation criteria of the theme photography were divided into the theme(60%),photographic composition (15%),focus exposure(15%),and color saturation(10%).A total of 495 pictures(sets)from 59 units with 77 authors were collected from schistosomiasis epidemic areas national wide.After the first-step screening and second-step evaluation,the prizes of 3 themes of control achievements and new construction,working scene,and natural scenery were selected,such as 6 pictures of first prize,12 pictures of second prize,18 pictures of third prize,and 20 pictures of honorable prize.Conclusions The eval-uation standards of theme photography should be taken into the consideration of the technical elements of photography and the work specification of schistosomiasis prevention and control.In order to improve the ability of records for propaganda purpose of schistosomiasis control and better play a role of guiding correct propaganda,the training and guidance of photography of profes-sionals should be carried out.

13.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1101-1104, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320898

ABSTRACT

Objective The characteristics of spatial-temporal distribution on infected snails were analyzed at the village level in Anhui province,2006-2012.Methods Data on the distribution of infected snails from 2006 to 2012 in Anhui province was collected.Spatial database was established by ArcGIS 9.3.Retrospective spatial-temporal cluster analysis was done by SaTScan 9.1.1 at the village level.Results Eight areas with increased risk and distributed along the upstream to downstream of Yangtze and connecting branch rivers,were found having infected snails,from 2006 through 2012,including one area in 2006,five in 2006-2008,one in 2007-2009 and one in 2009-2011,respectively.Proportion on the number of areas with infected snails decreased from 6.2% in 2006 to 0.5% in 2012.Conclusion The spatial-temporal distribution of infected snail was not random but there appeared significant clusters.The trend seemed to be declining in Anhui province,between 2006 and 2012.Areas being detected as smails positive were important for the schistosomiasis control program to be carried out in Anhui province.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-292511

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the effect of comprehensive control strategy of schistosomiasis with emphasis on infection source control in Anhui province.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty endemic villages in Guichi district, Chizhou city, Anhui province were selected as national pilot villages in the years from 2006 to 2008, and another 10 provincial pilot villages were respectively selected from 10 highly endemic villages in 7 cities in 2007. The comprehensive infection source control measures, including "replace cattle with machines", "raise livestock in pens", "improve the sanitary toilets", "supply safe water " and so on were carried out among the above pilot villages. At the end of 2008, 13 national pilot villages and 6 provincial pilot villages were selected to investigate the popularity of schistosomiasis, and the effect of the comprehensive control strategy in those villages were compared.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After implementing the comprehensive control strategy, the infectious rate of schistosomiasis in national pilot villages decreased from 4.57% (487/10 659) to 1.76% (147/8370), with the reduction rate at 61.49%, whose difference showed statistical significance (χ(2) = 115.16, P < 0.01); and the density of infected snails decreased from 0.0067/0.1 m(2) to 0.0008/0.1 m(2), the infectious rate of snails decreased from 0.28% to 0.04%, whose reduction rates were 88.06% and 85.71% respectively. While as to the provincial pilot villages, the infectious rate of schistosomiasis decreased from 1.27% (54/4254) to 0.21% (14/6592), with the reduction rate at 83.46%, whose difference showed statistical significance (χ(2) = 94.57, P < 0.01); and the density of infected snails decreased from 0.0025/0.1 m(2) to 0.0003/0.1 m(2), the infection rate of snails decreased from 0.13% to 0.05%, whose reduction rates were 88.00% and 61.54% respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The comprehensive control strategy with emphasis on infection source control implemented in marshland and lake regions can effectively control the transmission of schistosomiasis.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , China , Epidemiology , Disease Reservoirs , Parasitology , Humans , Infection Control , Methods , Livestock , Pilot Projects , Rural Health , Schistosomiasis , Epidemiology , Parasitology , Snails , Parasitology
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-242653

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To understand the infectious status of infection sources in some epidemic regions of Schistosomiasis japonica, and provide a scientific basis for further controlling infection sources in a comprehensive way.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Longshang village which lies in the area of hills and mountains and Yuye village which lies in the area of lakes and marshlands were chosen for field investigation. The study was targeted at snails and 1512 residents, while 197 samples of livestock were randomized (80 cattle, 46 pigs, 45 dogs, 18 cats, 8 sheep) and 32 wild animals (field rats) were screened in Anhui province between October to November in 2007. The infection rate and intensity of infection were calculated after pathogenic examination on the populations, livestock and wild animals (field rats).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) The infection rate of snails in Longshang and Yuye village were 2.26%, 1.06% in 2007, and 0.55%, 0.72% in 2006 respectively. (2) Of the infection rate and geometric mean of egg per gram (EPG) of population, 3.8% and 0.14 (EPG) were in Longshang village and 3.4% and 0.13 (EPG) were in Yuye village. The positive rate of blood examination of the different sex in Longshang village was 17.5% (44/252) of the males, higher than that of the females 11.0% (25/227) (chi(2) = 4.026, P = 0.045), whereas, in Yuye village was 21.4% (66/309) of males and 19.4% (25/129) for the females, without significant differences (chi(2) = 0.217, P > 0.05). The positive rate of fecal examination of the different sex in Longshang village was 5.2% (14/268) of the men and 2.1% (5/236) of the women showing no statistical significance (chi(2) = 3.336, P > 0.05); whereas, in Yuye village was 5.7% (14/245) of the men and 1.2% (3/250) of the women (chi(2) = 7.603, P = 0.006). (3) The infection rate and the arithmetic mean of EPG of the cattle, 10.8% (8/74) and 135.00 (EPG) were in Longshang village, meanwhile, the infection rate of the bull was 9.1% (6/66) and 25.0% (2/8) for cow without statistical significance (chi(2) = 0.586, P = 0.444), whereas, the total number of cattle was 6 that had been examined and there was no positive case in Yuye village. Of 8 sheep examined in Yuye village, 6 was positive, with arithmetic mean of 254.82 (EPG), while there was no sheep in Longshang village. (4) Of the positive rate of the incubation for dog's feces and intensity of infection, 55.6% (24/36) and 20.00 (EPG) were in Yuye village whereas 23.81% (5/21) and 1.21 (EPG) were in Longshang village. (5) Of the infection rate of the field rats, 13.64% (3/22) in Longshang village whereas a total number of mouse was 10 that had been examined and there was no positive case in Yuye village.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The farm cattle should be still the chief sources of infection in the regions of lakes and marshlands for schistosomiasis. Whereas, with the implementing in-depth of the strategy on controlling source of infection in a integrated way, high priorities should be given to the epidemiological factors of the animals such as sheep, dogs, field mouse and so on which are spreading schistosomiasis.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Wild , Parasitology , Cats , Cattle , China , Epidemiology , Dogs , Feces , Parasitology , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Parasite Egg Count , Rats , Schistosomiasis japonica , Epidemiology , Parasitology , Sheep , Swine
16.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 555-558, 2004.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-247521

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the change of tendency on schistosomiasis epidemics in China in the last 5 years.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Data on schistosomiasis epidemics in the history and particularly in the last 5 years were collected. Tendency and the re-emerging status after 1998 were analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Data in 2003 showed that in 42%, 40% and 53% of the provinces, counties and townships with epidemics, the transmission of the disease has been interrupted or controlled. The number of estimated patients of schistosomiasis and areas with snails were also reduced by 92.74% and 73.56%, in 2003. The annual estimated number of chronic cases was around 800 000 and 31 321.5 hectare of snail infested areas were newly identified in recent 5 years. Among 20 national villages under longitudinal surveillance, 30%, 70% and 35% of the villages were presented a tendency of increase in the rates of human infection, bovine infection and Oncomelania snails infection, respectively. A total of 38 counties from 7 provinces have re-emerged in schistosomiasis transmission after those counties having reached criteria of transmission under control or interrupted. In 6 non-endemic counties, snails were presented, and 16 marshlands in Xan river were found with appearance of acute cases of schistosomiasis. More snail infested areas were found in Shanghai, Zhejiang, and Fujian. Both snail infested areas and newly infected cases were occurred in urban areas along the Yangtze River.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The tendency of increase was presented in focal areas along the Yangtze River, due to changes of environmental, ecological, societal and economic status, as well as on the forces of control.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , China , Epidemiology , Disease Reservoirs , Humans , Praziquantel , Therapeutic Uses , Prevalence , Schistosomiasis japonica , Drug Therapy , Epidemiology , Snails , Parasitology
17.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 564-567, 2004.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-247519

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the current situation and the cause of schistosomiasis resurgence in order to provide reference for formulation of control strategy.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Data in 1999 - 2003 and baseline data in some areas were collected and analyzed retrospectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Resurgence was seen in 6.15% (16/260) of the areas and one farm where transmission of schistosomiasis had been interrupted and 33.33% (21/64) of the areas already under control. Snails appeared to have been rebounded only in six counties (farm) while in thirty two counties that rebound was seen in both snails and disease prevalence. Tendency of increase in the total numbers of patients, acute patients and cattle with schistosomiasis, areas with snails were seen from 1999 to 2003.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Environmental, ecological, societal factors such as flood, acequia, lack of expenditure and lack of incentives at work etc. contributed to the resurgence of epidemics in those areas that criteria had been reached. Surveillance and supervision on the sources of infection and snail diffusion, especially in the areas where the transmission of schistosomiasis had already been under control.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , China , Epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Epidemiology , Disasters , Disease Reservoirs , Ecology , Humans , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Schistosomiasis japonica , Drug Therapy , Epidemiology , Snails , Parasitology
18.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 568-571, 2004.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-247518

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the outbreak patterns of acute schistosomiasis in Anhui province in 2003.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The criteria of emergency event for schistosomiasis issued by the Ministry of Health were applled in this study. Epidemiological data of acute schistosomiasis outbreak in Anhui province in 2003 were collected, checked and analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In 2003, there were 6 episodes of acute schistosomiasis outbreaks in Anhui which had met the criteria of being emergency events, issued by the Ministry of Health. The preplanning was initiated in 5 outbreaks to respond to the outbreaks of acute schistosomiasis. All of the acute schistosomiasis cases received timing treatment, except those misdiagnosed cases coming from the non-endemic areas. There were no deaths or follow-up cases during the outbreaks. Health education, preventive treatment for people living in high risk villages were conducted in order to timely control the epidemics of schistosomiasis.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The implementation of preplanning has played an important role in early cases-finding, timing report and response to the outbreaks of acute schistosomiasis.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Cattle , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Disease Reservoirs , Female , Health Education , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Schistosomiasis japonica , Drug Therapy , Epidemiology , Snails , Parasitology
19.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 253-256, 2003.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-348856

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a minimum medical geographic information systems (GIS) database as a spatial decision supporting system (SDSS), and to use the database into public health practice in China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Spatial data collected from different sources were standardized as decimal degree format, including: (1) satellite images covering areas of China; (2) digital maps of China in vector files; (3) diseases database and relevant models.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Necessary satellite images for the database have been collected from NOAA AVHRR, Landsat TM, etc., including the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images from AVHRR, earth surface temperature images from AVHRR, GTOPO30 DEM images from USGS and landuse images from USGS. The digital vector files for GIS analysis were collected including political (county, provinces, country) boundaries file, environmental (drainage, land cover, soil type) vector file, population data and climate data; Data on diseases mainly generated from survey or case reporting. Relevant models on transmission of Schistosoma japonicum and Plasmodium vivax, and models of Oncomelania hupensis and Anophores sinansis were developed, and the relevant environmental factors related to incidence of cancers were mapped, to test and verify those database.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The database unified the data from different sources for users. Minimum medical data included in the database could be used in the practice of public health. It is expected that this database be used in a wider range.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles , Parasitology , China , Epidemiology , Databases, Factual , Disease Reservoirs , Disease Vectors , Ecology , Geographic Information Systems , Humans , Malaria , Epidemiology , Plasmodium vivax , Satellite Communications , Schistosomiasis japonica , Epidemiology , Snails , Parasitology
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-291852

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To probe rational indices suitable for ecological surveillance on breeding ground for Oncomelania hupensis snails in areas prevalent with islet-type schisitosomiasis using remote sensing technology.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Three adjacent islets, prevalent with islet-type schistosomiasis, along the Yangtze River within the boundaries of Dongzhi County, Anhui Province were selected as study field for remote sensing analysis. Multi-spectral data were composed and non-supervisedly classified in computer with Idisi software for remote sensing analysis. Values of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), green vegetation index (GVI), bright index (BI), which reflect the greenness and brightness of landscape, were also calculated. Finally, all the results were comprehensively analyzed, combined with data from the field investigation.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>NDVI, GVI and BI could depict characteristics of the landscape quantitatively. Values of NDVI, BI and GVI were varied in different types of landscapes, and 95% confidence interval of these values suitable for breeding of snails was 0.0522 approximately 0.3566, 2.4162 approximately 28.2672 and 29.3404 approximately 40.3135, respectively. Classification of NDVI showed that type 5 anf type 6 were main breeding ground for snails, and type 4 with values of NDVI from 0 to 0.1 was potential areas for snail propagation. Classification of GVI showed that types 5, 6 and 7 were main breeding ground for snails, and also type 4 with values of GVI from 2 to 10 was potential areas for snail propagation. Both NDVI and GVI showed type 2 and type 3 were temporarily not suitable for snail breeding.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Index figures of NDVI and GVI re-formed by reasonable classification could reflect not only breeding ground for snails and range of the areas for snail propagation in islets, but also their evolving rules, i.e., status of new marshland formation and vegetation growth.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Breeding , Ecology , Satellite Communications , Schistosomiasis , Snails , Parasitology , Physiology
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