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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940592

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the molecular mechanism of cordycepin inhibiting proliferation and promoting apoptosis of human hepatoma cells (HCCs). MethodGlioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (Gli1) gene was silenced by small interfering RNA (siRNA) and transfected into SMMC-7721 cells, and then cell proliferation was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and cell cloning assay. SMMC-7721 cells were treated with different concentration of cordycepin, and the cell proliferation and apoptosis were examined. The expression of Gli1 and the downstream related genes was determined by Real-time polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and Western blot. ResultThe mRNA and protein expression of Gli1 in SMMC-7721 cells was higher than that in normal liver cells (P<0.01). The proliferation rate of SMMC-7721 with silenced Gli1 decreased at 72 and 96 h (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the colony-forming capacity lowered (P<0.01) compared with those in the blank group. Compared with the control, 80 μmol·L-1 and 120 μmol·L-1 cordycepin significantly inhibited the proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells at 72 and 96 h (P<0.05, P<0.01), and promoted the apoptosis of them (P<0.01). Moreover, 80 and 120 μmol·L-1 cordycepin restrained the mRNA and protein expression of Gli1 in SMMC7721 cells (P<0.05, P<0.01). At 120 μmol·L-1, cordycepin led to the decrease in the mRNA and protein levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and c-Myc (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the increase in the mRNA and protein expression of cysteine-aspartic acid protease-3 (Caspase-3) (P<0.05). ConclusionGli1 is highly expressed in HCCs, and cordycepin can suppress the proliferation and enhance the apoptosis of HCCs by regulating Gli1 and the downstream apoptosis-related factors.

2.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 2020 Sep; 16(5): 1148-1150
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-213770

ABSTRACT

Background: Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an immune mediated fibro inflammatory condition characterized by abundant IgG4-positive (IgG4+) plasma cell infiltrated lesions and elevated serum IgG4 concentrations. Tubulointerstitial nephritis and glomerular lesions are the most common renal IgG4-RDs. However, solitary mass lesion is rarely observed in renal IgG4-RD. Materials and Methods: We reported a 55-year-old male patient with a space-occupying lesion in the right kidney detected during a routine ultrasound medical examination. Computed tomography indicated a 20 mm × 15 mm × 18 mm mass located at the lower pole of the right kidney. Both T1-weighted imaging and T2-weighted imaging magnetic resonance imaging scans showed a hypointense mass. Diffusion-weighted imaging (b value = 800) showed slightly hyperintensity. Results: The lesion was diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma clinically based on the laboratory and radiological findings and treated with laparoscopic resection. However, the postoperative histological examination results indicated the lesion IgG4-RD of the kidney. Conclusion: We should consider pseudotumor-like IgG4-RD as a differential diagnosis for solitary renal lesion although the incidence is low

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-822469

ABSTRACT

@#[Abstract] Objective: To investigate the effect of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA)-CCAT2 on the proliferation and cell cycle of cervical cancer cells. Methods: The expression of CCAT2 in 3 cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa, C-33A, and CaSki) was detected by qPCR and the cell line with the highest expression level was selected for subsequent experiments. CCAT2 overexpression and interference vectors were designed and synthesized. After transfection, qPCR was performed to detect the transfection efficiency. The cells were divided into 5 groups: control, sh-EV (empty vector), overExp-EV , sh-CCAT2, and overExp-CCAT2. MTT assay was performed to evaluate cell viability. Flow cytometry was performed to measure cell cycle. WB was performed to detect the expressions of Ki67, cyclin D1, and cyclin dependent kinase 4 (CDK4). Results: Among HeLa, C-33A, and CaSki cells, the highest expression of CCAT2 was found in CaSki cells. CCAT2 overexpression and interference vectors were successfully transfected into the CaSki cells. Compared with the control group, the cells viability and proliferation in the sh-CCAT2 group was significantly decreased (all P<0.01), the proportion of cells in the G1 phase was significantly increased (P<0.01), and the expression levels of Ki67, cyclin D1, and CDK4 were significantly decreased (all P<0.01). However, in the overExp-CCAT2 group, the cell proliferation was enhanced and the expression levels of Ki67, cyclin D1, and CDK4 were significantly increased (all P<0.01). Conclusion: CCAT2 affects proliferation and cell cycle of cervical cancer cells by regulating the expressions of their associated proteins.

4.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-207122

ABSTRACT

Adenomyosis is an estrogen dependent benign gynecological disease affecting women of reproductive age causing them to have an adverse effect. Symptoms in these patients include pelvic pain, menorrhagia, abnormal uterine bleeding and infertility. It has a negative impact on a woman’s reproductive ability. The gold standard treatment for adenomyosis is hysterectomy for whom fertility is not an issue and for whom future pregnancy has no concerns, however females who wish to retain uterus for child bearing purposes the treatment seems to be very challenging. In this literature we will focus on how adenomyosis affects the reproductive outcome in women and what is its impact on the pregnancy rate also we will enlighten the pregnancy outcomes and pregnancy rate in patient with adenomyosis after various treatment Including the medical, surgical and in-vitro fertilization.

5.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-206495

ABSTRACT

Endometrial polyps (EPs) are a frequently encountered gynecologic disease with abnormal uterine bleeding and infertility being the two common presenting problems, and hysteroscopic polypectomy is an effective method to remove them. The postoperative polyp recurrence might result in reappearance of abnormal uterine bleeding or infertility, whereas factors influencing the postoperative recurrence potential have limited data. Endometrial polyp recurrence remains a concern with recurrence rates of 2.5% to 43.6%. As such, it is critical to identify the risk factors and the preventive measures for endometrial recurrence, especially in reproductive-age women desiring future conception, to aid in clinical counselling and decision making. The recurrence of EPs is related to estrogen stimulation and endometrial hyperplasia. The progesterone-containing drugs are currently the most commonly used method to prevent the recurrence of EPs. In this article, authors aim to discuss the high-risk factors of EPs recurrence and the preventive measures for EPs recurrence. The preventive measures will focus on the combined oral contraceptives (COCs) and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS).

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-699346

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study therapeutic effect and influence of fluvastatin combined arotinolol on serum levels of growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) and neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) complicated heart failure (HF). Methods: A total of 140 CHD + HF patients, who were treated in our department of cardiology from May 2013 to May 2015, were selected. According to random number table, patients were randomly and equally divided into arotinolol group and combined treatment group (received fluvastatin based on arotinolol group), both groups were treated for three months. Therapeutic effect, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDd), end-diastolic interventricular septal thickness (IVSTd), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac index (CI), stroke index (SI), stroke volume (SV), serum levels of GDF-15 and NGAL before and after treatment were compared between two groups. Results: Compared with arotinolol group after treatment, there were significant rise in LVEF [(45. 31±6. 73) % vs. (72. 64±7. 29) %], MAP [(59. 34±6. 93) mmHg vs. (75. 61±7. 24) mmHg], CI [(2. 66±1. 31) L/min2 vs. (3. 12± 1. 37) L/min2], SI [(27. 15±4. 37) ml/m2 vs. (49. 81±5. 79) ml/m2]and SV [(60. 99±5. 13) ml vs. (71. 24± 5. 94) ml], and significant reductions in IVSTd [(13. 51±3. 17) mm vs. (11. 27±7. 26) mm], serum levels of GDF-15 [(1153. 4±153. 7) ng/L vs. (923. 8±81. 4) ng/L]and NGAL [(112. 52±61. 49) μg/L vs. (78. 14± 35. 74) μg/L]in combined treatment group (P<0. 05 or<0. 01). Total effective rate of combined treatment group was significantly higher than that of arotinolol group (87. 14% vs. 74. 29%), P=0. 007. Conclusion: Fluvastatin combined arotinolol can effectively improve heart function, significantly reduce serum GDF-15 and NGAL levels, and improve prognosis in CHD + HF patients, which is worth extending.

7.
International Eye Science ; (12): 2140-2143, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-669209

ABSTRACT

AIM:To study the efficacy of conbercept intravitreal injection combined with retinal laser photocoagulation therapy and simple laser photocoagulation therapy on macular edema (ME) secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO).METHODS:Forty-eight patients (53 eyes) with macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion diagnosed by clinical examination from October 2014 to March 2015 were retrospectively analyzed.Among them,28 patients (31 eyes) were treated with conbercept intravitreal injection combined with retinal laser photocoagulation,which was defined as Group A.And simple laser group contained 20 patients (22 eyes),which was defined as Group B.The clinical data including the patients' best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness (CMT) before treatment and 1wk and 3mo after treatment were observed.RESULTS:Followed up for 3mo,the average BCVA values of A and B were 0.44±0.25,0.56±0.24,respectively and the average CMT were 330.50 ± 121.71,354.67 ± 102.79μm at first week of treatment.There was no significant difference in BCVA and CMT of Group A compared with Group B.There was statistically significant in BCVA and CMT of Group A and Group B compared with before treatment (P<0.05).The average BCVA values of A and B were 0.24±0.18,0.39±0.20,respectively and the average CMT were 252.62 ± 83.01,332.67 ± 102.33μ m at third month of treatment.There were statistically significant differences between the two groups and compared with before treatment (P<0.05),and Group A was superior to Group B.CONCLUSION:Conbercept intravitreal injection combined with retinal laser photocoagulation therapy and simple laser photocoagulation treatment of macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion are both effective that macular edema is significantly reduced,and vision is stable and improved.But for serious cases,conbercept intravitreal injection can reduce retinal edema at first,then combine with retinal laser photocoagulation which has obvious therapeutic effect and it is better than simple laser photocoagulation treatment.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-238393

ABSTRACT

The HIV susceptibility and resistance alleles in the HLA genes were determined by investigating the distribution characteristics of the HLA alleles (A,B,and DRB1) in HIV-infected individuals of the Han population in Hubei,and by comparing these alleles with HIV-negative individuals from the same area.A cohort of 424 HIV-1 infected individuals were chosen as study subjects,and 836 HIV-negative healthy subjects from the same area served as the control population.HLA-A,B,and DRB 1 allele typing was performed using polymemse chain reaction-sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (PCR-SSOP) and polymerase chain reaction-sequencing based typing (PCR-SBT) techniques.Arlequin ver3.0 was used to analyze the allele and haplotype frequencies of HLA-A,B,and DRB l,whereas Epi Info 7 and SPSS18.0 was used to analyze the differences in the HLA alleles between the HIV-1 positive and HIV-1 negative groups.A*02:03,DRB1*01:01,and DRB1*15:01 alleles and their haplotypes as well as the HLA_Bw4-Bw6 hybrid showed a protective effect on HIV-1 infection.After adjusting for confounding factors such as age and sex,multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that B* 15:02G,DRB 1*01:01,and DRB 1 * 15:01 subtypes were the resistance genes of HIV-1 infection,while B * 13:01 might increase susceptibility to HIV-1 infection.The correlation between A*02:06 and B*15:01G subtypes and HIV-1 susceptibility was independent of the age and sex of the host.This study demonstrated the influence of genetic factors in humans such as HLA polymorphism on individuals to resist HIV-1 infection.Association studies of HLA polymorphism,susceptibility/resistance to HIV-1 infection,and hosts' genetic background are of significant importance for research on HIV-1 pathogenesis and vaccine design.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-492995

ABSTRACT

Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been proved to be an effective psychological treatment method for depression,especially for mild-to-moderate depression,however,due to the influence of various factors,its application in patients with depression is limited.Studies abroad have confirmed self-help intervention based on CBT has good effects on patients with depression.By reviewing efficacy of self-help interventions based on CBT on depression,it can be known that most of the literatures support that self-help interventions based on CBT has good effects on depression.Related researches abroad have been more mature,but few similar studies have been conducted in our country.So self-help CBT for depression has broad prospects in our country,which can play an important role in the prevention and therapy of depression,alleviating the shortage of medical resources,and reducing the patients' medical expenses,etc.Based on bibliotherapy (a major form of self-help interventions based on CBT),future studies need to learn from foreign practice to expand the audience to the clinic,community and non-clinical patients,in order to provide advice for interventions for depression in China.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-747856

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate osteopontin (OPN) expression in plasma and tissue of patients with layngeal squamous cell carcinoma and analyze its role in invasion, metastasis, and clinical significance in laryngeal quamous cell carcinoma.@*METHOD@#Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry were used to detect expression of OPN in plasma and tissue of 60 cases of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, 20 cases of adjacent normal laryngeal tissue and 20 cases of plasma from healthy subjects.@*RESULT@#The expression of plasma OPN was closely correlated with clinical stage and cervical lymphatic metastasis in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (P 0.05). The expression of OPN increased in plasma during cancer development: laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (38.089 ± 9.225) ng/ml, healthy subjects (18.563 ± 9.308) ng/ml. There was a significant difference between the groups (P < 0.05). The expression of OPN in tissue was closely correlated with clinical stage (P < 0.05), pathological grade (P < 0.05) and cervical lymphatic metastasis (P < 0.05) in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma adjacent atypical hyperplastic epithelium and carcinoma. The expression of OPN increased in tissue during cancer development: laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (56.67%), adjacent normal laryngeal tissue (15.00%). There was a significant difference between the groups (P < 0.05). Elevated expression of plasma OPN is positively correlated with the expression of OPN in tissue in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma patients (r = 0. 871, P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#OPN plays an important role in the infiltration, metastasis and carcinogenesis in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Combination of serum OPN, tissue OPN detection can be used as diagnostic and surveillance indicators for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma infiltration and metastasis.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Metabolism , Pathology , Case-Control Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Metabolism , Pathology , Humans , Hyperplasia , Pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Laryngeal Neoplasms , Metabolism , Pathology , Larynx , Pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neck , Osteopontin , Metabolism , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck
11.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 17(6): 667-671, Nov.-Dec. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-696968

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate multiplex allele specific polymerase chain reaction as a rapid molecular tool for detecting multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. METHODS: Based on drug susceptibility testing, 103 isolates were multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and 45 isolates were sensitive to isonicotinylhydrazine and rifampin. Primers were designed to target five mutations hotspots that confer resistance to the first-line drugs isoniazid and rifampin, and multiplex allele specific polymerase chain reaction was performed. Whole-genome sequencing confirmed drug resistance mutations identified by multiplex allele specific polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: DNA sequencing revealed that 68.9% of multidrug-resistant strains have point mutations at codon 315 of the katG gene, 19.8% within the mabA-inhA promoter, and 98.0% at three hotspots within rpoB. Multiplex allele specific polymerase chain reaction detected each of these five mutations, yielding 82.3% sensitivity and 100% specificity for isoniazid resistance, and 97.9% sensitivity and 100% specificity for rifampin resistance as compared to drug susceptibility testing. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that multiplex allele specific polymerase chain reaction is an inexpensive and practical method for rapid detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in developing countries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/economics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Point Mutation , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology
12.
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2013; 29 (3): 762-767
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-127336

ABSTRACT

Polymorphisms in XPG were considered to contribute to the clinical outcome of patients receiving platinum drug chemotherapy. We investigated the impact of several potential SNPs of XPG on the efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy in NSCLC patients. A total of 433 patients were consecutively selected between Nov. 2006 and Dec. 2007, and were followed-up up to Nov. 2011. The genotyping of six SNPs [rs2296147, rs751402, rs873601, rs4150375, rs17655 and rs2094258] were genotyped using the Taqman real-time PCR method with a 7900 HT sequence detector system. Patients carrying CT+TT genotype of rs2296147 had a significantly longer median PFS [17.5 months] and OS [26.8 months] than CC genotype. Hazard ratio [HR] for PFS and OS in patients with CT+TT genotype of rs2296147 was respectively 0.73[0.51-0.97] and 0.66[0.48-0.99] when compare CC genotype, respectively. Similarly, patients with rs2094258 AG+GG genotype had a longer median progression time [18.4 months] and overall survival time [27.3 months] when compared with those with AA genotype, and HRs[95% CI] for PFS and OS were 0.44[0.34-0.78] and 0.51[0.39-0.82], respectively. Our study suggests rs2296147 CT+TT and rs2094258 AG+GG genotypes contribute to the better survival of NSCLC. Our study provides significant information on role of prognostic value of XPG SNPs, and detecting of XPG could be used as predictive markers toward individualizing NSCLC treatment strategies


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Male , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/mortality , Lung Neoplasms , Xeroderma Pigmentosum , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Survival Rate , Disease-Free Survival , Biomarkers
13.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 175-178, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-295992

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the prevalence of urinary incontinence(UI)and its severity in rural elderly people,as well as to investigate the awareness on UI in the elderly and health-care service seeking behavior.Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in two townships of Jixian county,Tianjin.A total of 743 people aged 60 years and over were selected under cluster sampling method.All the information was collected with a standardized structured questionnaire by face-to-face interview.Prevalence,severity,the awareness on UI in the elderly and their utilization of health-care service for its diagnosis and treatment were analyzed.Results Prevalence of UI was 33.38% among people aged 60 years and over in two townships of Jixian,higher in females than in males(43.15% vs.22.75%,χ~2=34.70,P<0.0001).The prevalence rates of UI in 60-age group,65-age group,70-age group,75-age group,80-age group,85-95 age group were 28.64%,32.12%,34.08%,35.45%,47.76%,30.00%,respectively,and increased with age (for trend χ~2=219,P=0.029).Stress urinary incontinence(SUI)and urge urinary incontinence(UUI)were mild,while mixed urinary incontinence(MUI)were mainly moderate.The differences of severity of SUI,UUI,MUI between men and women did not show statistical significance(all P>0.05).In 743 elderly people,more than half of the respondents had never heard of UI(50.20%,373/743)and only 170(22.88%)elderly people considered UI as a disease.630(84.79%)and 665(89.50%)elderly people in our research group did not know that such condition was curable and preventable.In 248 elderly people with UI,only 12(4.84%)of them ever seeking community health-care services in the health-care centers or hospitals.For the ones who did visit the centers,the purpose was only to seek for drug treatment.Conclusion Prevalence of UI appeared to be high among the elderly people in rural areas of Jixian county.Most of the elderly people were lack of knowledge about UI that hindered them from seeking for diagnosis and treatment in the clinics,plus the treatment program for UI was not standardized.Knowledge on UI and health care seeking behavior should be popularized and strengthened among elderly people living in the rural areas.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-326489

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the relation between protein expression of 4 genes [P53,c-erbB-2,vascular endothelial factors(VEGF) and CD44]and survival rate in stage II( colorectal cancer(CRC) patients without radiochemotherapy after radical resection.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred and fifty-nine cases of stage II(CRC without radiochemotherapy were enrolled in this study. The clinicopathological date and 5-year follow-up data were reviewed. Streptavidin-peroxidase immunohistochemical technique was used to detect the expression of P53, c-erbB-2, VEGF and CD44 in formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded sections of CRC tissues from above 159 patients.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The 5-year survival rate was 82.4%. The rates of positive expression of P53, c-erbB-2, VEGF and CD44 were 58.5%(93/159), 26.4%(42/159), 57.9%(92/159) and 40.0%(54/159) respectively. The 5-year survival rates of positive expression patients were not significantly different with those of negative expression. chi(2) analysis showed that the positive expressions of 4 genes had no relationships with the prognosis.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The expression of 4 gene proteins has no relationship with the prognosis of stage II( CRC patients without radiochemotherapy after radical resection.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Colorectal Neoplasms , Metabolism , Mortality , Pathology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hyaluronan Receptors , Metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Metabolism , Survival Rate , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 , Metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Metabolism
15.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 766-771, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-261284

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the prevalence of urinary incontinence(UI) and its related factors so as to develop a three-tier program for prevention of the disease.Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in two townships of Jixian county,Tianjin,during July to November 2007.A total of 743 people aged 60 years and over were selected under cluster sampling,and all information were collected with a standardized structured questionnaire by face-to-face interview.All the data were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression method to explore the related factors for UI in the elderly.Results The overall prevalence of UI was 33.38 percent among people aged 60 years and over in two townships.Risk factors flor UI in men would include older age (OR=1.39).occupation(OR=5.00),awareness of UI(OR=1.91),having in chronic respiratory diseases(OR=2.23),prostate(OR=11.47),neurological(OR=11.76),or motor systems (OR=2.48).while protective factors would include high educational level(taking primary school or below as control group),OR for the junior middle school group appeared to be 0.35,for senior middle school group it was 0.77.and ofundergraduate group it was 0.53.Risk factors for UI in women would include older age(OR=1.31),constipation(OR=1.46),awareness of UI(OR=1.94),increased bodv nlass index(when normal weight group served as control group,OR in the overweight group was 1.03 and in the obesity group OR was 1.54),suffering from chronic respiratory diseases(OR=4.84).diabetes mellitus(OR=2.36),or motor system diseases(OR=1.37),more gravidity(OR=1.03),more parity(OR=1.02),suffering from perinea laceration(OR=1.72) and wound infection during delivery(OR=1.65),while protective factors would include physical exercises(OR=0.64).Conclusion Prevalence of UI was higher among the elderly people in rural areas of Jixian county,Tianjin.UI in the elderly might have been influenced by various factors which suggesting the intervention strategy should be targeted at those related factors as well as focusing on primary prevention.

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