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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873748

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of persistent Echinococcus multilocularis infections on hepatic fibrosis in mice, so as to provide insights into the understanding of liver fibrogenesis induced by E. multilocularis infections and the treatment of alveolar echinococcosis. Methods Hepatic stellate HSC-T6 and LX-2 cells were exposed to the sera (25, 50 and 100 μL) from Meriones unguiculatus infected with E. multilocularis, and E. multilocularis, germinal layer cells (GCs) and protoscoleces (PSCs) for 48 hours, respectively. The cell proliferation was measured using a CCK-8 assay, and the levels of collagen 1 (Col1) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were measured in the culture supernatant of HSC-T6 cells using ELISA. In addition, the serum and liver samples were collected 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 months post-infection with E. multilocularis, respectively. The serum Col1 and α-SMA concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the deposition of collagen fibers was examined in mice livers using Sirius red staining. Results The sera of E. multilocularis-infected gerbils promoted the proliferation of HSC-T6 and LX-2 cells in vitro, and there were significant differences seen in the proliferative rate of HSC-T6 (FHSC-T6 = 126.50, P < 0.05) and LX-2 cells (FLX-2 = 201.50, P < 0.05) among different serum groups, with the highest proliferative rate of HSC-T6 (573.36% ± 206.34%) and LX-2 cells (940.38% ± 61.65%) found following exposure to 100 μL mouse sera. Exposure to serum from E. multilocularis-infected gerbils resulted in an increase in the Col1 and α-SMA levels in the culture supernatant of HSC-T6 cells, with the greatest Col1 (20.99 ng/mL ± 2.01 ng/mL) and α-SMA levels (305.52 pg/mL ± 16.67 pg/mL) measured following exposure to 100 μL sera. The metacestodes (142.65% ± 9.17% and 189.99% ± 7.75%), GCs (118.55% ± 8.96% and 122.54% ± 0.21%) and PSCs of E. multilocularis (156.34% ± 17.45% and 160.59% ± 31.41%) all promoted the proliferation of HSC-T6 and LX-2 cells in vitro, and there were significant differences in the proliferative rates of HSC-T6 (FHSC-T6 = 11.24, P < 0.05) and LX-2 cells among groups (FLX-2 = 47.72, P < 0.05). Exposure to E. multilocularis resulted in an increase in Col1 and α-SMA levels in the culture supernatant of HSC-T6 cells, and the highest Col1 (4.43 ng/mL ± 2.23 ng/mL) and α-SMA levels (285.20 pg/mL ± 90.67 pg/mL) were detected following treatment with E. multilocularis metacestodes. In addition, a persistent increase was seen in the deposition of collagen fibers in mice livers 1 to 8 months post-infection with E. multilocularis, with the greatest Col1 level (280.26 ng/mL ± 23.04 ng/mL) seen 6 months post-infection and the highest α-SMA level (33.68 ng/mL ± 4.45 ng/mL) detected 8 months post-infection, respectively. Conclusions Persistent E. multilocularis infections promote hepatic stellate cell proliferation, induce an increase in mouse serum Col1 and α-SMA levels, and cause elevated deposition of collagen fibers in mice livers. The infective stage of E. multilocularis is a critical period for inducing hepatic fibrosis of alveolar echinococcosis.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821622

ABSTRACT

Objective To characterize the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene in Schistosoma japonicum (SjEGFR gene) and investigate the role of the EGFR gene in regulating the growth, reproductive system, maturation and fecundity of S. japonicum. Methods Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was performed to obtain the full length of the SjEGFR gene, and the SjEGFR gene expression was quantified in different developmental stages of S. japonicum using a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay. The tissue localization of the SjEGFR gene was detected in 22-day parasite using whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH). Following RNA interference (RNAi)-induced knockdown of the SjEGFR gene, the worm length, pairing rate and worm burden of S. japonicum were measured, and the worm morphology was observed using optical microscopy and confocal microscopy. Results The SjEGFR gene was identified with a conserved tyrosine-kinase active site, and the SjEGFR gene expression was detected at various developmental stages in male and female parasites. WISH showed that the transcript of the SjEGFR gene was localized on the tegument and in the digestive organs of S. japonicum. RNAi-induced SjEGFR knockdown resulted in marked suppression of the worm growth, smaller size of male testicles that contained more immature spermatocytes, and apparent impairment of ovary and vitelline gland development. In addition, no eggs were found in the uterus of SjEGFR knocked-down female parasites, indicating the interruption of egg production. Conclusions Inhibition of SjEGFR expression may remarkably suppress the growth and maturation of S. japonicum, and interrupt the egg production.

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