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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 331-342, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922912

ABSTRACT

Ionic liquids (ILs) are liquid mixtures formed by anions and cations in a certain stoichiometric ratio under certain conditions. They are widely used in various fields because of their simple preparation process, low volatility, high stability, high conductivity and non-flammability. Here, we firstly introduce their formation principles, classification, and physical and chemical properties in detail. Then, we summarize their functions in pharmaceutical preparations, such as improving the solubility of insoluble drugs, enhancing the stability of drugs, and promoting the permeability of drugs, as well as their role as active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) to fabricate new drug delivery systems of API-ILs. Finally, we reviewed the applications of ILs in different administration routes, including oral, transdermal, mucosal, and injection routes, and meanwhile offer perspectives for the further use of ILs.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906001

ABSTRACT

Objective:To rapidly identify the chemical constituents of Chaishi Tuire granules by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray/quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS). Method:Chromatographic separation was conducted on a Phenomenex<sup>®</sup> Luna omega C<sub>18</sub> column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.6 μm) with 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (A)-acetonitrile (B) as the mobile phases for gradient elution (0-20 min, 5%-40%B; 20-40 min, 40%-95%B; 40-43 min, 95%B), the flow rate was set at 0.3 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>. MS data were collected in positive and negative ion modes, the scanning range was <italic>m</italic>/<italic>z</italic> 150-1 500 and electrospray ionization (ESI) was employed. The chemical constituents of Chaishi Tuire granules were identified by comparing with the retention time and the mass data of the reference substances, as well as the accurate mass, MS/MS fragment ions, mass spectrometry databases (PubChem, MassBank, ChemicalBook and others) and related literature. Result:A total of 85 chemical constituents were identified, including 28 flavonoids, 24 phenylpropanoids, 11 terpenoids, 10 alkaloids, 4 quinones, and 8 others. Among them, 19 constituents derived from Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, 14 constituents derived from Scutellariae Radix, 10 constituents derived from Isatidis Radix, 9 constituents derived from Taraxaci Herba, 9 constituents derived from Forsythiae Fructus, 4 constituents derived from Bupleuri Radix, 4 constituents derived from Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, and 4 constituents derived from Rhei Radix et Rhizoma. Conclusion:Chaishi Tuire granules is rich in phytochemicals, which are derived from many of traditional Chinese medicines. This study can lay a foundation for the quality control, material basis and <italic>in vivo</italic> metabolic analysis of this preparation.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873574

ABSTRACT

@#The progress of molecular biology and tumor biology has greatly changed the mode of cancer treatment. A large number of scientific studies have revealed the mechanism of tumor immune evasion, and a variety of new types of tumor immunotherapy have emerged, which has become another effective treatment of cancer after surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapy. This paper introduces the mechanism of tumor cell immune evasion, and focuses on the design principle, biological drugs and the latest research progress of immunotherapy, such as cytokine immunotherapies, therapeutic monoclonal antibody immunotherapy, PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, CAR-T therapy, tumor vaccine, oncolytic virus and so on. At the same time, the advantages and disadvantages of various immunotherapies are compared to provide reference for drug research and development in tumor immunotherapy.

4.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 120-123, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862610

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the dynamic prevalence of dental fluorosis of children and levels of fluoride in drinking water after improvement of water in Xi an City, to provide scientific basis for water fluoridation improvement.@*Methods@#A total of 35 fluorosis endemic villages were selected as fixed monitor sites in 2014-2018, the ways of water improvement were surveyed, water fluorine content were detected and the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children aged 8 to 12 years were examined.@*Results@#Rates of excess fluoride in drinking water from 2014 to 2018 were 22.86%, 14.29%,11.43%, 11.43% and 8.57%, the difference were significant(χ2=16.44, P<0.01).The dental fluorosis detection rates of children aged 8 to 12 years were 20.89%,18.22%,17.46%,18.13% and 16.76% in 2014-2018 which showed a obvious descending trend by year(χ2=10.02, P<0.01). The detection rate of dental fluorosis in children aged 8 and 9 years showed a decreasing trend by year(χ2=6.53, 4.54, P<0.05).The difference of total rate of dental fluorisis,rate of mild cases rate of moderate-to-severe cases were statistically between the villages without qualified water and the villages with normal fluorine water(χ2=179.22, 167.93,10.35, P<0.01). The rate of detection in the villages with the water fluorine exceed standard in 2014-2018 showed a declining trend year by year(χ2=28.50, P<0.01). The detection rate were significant different across water improvement methods(χ2=197.76, P<0.01). Detection rate of dental fluorosis decreased from 2014 to 2018 in the areas with municipal water supply showed a decreasing after year(χ2=12.16, P<0.01).@*Conclusion@#The improvement of municipal water supply shows significant effects on water fluorosis control, the detection rate of water fluoride and children s dental fluorosis in some villages with the other ways of water improvement are still higher than expected, the continuously monitor of fluoride content in water and dental fluorosis in children should be strengthened.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911416

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the impact of the depth of lipohypertrophy on glycemic control in diabetic patients, 498 diabetic patients were recruited from July 2017 to July 2020 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University. Their demographic and clinical data were collected. Lipohypertrophy was assessed with ultrasound. 85.1%(424/498) of patients had lipohypertrophy. The average depth of lipohypertrophy was(5.62±2.49) mm. Compared with HbA 1C≤7%, patients with HbA 1C>7% had significantly higher proportion of lipohypertrophy with depth >5 mm(69.7% vs 81.3%, P<0.05). After adjusting potential confounders, the level of HbA 1C in patients with the depth of lipohypertrophy>5 mm was still significantly higher than those with the depth of lipohypertrophy≤5 mm( OR=1.716, 95% CI 1.104-2.668, P<0.05). The depth of lipohypertrophy may be an independent risk factor for suboptimal HbA 1C. However, prospective studies are still needed to confirm.

6.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 717-720, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911102

ABSTRACT

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common invasive cancers in men. Radical prostatectomy is the gold standard for localized prostate cancer, but the postoperative biochemical recurrence rate can reach 20%-50%. In some cases, salvage lymph node dissections (SLND) seem to improve cancer control and delay systemic treatment. In this article, we review the current state of diagnostic imaging, accurate patient selection criteria, exploration of SLND surgical procedures, as well as the safety and tumor outcomes of SLND. Overall, although there is still a lack of strong prospective evidence to support the role of SLND, advances in preoperative imaging techniques and the widespread use of minimally invasive surgery have led to encouraging tumor outcomes with SLND. However, further large-scale and high quality trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness and safety of SLND.

7.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 581-585, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911076

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the detection rate of prostate cancer and clinically significant prostate cancer (CsPCa) in three puncture methods: targeted biopsy fusion with MRI and ultrasound imaging, system puncture, and combined puncture.Methods:The clinical data of 164 patients who underwent both targeted biopsy and systematic biopsy in Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital from April 2019 to April 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The median age was 67(33-90)years. Preoperative serum tPSA was 8.97(0.64-95.63)ng/ml and fPSA was 1.31(0.29-9.25)ng/ml. There were 96 patients result in tPSA<10 ng/ml, 65 and 3 patients result in 10≤tPSA<50 ng/ml and tPSA≥50 ng/ml. The prostate volume was 34.9(11.6-152.0) cm 3. According to result of PI-RADS score, there were 42 patients got 3 points and 66, 56 patients got 4 and 5 points respectively in PI-RADS score of suspicious nodules. First, a targeted puncture (targeted biopsy) was performed on the suspected lesions by fusion imaging of magnetic resonance and ultrasound. Then 12-needle systematic prostate biopsy was performed under the guidance of ultrasound. Those two methods performed together was called combined biopsy. This study compared the detection rates of prostate cancer and CsPCa among the three popular methods in all cases, different PI-RADS cases, and different tPSA cases. Results:In this study, patients was detected as positive result in 126 of 164 patients. The detection rates of prostate cancer in targeted biopsy and systematic biopsy were 66.46%(109/164) and 64.02%(105/164), respectively, the result reveals no statistical significance ( P=0.64). In contrast, the positive rate of combined biopsy [76.83%(126/164)] was higher than targeted biopsy ( P=0.04) and systematic biopsy ( P=0.01), and the difference was statistically significant. In the detection rate of CsPCa, the positive detection rates of targeted biopsy group, systematic biopsy group and combined biopsy group were 50.61%(83/164), 45.12%(90/164) and 54.88% (126/164), respectively. Moreover, there was no significant statistical significance among the three groups ( P>0.05). Group comparison was analyzed according to PI-RADS score. In PI-RADS 4 group and PI-RADS 5 group, combined biopsy was[90.91%(60/66), 100.00%(56/56)] and systematic biopsy was [71.21%(47/66), 87.50%(49/56)] which reveals significant difference in prostate cancer detection rates ( P=0.00, P=0.01). In PI-RADS 4-5 groups, the detection rate of prostate cancer by targeted biopsy [86.89%(106/122)] was significantly higher than systematic biopsy [78.69%(96/122), P=0.01], but still lower than that by combined biopsy [95.08%(116/122), P=0.03]. The CsPCa detection rates of PI-RADS 3 group targeted biopsy, systematic biopsy and combined biopsy were 2.38%(1/42), 7.14%(3/42) and 7.14%(3/42), respectively. There were 59.09%(39/66), 46.97%(31/66) and 62.12%(41/66) in PI-RADS 4 groups, respectively; There were 78.57%(44/56), 71.43%(40/56) and 82.14%(46/66) in PI-RADS 5 groups, respectively, with no statistical significance ( P>0.05). However, in PI-RADS 4-5 groups, the CsPCa detection rate of combined biopsy [71.31%(87/122)] was higher than that of systematic biopsy [58.20%(71/122)], with statistical significance ( P=0.03). In the tPSA<10 ng/ml group, the prostate cancer detection rate of combined biopsy[72.92%(70/96)] was higher than that of systematic biopsy[59.38%(57/96)], and the difference was statistically significant ( P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the detection rate of targeted biopsy[61.43%(59/96)]and combined biopsy ( P=0.09). In the group of 10ng/ml≤tPSA<50ng/ml, the prostate cancer detection rates of targeted biopsy, systematic biopsy and combined biopsy were 72.31%(47/65), 69.23%(45/65) and 81.54%(53/65), respectively, and there was no statistical significance ( P>0.05). In tPSA≥50 ng/ml group, the prostate cancer detection rate of the three biopsy methods was 100.00% (3/3), and there was no statistical significance ( P>0.05). Conclusion:For patients with highly suspected prostate cancer on multiparameter MRI(PI-RADS 4-5) or tPSA<10 ng/ml, combined biopsy was an appropriate method to diagnose the prostate cancer.

8.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 136-140, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909844

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effect of digital technology and 3D printing technology combined with non-vascularized ilium bone in repairing post-traumatic bone defect in maxillary anterior area.Methods:A retrospective case series study was performed to analyze clinical data of 8 patients with severe bone defect in maxillary anterior area after trauma admitted to First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from June 2013 to January 2018. There were 6 males and 2 females, with the age of 18-43 years [(31.9±9.0)years]. The maxillary bone was reconstructed before surgery by employing digital technology. The intercept range of ilium was determined according to the best form of defect to be recovered. Then the model and guide plate was printed out by employing 3D print technology. The titanium mesh was prebended on the model. The bone was extracted and Onlay bone grafting was performed according to the guide plate. The implant restoration was performed 6 to 9 months after operation, and porcelain crown restoration was performed 4 to 6 months later. The iliac bone survival and postoperative complications were detected 6 months after bone grafting. The near-middle-far and vertical bone elevation of the alveolar ridge as well as bone elevation of lip palatal were measured before implantation. The condition around the implants was observed 6 months after porcelain crown restoration. The visual analogue score (VAS) was used to evaluate the pain after iliac bone transplantation and implantation. The implant stability coefficient (ISQ) was applied to assess the stability of the implants on the day and 4 months after operation.Results:All the patients were followed up for 24-48 months [(33.3±9.7)months]. Eight patients with non-vascularized iliums were all survived. There was one patient with mild infection after bone grafting and one patient with gingival inflammatory hyperplasia after implantation, both of whom were healed after treatment. There was no obvious peri-implant inflammation or absorption of the grafted bone. The increase in height of the alveolar on the mesial and distal bone, vertical bone and labial-palatal bone was 30.28-39.67 mm, 9.58-11.32 mm and 2.06-7.41 mm, respectively. All the implants showed good osseointegration. The VAS after implantation was (3.4±0.7)points, significantly alleviated compared with the preoperational level [(7.3±2.0)points] ( P<0.05). The ISQ was 84.4±1.9 at postoperative 4 months, showing no significant difference from that on the day after operation (72.9±1.4) ( P>0.05). Conclusions:In repair of severe bone defect in maxillary anterior area after trauma, the digital and 3D printing technology combined with non-vascularized ilium can improve the survival rate of bone grafts. The implant restoration after operation can reduce pain, restore the patients' facial appearance and achieve satisfactory oral physiological function.

9.
Journal of Chinese Physician ; (12): 890-897, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909640

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) (mirena) versus mifepristone therapy for adenomyosis.Methods:We retrived the Cochrane library, the Pubmed, EMbase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang Data, VIP, China Biomedical Literatue Database (CBM) and other databases to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving the comparison of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system and mifepristone up to October 2018. The quality assessment and data extraction for RCTs were conducted by two reviewers independently. Then data were analyzed with Stata 11.0 software.Results:A total of 17 RCTs involving 1 772 patients were included. The results indicated that mirena was more effective than mifepristone [RR=1.25, 95% CI(1.19, 1.32), P<0.01]. The decrease in endometrial thickness [MD=-1.94, 95% CI(-2.19, -1.70), P<0.01], uterine volume [MD=-18.99, 95% CI(-19.90, -18.07), P<0.01] and the incidence of adverse reactions [RR=0.67, 95% CI(0.47, 0.95), P=0.026] in mirena group were significantly different compared with the mifepristone group. Also the dysmenorrhea score and menstrual blood volume of mirena group were lower than mifepristone group ( P<0.05). Conclusions:Current evidence shows that the efficacy and safety of mirena was better than mifepristone in the treatment for adenomyosis patients. Since the limitation of quantity and quality of included studies, large-scale high-quality RCTs are needed to verify the above conclusion.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909569

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE Forsythiae Fructus (Lianqiao) is a typical heat-clearing and detoxicating traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herb, which has been traditionally used for treating cancer according to TCM theory. However, the under?lying mechanism has not been fully explained. METHODS In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of Forsyth?iae Fructus aqueous extract (FAE) on B16-F10 melanoma. RESULTS FAE strongly inhibited the tumor growth and metastasis formation in B16-F10 melanoma transplanted mice. The survival time of tumor-bearing mice was also signifi?cantly prolonged by FAE. The levels of ROS, MDA, TNF-α and IL-6 decreased, while GSH increased in the FAE treat?ment group, indicating FAE possesses strong anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that antioxidant proteins Nrf2 and HO-1, tumor suppressors P53 and p-PTEN, and the MAPK pathways in tumor tissues were upregulated by FAE treatment. Serum metabolomics analysis further uncovered that 17 metabolites mostly involving in glycerophospholipid metabolism were correlated with the antitumor effect of FAE. Notably, several lysophosphatidylcholines (LysoPCs) significantly decreased in tumor model group, while FAE treatment restored the changes of these phospholipids to about normal condition. LysoPC acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1) and autotaxin (ATX) highly expressed in melanoma and markedly downregulated by FAE were believed to be responsible for this modulation. CONCLUSION FAE exhibites strong antitumor activity against B16-F10 melanoma through activating MAPKs/Nrf2/HO-1 mediated anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation and modulating glycerophospholipid metabolism via downregulating LPCAT1 and ATX. Besides, it is suggested that serum LysoPCs could be potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and prog?nosis of melanoma.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908972

ABSTRACT

After years of exploration, Central South University has comprehensively reformed and upgraded the curriculum in both horizontal and vertical integration, including optimizing and constructing a basic clinical core curriculum system with organ system integration as the main line, utilizing the advantages of comprehensive universities to further advance the cross-teaching reform of science, engineering, arts and medicine, strengthening pre-medical education with the goal of early exposure to medicine, promoting the reform of early contact clinical integrated teaching according to the concept of "early, multiple and repeated clinical practice", and accelerating the integration of clinical skills training courses with the support of clinical skills simulation teaching. After the integration, the faculty team has gradually matured and the teaching quality has been significantly improved, which has strengthened the students' medical thinking and overall literacy.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906192

ABSTRACT

Medicinal plants have a long history and play an important role in the prevention and treatment of human diseases. However, the interaction between bioactive components and specific biological targets in many medicinal plants is still unclear. Conventional separation and activity evaluation model of chemical constituents from natural products was time-consuming and laborious, and cannot truly reflect the interaction between the natural conformation of compounds and receptors, so these methods could not meet the urgent needs of modern drug development. Affinity ultrafiltration coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (AUF-LC/MS) is a rapid, efficient and precise method focused on identification of bio-components from natural products, it can make up for many shortcomings found in conventional discovery of bio-constituents. However, AUF-LC/MS technology also has some drawbacks in experiments. In this paper, the principle, characteristics and application of AUF-LC/MS in the screening of active ingredients from medicinal plants are systematically reviewed, and its development prospect is prospected, so as to provide scientific basis for rapid and targeted screening of active components from medicinal plants.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902326

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the effect of corneal nerves assessment on predicting corneal complications following pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). @*Methods@#In this prospective single-center cohort study, 94 patients (94 eyes) received PPV, and were divided into postoperative groups with and without corneal complications. All eyes had corneal nerve fiber length (CNFL), corneal nerve fiber density, and branch density of corneal nerve fibers assessed and calculated with Image J preoperatively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify corneal nerve fiber parameters that correlated to post-operative corneal complications. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis was performed to identify the optimal cut-off point of the corneal fibers’ parameters for predicting corneal complications after PPV. @*Results@#Eleven eyes (11.70%) developed corneal complications at 1 week after PPV. There was significant difference between CNFL (19.44 ± 6.88 vs. 26.84 ± 7.53, p = 0.003), corneal nerve fiber density (28.82 ± 9.91 vs. 37.10 ± 10.16, p = 0.013) and branch density of corneal nerve fibers (55.84 ± 21.08 vs. 82.04 ± 31.89, p = 0.01) in two groups, respectively. Receiver operator characteristic analysis showed that the optimal cutoff value of CNFL to predict corneal complications following PPV was <26.495 mm/mm2. @*Conclusions@#The decrease of CNFL may predict corneal complications following PPV. Regular preoperative corneal confocal microscopy test in PPV patients could be considered.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894622

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the effect of corneal nerves assessment on predicting corneal complications following pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). @*Methods@#In this prospective single-center cohort study, 94 patients (94 eyes) received PPV, and were divided into postoperative groups with and without corneal complications. All eyes had corneal nerve fiber length (CNFL), corneal nerve fiber density, and branch density of corneal nerve fibers assessed and calculated with Image J preoperatively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify corneal nerve fiber parameters that correlated to post-operative corneal complications. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis was performed to identify the optimal cut-off point of the corneal fibers’ parameters for predicting corneal complications after PPV. @*Results@#Eleven eyes (11.70%) developed corneal complications at 1 week after PPV. There was significant difference between CNFL (19.44 ± 6.88 vs. 26.84 ± 7.53, p = 0.003), corneal nerve fiber density (28.82 ± 9.91 vs. 37.10 ± 10.16, p = 0.013) and branch density of corneal nerve fibers (55.84 ± 21.08 vs. 82.04 ± 31.89, p = 0.01) in two groups, respectively. Receiver operator characteristic analysis showed that the optimal cutoff value of CNFL to predict corneal complications following PPV was <26.495 mm/mm2. @*Conclusions@#The decrease of CNFL may predict corneal complications following PPV. Regular preoperative corneal confocal microscopy test in PPV patients could be considered.

15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 3272-3285, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922793

ABSTRACT

Co-delivery of chemotherapeutics and immunostimulant or chemoimmunotherapy is an emerging strategy in cancer therapy. The precise control of the targeting and release of agents is critical in this methodology. This article proposes the asynchronous release of the chemotherapeutic agents and immunostimulants to realize the synergistic effect between chemotherapy and immunotherapy. To obtain a proof-of-concept, a co-delivery system was prepared

16.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1325-1338, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922632

ABSTRACT

A strong animal survival instinct is to approach objects and situations that are of benefit and to avoid risk. In humans, a large proportion of mental disorders are accompanied by impairments in risk avoidance. One of the most important genes involved in mental disorders is disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1), and animal models in which this gene has some level of dysfunction show emotion-related impairments. However, it is not known whether DISC1 mouse models have an impairment in avoiding potential risks. In the present study, we used DISC1-N terminal truncation (DISC1-N


Subject(s)
Animals , Interneurons/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Nucleus Accumbens/metabolism , Parvalbumins/metabolism
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922189

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The study aimed to explore the factors influencing protective behavior and its association with factors during the post-COVID-19 period in China based on the risk perception emotion model and the protective action decision model (PADM).@*METHODS@#A total of 2830 valid questionnaires were collected as data for empirical analysis via network sampling in China. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was performed to explore the relationships between the latent variables.@*RESULTS@#SEM indicated that social emotion significantly positively affected protective behavior and intention. Protective behavioral intention had significant direct effects on protective behavior, and the direct effects were also the largest. Government trust did not have a significant effect on protective behavior but did have a significant indirect effect. Moreover, it was found that government trust had the greatest direct effect on social emotion. In addition, we found that excessive risk perception level may directly reduce people's intention and frequency of engaging in protective behavior, which was not conducive to positive, protective behavior.@*CONCLUSION@#In the post-COVID-19 period, theoretical framework constructed in this study can be used to evaluate people's protective behavior. The government should strengthen its information-sharing and interaction with the public, enhance people's trust in the government, create a positive social mood, appropriately regulate people's risk perception, and, finally, maintain a positive attitude and intent of protection.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emotions , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Intention , Latent Class Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Behavior , Surveys and Questionnaires , Trust , Young Adult
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921876

ABSTRACT

Objective Focused cardiac ultrasound (FCU) and lung ultrasound (LU) are increasingly being used in critically ill patients. This study aimed to investigate the effect of FCU in combination with LU on these patients and to determine if the timing of ultrasound examination was associated with treatment change. Methods This is a multicenter cross-sectional observational study. Consecutive patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) were screened for enrollment. FCU and LU were performed within the first 24 h, and treatment change was proposed by the performer based on the ultrasound results and other clinical conditions. Results Among the 992 patients included, 502 were examined within 6 h of ICU admission (early phase group), and 490 were examined after 6 h of admission (later phase group). The early phase group and the later phase group had similar proportions of treatment change (48.8%


Subject(s)
Critical Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Echocardiography , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies
19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2585-2604, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888873

ABSTRACT

Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) represent a growing public concern for clinicians to manage in many medical settings, with substantial associated morbidities and mortalities. Among many current therapeutic options for the treatment of IFIs, amphotericin B (AmB) is the most frequently used drug. AmB is considered as a first-line drug in the clinic that has strong antifungal activity and less resistance. In this review, we summarized the most promising research efforts on nanocarriers for AmB delivery and highlighted their efficacy and safety for treating IFIs. We have also discussed the mechanism of actions of AmB, rationale for treating IFIs, and recent advances in formulating AmB for clinical use. Finally, this review discusses some practical considerations and provides recommendations for future studies in applying AmB for combating IFIs.

20.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 527-531, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888446

ABSTRACT

We aimed to explore the associations between the age at which children undergo surgery for hypospadias and a range of social and clinical factors in a single center. Our aim was to promote the early surgical treatment of children with hypospadias. For a 6-year period, social and clinical data were collected from all children undergoing surgery to repair hypospadias in Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University (Chongqing, China), located in southwest of China. We analyzed the correlations between age at surgery and a range of social and clinical factors. A total of 1611 eligible cases were recruited, with a mean age of 54.3 months and a median age of 42 months: 234 cases (14.5%) were classified into a "timely operation" group, 419 (26.0%) cases into a "subtimely operation" group, and 958 (59.5%) cases into a "delayed operation" group. According to multivariate regression analyses, the higher the regional economic level, the closer the urethral opening to the perineum, and the higher the educational level of the guardians was, the younger the children were when they underwent the initial surgery for hypospadias; this was also the case for families without other children. Our subgroup analysis showed that the primary educational level of the guardians was a risk factor for subtimely surgery in their children (odds ratio [OR] = 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-2.15, P < 0.05). A lower regional economic level (OR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.26-2.78, P < 0.01), a lower educational level of the guardians (OR = 3.84, 95% CI: 2.31-6.41, P < 0.01), and an anterior-segment urethral opening (OR

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