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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873748

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of persistent Echinococcus multilocularis infections on hepatic fibrosis in mice, so as to provide insights into the understanding of liver fibrogenesis induced by E. multilocularis infections and the treatment of alveolar echinococcosis. Methods Hepatic stellate HSC-T6 and LX-2 cells were exposed to the sera (25, 50 and 100 μL) from Meriones unguiculatus infected with E. multilocularis, and E. multilocularis, germinal layer cells (GCs) and protoscoleces (PSCs) for 48 hours, respectively. The cell proliferation was measured using a CCK-8 assay, and the levels of collagen 1 (Col1) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were measured in the culture supernatant of HSC-T6 cells using ELISA. In addition, the serum and liver samples were collected 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 months post-infection with E. multilocularis, respectively. The serum Col1 and α-SMA concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the deposition of collagen fibers was examined in mice livers using Sirius red staining. Results The sera of E. multilocularis-infected gerbils promoted the proliferation of HSC-T6 and LX-2 cells in vitro, and there were significant differences seen in the proliferative rate of HSC-T6 (FHSC-T6 = 126.50, P < 0.05) and LX-2 cells (FLX-2 = 201.50, P < 0.05) among different serum groups, with the highest proliferative rate of HSC-T6 (573.36% ± 206.34%) and LX-2 cells (940.38% ± 61.65%) found following exposure to 100 μL mouse sera. Exposure to serum from E. multilocularis-infected gerbils resulted in an increase in the Col1 and α-SMA levels in the culture supernatant of HSC-T6 cells, with the greatest Col1 (20.99 ng/mL ± 2.01 ng/mL) and α-SMA levels (305.52 pg/mL ± 16.67 pg/mL) measured following exposure to 100 μL sera. The metacestodes (142.65% ± 9.17% and 189.99% ± 7.75%), GCs (118.55% ± 8.96% and 122.54% ± 0.21%) and PSCs of E. multilocularis (156.34% ± 17.45% and 160.59% ± 31.41%) all promoted the proliferation of HSC-T6 and LX-2 cells in vitro, and there were significant differences in the proliferative rates of HSC-T6 (FHSC-T6 = 11.24, P < 0.05) and LX-2 cells among groups (FLX-2 = 47.72, P < 0.05). Exposure to E. multilocularis resulted in an increase in Col1 and α-SMA levels in the culture supernatant of HSC-T6 cells, and the highest Col1 (4.43 ng/mL ± 2.23 ng/mL) and α-SMA levels (285.20 pg/mL ± 90.67 pg/mL) were detected following treatment with E. multilocularis metacestodes. In addition, a persistent increase was seen in the deposition of collagen fibers in mice livers 1 to 8 months post-infection with E. multilocularis, with the greatest Col1 level (280.26 ng/mL ± 23.04 ng/mL) seen 6 months post-infection and the highest α-SMA level (33.68 ng/mL ± 4.45 ng/mL) detected 8 months post-infection, respectively. Conclusions Persistent E. multilocularis infections promote hepatic stellate cell proliferation, induce an increase in mouse serum Col1 and α-SMA levels, and cause elevated deposition of collagen fibers in mice livers. The infective stage of E. multilocularis is a critical period for inducing hepatic fibrosis of alveolar echinococcosis.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 130-137, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872610

ABSTRACT

With the implementation of the two-child policy and the growing demand for child health, pediatric medication has been arousing widespread social concern. To develop the drugs suitable for children, including new compounds, new specifications and new dosage forms, is urgently required for pharmaceutical researchers. In this review, several technical bottlenecks for pediatric oral liquid preparations, as well as the novel strategies involved in drug nanocrystals, self-microemulsion, ion exchange resin and Pickering emulsion were discussed, which may be benefit to play a theoretical guiding role in the research and development of children's oral liquid formulation.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880132

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analysis the relationship between different BMI (body mass index) and the clinical characteristics, laboratory examination indexes of newly diagnosed adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), so as to investigate the effects of BMI to the efficacy of first induction chemotherapy.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 145 newly diagnosed adult AML patients treated in the First Hospital of Lanzhou University from August 2015 to August 2019 were retrospective analyzed. According to the guidelines for prevention and control of overweight and obesity in Chinese adults, the BMI (kg/m@*RESULTS@#Among the 145 newly diagnosed adult AML patients, there were 71 males and 74 females. The median age was 50 years old(range 18 to 82 years old). There were 21 patients in underweight group (14.5%), 79 patients in normal weight group (54.5%), and 45 patients in overweight and obese group (31.0%). The patients with higher BMI level showed the older in age(P=0.018). There were significant differences in sex between the patients in each group(P=0.035). In overweight and obese patients, the number of male was significantly higher than female. There were no statistical differences in AML classification, comorbidities(Diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease), hospital days, whether secondary AML and FLT3 gene mutation among the patients in different BMI groups. There were significant differences in TG of the patients in the different groups, the overweight and obese patients were higher (P=0.007). There were no significant differences in WBC and Hb counts, ALB, TC, HDL, LDL, or LDH between the patients in each BMI group at newly diagnosed. The complete remission rate of the patients in the low body mass group or overweight and obese group were lower than that in the normal body weight group (P=0.035). The rate of documented infection during the first induction chemotherapy were significantly higher for the patients in low body mass group than those in normal weight group or overweight and obese group (P=0.038). There was no statistical difference in chemotherapy regimens, the number of chemotherapy until CR, febrile neutropenia, bleeding, and the time of neutropenia, liver and kidney toxicity among each BMI group. Multivariate analysis showed that overweight and obese (P=0.012) , FLT3 mutation (P=0.015) were the risk factors affecting the CR rate of the patients. And the patients with secondary AML, high-risk type, and newly diagnosed WBC ≥50×10@*CONCLUSION@#In newly diagnosed adult patients with AML, low body mass, overweight and obesity, and FLT3 mutations were the factors reducing the early efficacy of AML patients. There were more adverse reactions induced by chemotherapy in the low body mass group. Therefore, inappropriate BMI level can be a risk factor for assessing the prognosis of adults with newly diagnosed AML.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Mass Index , Cytarabine/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Induction Chemotherapy , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1152-1159, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878126

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Compared to adult studies, studies which involve the treatment of pediatric congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) are limited and no universal treatment regimen is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)/human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) therapy for treating male adolescents with CHH.@*METHODS@#Male adolescent CHH patients were treated with hCG/hMG (n = 20) or a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pump (n = 21). The treatment was divided into a study phase (0-3 months) and a follow-up phase (3-12 months). The testicular volume (TV), penile length (PL), penis diameter (PD), and sex hormone levels were compared between the two groups. The TV and other indicators between the groups were analyzed using a t-test (equal variance) or a rank sum test (unequal variance).@*RESULTS@#Before treatment, there was no statistical difference between the two groups in terms of the biochemistry, hormones, and other demographic indicators. After 3 months of treatment, the TV of the hCG/hMG and GnRH groups increased to 5.1 ± 2.3 mL and 4.1 ± 1.8 mL, respectively; however, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05, t = 1.394). The PL reached 6.9 ± 1.8 cm and 5.1 ± 1.6 cm (P  0.05, t = 0.314). After 9 to 12 months of treatment, the T level was higher in the hCG/hMG group. Other parameters did not exhibit a statistical difference.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The hCG/hMG regimen is feasible and effective for treating male adolescents with CHH. The initial 3 months of treatment may be a window to optimally observe the strongest effects of therapy. Furthermore, results from the extended time-period showed positive outcomes at the 1-year mark; however, the long-term effectiveness, strengths, and weaknesses of the hCG/hMG regimen require further research.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02880280; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02880280.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Chorionic Gonadotropin/therapeutic use , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Humans , Hypogonadism/drug therapy , Male , Menotropins/therapeutic use , Spermatogenesis , Testosterone
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872790

ABSTRACT

Objective::To study whether long-term administration of Gastrodiae Rhizoma powder can improve the learning and memory ability of APPswe/PSldE9 double transgenic (APP/PS1) Alzheimer' s disease(AD) model mice and delay the progress of AD whether these effects are related to the regulation of antioxidant stress pathway in Kelch-like epoxylopropylamine-related protein 1(Keap1)-nuclear factor E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase(HO)-1, and further explore the neuroprotective mechanism of Gastrodiae Rhizoma powder and its role in the prevention and treatment of AD. Method::APP/PS1 double transgenic mice model, the mice consisted of five groups: normal, normal administration group, model group, Gastrodiae Rhizoma powder prevention group, Gastrodiae Rhizoma powder treatment group.The mice in the normal administration group and the Gastrodiae Rhizoma powder prevention group were given the same dose of Gastrodiae Rhizoma powder (1.5 g·kg-1) daily at the age of 8 weeks.The normal group and model group were given the same amount of normal saline at the same time, until 24 weeks old, Morris water maze was used to test the learning and memory ability of mice, and the treatment group was treated with Gastrodiae Rhizoma powder at 22 weeks old.The mice were given the same dose of Gastrodiae Rhizoma powder (1.5 g·kg-1) every day for 2 weeks.The number of crossing platform, escape latency and platform residence time of mice were detected by Morris water maze from 24 weeks old to 24 weeks old.RNA, Real-time PCR was extracted from mouse hippocampus to detect the mRNA level of Nrf2, HO-1, Keap1, and Western blot was used to detect the expression of Nrf2, HO-1, Keap1 protein in mouse hippocampus. Result::Compared with normal group, the water maze test showed that the learning and memory ability of model group was lower than that of the model group (P<0.01), and the learning and memory ability of Gastrodiae Rhizoma powder prevention group and Gastrodiae Rhizoma powder treatment group was significantly higher than that of model group (P<0.01). Compared with normal group, the levels of Nrf2, HO-1 and protein in the hippocampus in model group decreased in varying degrees (P<0.05). Compared with model group, Gastrodiae Rhizoma powder prevented Nrf2, in the hippocampus of mice in model group.The level of HO-1 in mRNA and protein increased in different degrees (P<0.05, P<0.01). Levels of Nrf2, HO-1 mRNA in Gastrodiae Rhizoma powder treatment group was significantly higher than that in Gastrodiae Rhizoma powder group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the expression of Nrf2, HO-1 protein.There was no significant difference in mRNA and protein levels of Keap1 among different groups. Conclusion::Morris water maze test and other results showed that Gastrodiae Rhizoma powder could improve the learning and memory ability of APP/PS1 mice, and it may enhance the expression of downstream antioxidant genes by regulating Keap1-Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.And then improve the learning and memory ability of APP/PS1 mice.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-793029

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To objectively evaluate the safety of acupoint catgut embedding therapy.@*METHODS@#A total of 331 patients who received acupoint catgut embedding therapy were enrolled and summarized through the inpatient medical record system, follow-up record and adverse reaction report card. The statistical analysis was performed from the aspects of patients' gender, age, marital status, history of allergy, history of diabetes and the time, symptoms, duration and prognosis of adverse reactions, etc.@*RESULTS@#Among 331 patients who received acupoint catgut embedding therapy, 70 patients had adverse reactions, which were divided into 9 types, including post-treatment discomfort, local hematoma or subcutaneous hemorrhage, local swelling, local induration, severe pain, thread-body rejection, local pruritus, post-treatment body temperature rising, local redness, swelling, fever and pain. The incidence rate of adverse events was 21.15%, and the incidence of serious adverse events was 0. Among the patients with adverse reactions, 58 patients (82.86%) relieved without treatment, and 12 patients (17.14%) received after symptomatic treatment; all patients had no sequelae.@*CONCLUSION@#The acupoint catgut embedding therapy is relatively safe and the incidence of adverse reactions is low.

7.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1177-1182, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827143

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the mechanism of hematopoietic reconstruction in mice treated with Danggui Buxue Decoction (DBD) combined with the muscle-derived stem cell transplantation (MDSCT).@*METHODS@#Female Kunming mice were randomly divided into the 6 groups: irradiation model, the bone marrow transplantation, the MDSC transplantation, the DBD 1 (4.5 g/kg), 2 (13.5 g/kg), and 3 (22.5 g/kg) + MDSC transplantation. After a week of oral administration of normal saline or different doses of DBD, The mice were exposied to 8 Gy Cs γ ray and were followed by bone marrow or MDSC transplantation. The expression levels of Notch1, Jagged1 and Hes1 in bone marrow, thymus and spleen were measured at 3 and 8 weeks after irradiation and transplantation.@*RESULTS@#In the bone marrow, 3 weeks after above-mentioned treatment, the expression of Notch1 mRNA increased obviously and the expression of Jagged1, Hes1 mRNA decreased obviously in each intervention group, compared with the irradiation model group. 8th week after treatment, the expression of Notch1 mRNA decreased obviously in each intervention group, the Jagged1 mRNA expression decreased obviously except the bone marrow group, and Hes1 mRNA expression increased (P<0.05) in each intervention group. 3 weeks after treatment, compared with the irradiation model group, the expression of Notch1 mRNA in the thymocytes increased only in DBD1+MDSC group, Jagged1, Hes1 mRNA was increased in the MDSC transplantation group and the DBD1、2+MDSC group. 8th week after treatment, the expression of Notch1, Jagged1 mRNA expression decreased in each intervention group, the expression of Hes1 mRNA increased obviously in the MDSC transplantation group and the DBD1、2+MDSC group (P<0.05). In the spleen, 3 weeks after treatment, the expression of Notch1, Jagged1 mRNA in the spleen of each intervention group decreased obviously, compared with the irradiation model group. The expression of Jagged1, Hes1 mRNA in each intervention group were increased obviously 8th week after treatment (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#MDSC transplantation after pretreatment of DBD can improve the hematopoietic reconstitution in mice with lethal dose radiation damage. Notch1、Jagged1 and Hes1 play different roles in this process, but the concrete mechanism needs to be further studied.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Female , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hematopoietic System , Mice , Spleen
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775978

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the values of dynamic enhanced magnetic resonance imaging(DCE-MRI),digital breast tomosynthesis(DBT),and digital mammography(DM)in the early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer.Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and imaging data of 65 cases with early breast cancer confirmed by surgical pathology from June 2017 to December 2018.All patients underwent breast DCE-MRI,DM and DBT before surgery.The receiver operating characteristic(ROC)curves were drawn,with the pathological results as the gold standard,to evaluate the diagnostic performance of different examination methods.The areas under ROC curves(AUCs)were compared using test.The differences among DCE-MRI,DBT and DM in detecting early breast cancer were compared using chi-square test in terms of positive rates,accuracy,sensitivity,and specificity.Pearson correlation analysis was performed to assess the accuracy of these imaging methods in detecting the size of early breast cancer.Results The AUCs of DCE-MRI,DBT,and DM based on the BI-RADS classification for early diagnosis of breast cancer were 0.910,0.832,and 0.700,respectively(=2.132,=0.001);the sensitivity of DCE-MRI,DBT,and DM for early breast cancer was 92.3%,70.8%,and 52.5%,the specificity was 65.0%,85.0%,and 79.3%,and the accuracy was 83.1%,70.8%,and 50.8%,indicating that DCE-MRI(=15.330,=0.0001) and DBT(=5.450,=0.020) had significantly higher diagnostic accuracy than DM.The measurement results of DM,DBT,and DCE-MRI were positively correlated with the pathological measurements(=0.781,=0.847,=0.946;all <0.01). Conclusions DCE-MRI and DBT have higher positive rates and accuracies than DM in detecting early breast cancer.Medical institutions where DCE-MRI is still not available can use DBT to improve the early detection of breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Breast , Diagnostic Imaging , Breast Neoplasms , Diagnostic Imaging , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mammography , Methods , Retrospective Studies
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779478

ABSTRACT

Objective To retrospectively analyze the clinical data of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by scrub typhus in Guangxi, to evaluate the incidence of AKI, and to search for the prediction indicators of AKI. Methods Data of 211 patients from The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University from 2014 to 2018 were collected and divided into AKI group (58 cases) and non-acute kidney injury (NAKI) group (153 cases). The auxiliary examination, treatment measures and complications of the two groups were compared. Regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors associated with AKI. Results There were 58 cases (27.49%,95% CI: 1.66-1.76, P<0.001) with AKI and 166 cases were all negative in the field test. Compared with the NAKI group, the incidence and need rate of AKI were higher than NAKI group, and the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that blood system damage (OR=4.536, 95% CI: 1.262-16.308), the use of hormones (OR=3.261, 95% CI: 1.259-8.446) and diuretics (OR=3.870, 95% CI: 1.186-12.633) were risk factors for AKI. Low direct bilirubin (OR=0.952, 95% CI: 0.915-0.991) was a protective factor. Conclusion The incidence of scrub typhus induced AKI in Guangxi is in the middle level at domestic and abroad. Patients with scrub typhus who have complications of blood system damage and have to be treated with hormones and diuretics are risk factors for AKI.

10.
Basic & Clinical Medicine ; (12): 218-223, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-693874

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the role of regulatory T-lymphocytes(Treg) in the immune pathogenesis of suba-cute thyroiditis (SAT). Methods The proportion of Treg in CD4+T cells in peripheral blood of 46 SAT patients and15 controls was detected using flow cytometry. And the concentration of interleukin-10(IL-10), transforming growth factor-beta1(TGF-β1) and prostaglandin E2(PGE2) in serum of 46 SAT patients and 15 controls was measured with ELISA. In addition, the Forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3) positive cells in thyroid tissue of 29 SAT patients and20 controls was detected by immunohistochemistry. Results The proportion of Treg in peripheral blood of SAT pa-tients was significantly lower than that of controls (P<0.05). And the concentration of TGF-β1 in serum of SAT patients was apparently higher than that of controls(P<0.05). Additionally, the positive rate of Foxp3 in thyroid tissue of SAT patients was markedly higher than that of controls(P<0.05).Conclusions The decrease of Treg may play an important role in the immune pathogenesis of SAT.

11.
Journal of Medical Postgraduates ; (12): 262-266, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-700815

ABSTRACT

Objective Methylglyoxal can cause the injury of human proximal tubular epithelial cell line(HK-2 cells),but the exact mechanism is still unclear. The present study aimed to explore the influence of oxidative stress and the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome in HK-2 cells induced by methylglyoxal. Methods HK-2 cells at logarithmic phase were divided into six groups:control group and 100,200,400,800,1600 μmol/L methylglyoxal groups (cells were cultured in 100,200,400,800,1600 μmol/L methylg-lyoxal concentration for 24 h). Superoxide dismutase(SOD)levels were assayed by thibabituric acid method. Release of lactate dehydro-genase(LDH)activity was detected by assay kit.ROS production was measured by DCFH-DA staining. The expression levels of NLRP3,caspase-1,IL-1β and NF-κB were evaluated by western blot. Results Compared with control group,different methylglyoxal concen-trations could enhance ROS level and LDH activity in HK-2 cells(P<0.05)and reduce SOD level significantly(P<0.05). The results of western blot showed the protein levels of NLRP3,caspase-1,IL-1β and NF-κB were significant up-regulated after the addition of methylglyoxal(P<0.05). Conclusion Methylglyoxal may induce the injury of HK-2 cells by oxidant stress and activating of NLRP3 inflammasome signaling.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311321

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a domestic database of Enterobacteria cloacae (E. cloacae), and improve the identification efficiency using peptide mass fingerprinting.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Peptide mass fingerprinting was used for the identification and subtyping of E. cloacae. Eighty-seven strains, identified based on hsp60 genotyping, were used to construct and evaluate a new reference database.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the original reference database, the identification efficiency and accuracy of the new reference database was greatly improved at the species level. The first super reference database for E. cloacae identification was also constructed and evaluated. Based on the super reference database and the main spectra projection dendrogram, E. cloacae strains were divided into two clades.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Peptide mass fingerprinting is a powerful method to identify and subtype E. cloacae, and the use of this method will allow us to obtain more information to understand the heterogeneous organism E. cloacae.</p>

13.
Chinese Journal of Pathophysiology ; (12): 1558-1563, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-662750

ABSTRACT

AIM:To investigate whether angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ)/angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 receptor (AT1 R)pathway down-regulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) Ser1177 phosphorylation level in human umbilical vein endothelial cells by activating protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A).METHODS:Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were randomly divided into normal control (control) group,Ang Ⅱ group,candesartan (CAN;specific AT1R blocker) group and CAN pretreatment + Ang Ⅱ group.The protein levels of total eNOS,p-eNOS (Ser1177),PP2Ac,IPP2A2 and p-PP2Ac (Tyr307) were determined by Western blot.The content of NO in the cell culture medium was detected by chemical colorimetry.RESULTS:Compared with control group,the level of p-eNOS (Ser1177) and the content of NO decreased (P <0.05).Compared with the same concentration of Ang Ⅱ group,CAN pretreatment increased the level of p-eNOS (Ser1177) and the content of NO (P < 0.05),but the protein expression of eNOS showed no significant difference.Compared with control group,the levels of p-PP2Ac (Tyr307) and IPP2A2 decreased (P < 0.05).Compared with the same concentration of Ang Ⅱ group,CAN pretreatment increased the levels of p-PP2Ac (Tyr307) and IPP2A2 (P < 0.05),but the protein expression of PP2Ac showed no significant difference.CONCLUSION:Ang Ⅱ down-regulates the level of p-eNOS (Ser1177),and decreases the production of NO in human umbilical vein endothelial cells via AT1 R pathway.This effect may be related to the reduction of p-PP2Ac (Tyr307) and protein expression of IPP2A2,which results in the enhancement of PP2A2 activity.Pretreatment with AT1 R blocker CAN increases p-PP2Ac (Tyr307) level and IPP2A2 protein expression,thus reducing the PP2A activity,and ultimately restoring eNOS Ser1177 phosphorylation level and eNOS activity.

14.
Chinese Journal of Pathophysiology ; (12): 1558-1563, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-660662

ABSTRACT

AIM:To investigate whether angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ)/angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 receptor (AT1 R)pathway down-regulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) Ser1177 phosphorylation level in human umbilical vein endothelial cells by activating protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A).METHODS:Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were randomly divided into normal control (control) group,Ang Ⅱ group,candesartan (CAN;specific AT1R blocker) group and CAN pretreatment + Ang Ⅱ group.The protein levels of total eNOS,p-eNOS (Ser1177),PP2Ac,IPP2A2 and p-PP2Ac (Tyr307) were determined by Western blot.The content of NO in the cell culture medium was detected by chemical colorimetry.RESULTS:Compared with control group,the level of p-eNOS (Ser1177) and the content of NO decreased (P <0.05).Compared with the same concentration of Ang Ⅱ group,CAN pretreatment increased the level of p-eNOS (Ser1177) and the content of NO (P < 0.05),but the protein expression of eNOS showed no significant difference.Compared with control group,the levels of p-PP2Ac (Tyr307) and IPP2A2 decreased (P < 0.05).Compared with the same concentration of Ang Ⅱ group,CAN pretreatment increased the levels of p-PP2Ac (Tyr307) and IPP2A2 (P < 0.05),but the protein expression of PP2Ac showed no significant difference.CONCLUSION:Ang Ⅱ down-regulates the level of p-eNOS (Ser1177),and decreases the production of NO in human umbilical vein endothelial cells via AT1 R pathway.This effect may be related to the reduction of p-PP2Ac (Tyr307) and protein expression of IPP2A2,which results in the enhancement of PP2A2 activity.Pretreatment with AT1 R blocker CAN increases p-PP2Ac (Tyr307) level and IPP2A2 protein expression,thus reducing the PP2A activity,and ultimately restoring eNOS Ser1177 phosphorylation level and eNOS activity.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-236004

ABSTRACT

Silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and reverse phase (C-18) column chromatography were used for the research of chemical constituents occurred in Arisaema flavum(Forsk.) Schott. The structures were elucidated by comparison physico-chemical properties and NMR spectroscopic data with those of known compounds. Seventeen cerebrosides were identified as 1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(2S, 3R, 4E, 8E)-2-[(2'(R)-acetoxyoctadecanoyl)amido]-4, 8-octadecadiene-1, 3-diol (1), 2'-O-acetylsoyacerebroside I (2), 1-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-(2S, 3R, 4E, 13Z)-2-[(2'R)-2-hydroxytetradecanoylamino]-1, 3-dihydroxy-4, 13-docosadiene (3), (2S, 3R, 4E, 8E)1-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-3-hydroxy-2-[(R)-2'-hydroxyhexadecanoyl]amino-9-methyl-4, 8-heptadecadiene (4), (2S, 3R, 4E, 8E)1-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-3-hydroxy-2-[(R)-2'-hydroxyhexadecanoyl]amino-9-methyl-4, 8-octadecadiene (5), (2S, 3R, 4E, 8E)1-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-3-hydroxy-2-[(R)-2'-hydroxypalmitoyl]amino-9-methyl-4, 8-octadecadiene (6), (2S, 3R, 4E, 8E)1-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-3-hydroxy-2-[(R)-2'-hydroxyoctadecanoyl]amino-9-methyl-4, 8-octadecadiene (7), 1-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-(2S, 3R, 4E, 8E)-2-[(R)-2'-hydroxytetradecanoylamino]-4, 8-octadecadiene-1, 3-diol (8), 1-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-(2S, 3R, 4E, 8E)-2-[(R)-2'-hydroxypentadecanoylamino]-4, 8-octadecadiene-1, 3-diol (9), 1-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-(2S, 3R, 4E, 8E)-2-[(R)-2'-hydroxyhexadecanoylamino]-4, 8-octadecadiene-1, 3-diol (10), 1-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-(2S, 3R, 4E, 8Z)-2-[(R)-2'-hydroxyhexadecanoylamino]-4, 8-octadecadiene-1, 3-diol (11), 1-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-(2S, 3R, 4E, 8E)-2-[(R)-2'-hydroxyoctadecanoylamino]-1, 3-hydroxy-4, 8-octadecadiene (12), 1-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-(2S, 3R, 4E)-2-[(R)-2'-hydroxytetracosanoylamino]-1, 3-hydroxy-4-hexadecane (13), 1-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-(2S, 3R, 4R, 8Z)-2N-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxytetracosanoyl]-8-(Z)-octadecene-1, 3, 4-triol (14), 1-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-(2S, 3S, 4E, 8E)-2N-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxyhexadecanoyl]-4-(E), 8-(Z)-octadecadiene-1, 3-diol (15), typhoniside A (16), and 1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(2S, 3R, 8E)-2-[(2'R)-2-hydroxypalmitoylamino]-8-octadecene-1, 3-diol (17). Compounds 1 and 2 were isolated from the plant for the first time, while the remained compounds were isolated from the genus Arisaema for the first time.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-845506

ABSTRACT

The orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) are the kinds of novel oral dosage forms which begin to gain popularity and acceptance since they can disintegrate/dissolve quickly in the oral cavity upon contact with saliva, resulting in solutions or suspensions form of the administered medicine. The ODTs are perfect alternative for pediatric and geriatric patients with difficulty in swallowing, and uncooperative patients because of their convenience of self-administration and compactness. This communication reviews the applications and technologies involved in formulation feature, lyophillization process, excipients selection, fast dissolving mechanism, and determination of disintegration time.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-845505

ABSTRACT

Till now, pediatric populations are still described as "therapeutic orphans", in which "off-label" and unlicensed use of drugs are common, increasing the risk of drug toxicity and suboptimal efficacy. The challenges inherent to performing clinical pharmacokinetic (PK) trials in pediatric populations, especially in the neonatal to infant stages, include: low study consent rates; limited blood volume; difficulty in obtaining blood; limited use of sensitive, low-volume drug concentration assays; a lack of expertise in pediatric modeling and simulation; and knowledge gap in the effects of dynamic physiological changes with growth and development on the absorption, disposition, metabolism and excretion of drugs. In response to these concerns, innovative and efficient study designs more suited to this population are needed. This review summarizes the available literature to describe the minimal-risk strategies in pediatric PK studies, such as micro-sampling, sparse sampling, scavenge sampling (opportunistic sampling), dried blood spots sampling, and non-blood matrices sampling. Population PK modeling, referred to as a ‘top-down’ approach, is able to analyze the data from sparse sampling, while the bottom up methods (physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling) provides valuable insight in drug disposition, but both still needs more prospective validation. Understanding of the strengths and limitations of these methods will help improve the design of future pediatric PK studies.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279039

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of probiotic supplementation for preventing necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and reducing mortality in preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) infants.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about probiotics for preventing NEC in preterm neonates were searched in PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the ISI Web of Knowledge databases, China Biology Medicine disc (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Weipu and Wanfang Data from their establishment to March 2014. The Cochrane Collaboration's RevMan 5.1 Software was used for a Meta analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 21 RCTs involving 4 607 preterm VLBW infants were eligible for inclusion in the Meta analysis. The Meta analysis showed that probiotic supplement was associated with a significantly decreased risk of NEC in preterm VLBW infants (RR=0.47; 95%CI: 0.35-0.62; P<0.001). Risk of mortality was also significantly reduced in the probiotic group (RR=0.63; 95%CI: 0.51-0.78; P<0.01). Probiotic supplement did not decrease the risk for sepsis (RR=0.87; 95%CI: 0.72-1.06; P=0.17) and NEC related mortality (RR=0.68; 95%CI: 0.31-1.48, P=0.33).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The results confirm that probiotic supplement can reduce risk of NEC and mortality in preterm VLBW infants. However, the long-term effects and safety of probiotics need to be assessed in large trials.</p>


Subject(s)
Enterocolitis, Necrotizing , Mortality , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Probiotics , Therapeutic Uses , Sepsis
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-262660

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To determine the optimum treatment for viral myocarditis (VMC).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 126 VMC patients were randomly divided into the control group (42 cases) that was treated with conventional Western medicine, and the intervention group (84 cases) that was treated with a combination of Chinese medicine (CM) and Western medicine intervention termed optimum proposal of integration of disease and syndrome (OPIDS). Before and after 4 weeks of treatment, the integral of CM syndrome, self-rating depression and anxiety scales (SDS and SAS, respectively), echocardiograms (ECGs), heart rate variability and left ventricular systolic function were observed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significant reductions on the SDS and SAS (P <0.05); improvement of premature ventricular beats, atrioventricular blocks, ST-segment abnormalities, and significant T wave changes (P <0.05); greater reductions in standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN), standard deviation for per 5 min averages NN intervals (SDANN), and root-mean-square of successive difference of NN intervals (rMSSD) (P <0.05); and increases in cardiac output, stroke volume, and ejection fraction, the last of which was statistically significant (P <0.05). Overall, the treatment efficacy rate was significantly better P<0.05) in the intervention group (75.61%) compared with the control group (69.70%).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>OPIDS is quite effective in treating VMC and improves symptoms such as anxiety and depression, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, premature ventricular contraction, and cardiac autonomic nervous system dysfunction. [</p><p><b>REGISTRATION</b>Chinese clinical trial center (No. ChiCTR-TRC-00000298)].</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety , Depression , Electrocardiography , Female , Heart Rate , Humans , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Myocarditis , Diagnostic Imaging , Therapeutics , Virology , Syndrome , Systole , Ultrasonography , Ventricular Function , Young Adult
20.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1523-1526, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-274003

ABSTRACT

Muscle-derived stem cells (MDSC) are defined as myogenic stem cells endowed with their ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell types of their derivative tissue, and are proved to be over 10 times more efficient in hematopoiesis than hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Although the mechanism which MDSC differentiate into blood cells is still unclear, MDSC were considered to replace HSC to treat the patients suffering from bone marrow diseases such as aplastic anemia and tumor. MDSC are different from HSC in a variety aspects like biological characteristics, protein expression and cell proliferation. On the other hand, MDSC contain multiple distinct stem cell populations. Among these, there is only a small part with the ability to repopulate hematopoietic cells, and it is still uncertain whether their origin is same as HSC. This review summarizes the difference between MDSC and HSC, the ability of MDSC to repopulate hematopoietic cells, and the prospect of MDSCs' transplantation.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Aplastic , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Hematopoiesis , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Humans , Muscle, Skeletal , Cell Biology
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