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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873741

ABSTRACT

Since 2015 when the transmission of schistosomiasis was controlled in China, the country has been moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis, with the surveillance-response as the main interventions for schistosomiasis control. During the period of the 13th Five-Year Plan, the transmission of schistosomiasis had been interrupted in four provinces of Sichuan, Jiangsu, Yunnan and Hubei and the prevalence of schistosomiasis has been at the historically lowest level in China. As a consequence, the goal set in The 13th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China is almost achieved. However, there are multiple challenges during the stage moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China, including the widespread distribution of intermediate host snails and complicated snail habitats, many types of sources of Schistosoma japonicum infections and difficulty in management of bovines and sheep, unmet requirements for the current schistosomiasis control program with the currently available tools, and vulnerable control achievements. During the 14th Five-Year period, it is crucial to consolidate the schistosomiasis control achievements and gradually solve the above difficulties, and critical to provide the basis for achieving the ultimate goal of elimination of schistosomiasis in China. Based on the past experiences from the national schistosomiasis control program and the challenges for schistosomiasis elimination in China, an expert consensus has been reached pertaining to the objectives, control strategy and measures for The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China, so as to provide insights in to the development of The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873739

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis was once endemic in 12 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) along and south of the Yangtze River basin, which seriously damages human health and hinders socioeconomic developments in China. Following the concerted efforts for 70 years, remarkable achievements have been gained in the national schistosomiasis control program of China. However, there are still multiple challenges for elimination of schistosomiasis in the country. This paper describes the current status of schistosomiasis and the challenges during the progress towards the elimination of schistosomiasis, and proposes the goals, key points and research priorities of schistosomiasis control in China during the 14th Five-Year Plan Period.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882040

ABSTRACT

Due to the relative shortage of health resources, rational allocation and utilization of health resources is critical to achieving the maximum economic benefits in developing countries, which requires a health economic assessment to meet the needs to balance the competitive requirements of cost reduction and effectiveness enhancement. This review describes the advances in applications of health economic assessment techniques in four major infectious diseases, including AIDS, tuberculosis, hepatitis B and schistosomiasis. Currently, there is no standard economic assessment in the prevention and control of infectious diseases, and notably, the transparency of cost research is limited, which may affect the popularization of the study conclusions. Further health economic assessments of infectious diseases are required to improve the quality, standard and transparency of the economic evaluation through formulating strategies, to improve the standardization of studies, to improve the popularization of the study conclusions and to improve the applicability of the economic evaluation for policies.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882025

ABSTRACT

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2020, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai Municipality, Zhejiang Province, Fujian Province, Guangdong Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, and Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces maintained the criteria of transmission interruption, while Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces maintained the criteria of transmission control by the end of 2020. A total of 450 counties (cites, districts) were found to be endemic for schistosomiasis in China, with 28 376 endemic villages covering 71 370 400 people at risk of infections. Among the 450 endemic counties (cities, districts), 74.89% (337/450), 21.87% (98/450) and 3.33% (15/450) achieved the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2020, 29 517 cases with advanced schistosomiasis were documented in China. In 2020, 11 117 655 individuals received inquiry examinations and 1 798 580 were positive; 5 263 082 individuals received serological tests and 83 179 were sero-positive. A total of 273 712 individuals received stool examinations and 3 were positive, including one case of acute schistosomiasis. In 2020, snail survey was performed in 19 733 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 309 villages, accounting for 37.04% of all surveyed villages, with 15 villages identified with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey covered an area of 736 984.13 hm2 and 206 125.22 hm2 snail habitats were found, including 1 174.67 hm2 emerging snail habitats and 1.96 hm2 habitats with infected snails. In 2020, 544 424 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis-endemic areas of China, and 147 887 received serological examinations, with 326 positives detected, while 130 673 bovines received stool examinations, with no positives identified. In 2020, there were 19 214 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 964 103 person-time individuals and 266 280 herd-time bovines were given expanded chemotherapy. In 2020, molluscicide treatment was performed in 136 141.92 hm2 snail habitats, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 71 980.22 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 1 464.03 hm2. Data from the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections were both zero in humans and bovines in 2020, and no S. japonicum infection was detected in snails. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic status of schistosomiasis remains at a low level in China and the goal of the National Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for Schistosomiasis Control was achieved as scheduled; however, the endemic situation of schistosomiasis rebounded in local areas. Precision schistosomiasis control and intensified monitoring of the endemic situation and transmission risk of schistosomiasis are required to be performed to facilitate the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis steadily.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876704

ABSTRACT

Objective To create a model based on meteorological data to predict the regions at risk of schistosomiasis during the flood season, so as to provide insights into the surveillance and forecast of schistosomiasis. Methods An interactive schistosomiasis forecast system was created using the open-access R software. The schistosomiasis risk index was used as a basic parameter, and the species distribution model of Oncomelania hupensis snails was generated according to the cumulative rainfall and temperature to predict the probability of O. hupensis snail distribution, so as to identify the regions at risk of schistosomiasis transmission during the flood season. Results The framework of the web page was built using the Shiny package in the R program, and an interactive and visualization system was successfully created to predict the distribution of O. hupensis snails, containing O. hupensis snail surveillance site database, meteorological and environmental data. In this system, the snail distribution area may be displayed and the regions at risk of schistosomiasis transmission may be predicted using the species distribution model. This predictive system may rapidly generate the schistosomiasis transmission risk map, which is simple and easy to perform. In addition, the regions at risk of schistosomiasis transmission were predicted to be concentrated in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River during the flood period. Conclusions A schistosomiasis forecast system is successfully created, which is accurate and rapid to utilize meteorological data to predict the regions at risk of schistosomiasis transmission during the flood period.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829578

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the implementation of schistosomiasis control activities in China during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, so as to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 epidemic on the national schistosomiasis control program in China. Methods On April 2020, 3 counties (districts) were randomly selected from each of the 12 schistosomiasis-endemic provinces (municipality, autonomous region), and a questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the implementation of schistosomiasis control activities in these counties (districts) from January to March 2020. Then, the impact of the COVID-19 epidemics on the national schistosomiasis control program of China was evaluated using a comparative analysis approach. Results Among the 36 counties (cities, districts) sampled from 12 provinces (municipality, autonomous region), 66.67% were at a high and medium risk of COVID-19 epidemics. The implementation of schistosomiasis control activities assignment, human schistosomiasis examination and treatment, snail control with chemical treatment and health education reduced by 44.26% to 91.56% as compared to 2019 during the same time period, and the schistosomiasis control program was more affected by COVID-19 in transmission-controlled provinces. The gross funds invested into the schistosomiasis control program reduced by 23.39% in relative to the expected, while the total expenditure increased by 41.22%. In addition, all 36 surveyed counties (districts) considered that the COVID-19 epidemic had a short-term impact on the schistosomiasis control program, with the most predominant impact on schistosomiasis control activities assignment, human resources and monitoring of endemic situation of schistosomiasis. Conclusions The COVID-19 epidemics affect the routine schistosomiasis control program across the endemic-foci of China. Policy and financial support should be strengthened to ensure the completion of the schistosomiasis control program.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829572

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the prevalence of soil-borne nematode infections among residents living in urban/town areas of China, so as to provide insights into the control and elimination of soil-borne nematodiasis. Methods A total of 5 epidemic areas were classified in China according to the prevalence of human Clonorchis sinensis infections captured from the 2014–2015 national survey on major human parasitic diseases in China, and the total sample size was estimated according to the binomial distribution and Poisson’s distribution. Then, the total sample size was allocated proportionally to each province (autonomous region, municipality) of China based on the percentage of residents living in urban and town areas, and the number of survey sites in each province (autonomous region, municipality) was proportionally assigned according to the percentages of residents living in urban and town areas. Then, stratified sampling was performed at county, township and community levels according to the number of sampling sites in each province (autonomous region, municipality), and the survey site (community) was defined as the smallest sampling unit. All permanent residents in the survey sites were selected as the study subjects, and their stool samples were collected for identification and counting of parasite egg using a Kato-Katz technique. The prevalence and intensity of each parasite species were calculated. Results From 2014 to 2015, among the 133 231 residents detected in 31 provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities) of China, the overall prevalence of soil-borne nematode infections was 1.23% (1 636/133 231), and the prevalence rates of hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections were 0.77% (1 032/133 231), 0.32% (426/133 231) and 0.17% (224/133 231), respectively. The highest prevalence of soil-borne nematode infections was seen in Jiangxi (4.03%, 82/2 034) and Chongqing (4.03%, 524/13 012), followed by in Hainan (3.47%, 72/2 075). The prevalence of soilborne nematode infections was 1.07% (662/62 139) in men and 1.37% (974/71 092) in women, and the greatest prevalence was found in residents at ages of 65 to 70 years (2.56%, 219/8 569). With regard to occupations and education levels, herdsmen (2.47%, 2/81) and illiterate residents (3.33%, 226/6 795) were found to have the highest prevalence of soil-borne nematode infections, respectively. In addition, mild infections were predominantly identified in hookworm-, A. lumbricoides- and T. trichiura-infected individuals (all > 90%). Conclusions The overall prevalence of soil-borne nematodiasis remains low in urban and town areas of China; however, human infections are widespread. According to the epidemiological features, health education combined with deworming are recommended to reduce the prevalence of soil-borne nematode infections among residents living in urban and town areas of China.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821642

ABSTRACT

This paper describes the current epidemic characteristics and endemic status of schistosomiasis, analyzes the main challenges of schistosomiasis control and proposes the emphasis and interventions for future schistosomiasis control activities in Hunan Province, so as to provide insights into the elimination of schistosomiasis in Hunan Province.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821641

ABSTRACT

The culture of schistosomiasis control is specific in the history of Chinese culture. Broadly speaking, the culture of schistosomiasis control is a summary of specific social mood, social consciousness and material culture created by Chinese populations during the progress of schistosomiasis control since the founding of the People’s Republic of China. Narrowly speaking, the culture of schistosomiasis control is the spiritual culture that is jointly created and nurtured by schistosomiasis control workers since the founding of the People’s Republic of China. The spiritual features of Chinese schistosomiasis control culture are characterized by the patriotism and care about the people, the matter-to-fact attitude, the pioneering and enterprising spirit, and the spirit of sacrifice and dedication. The ultimate goal of the research on the culture of schistosomiasis control is to facilitate the achievement of the strategic goal of Healthy China 2030 as scheduled, accelerate the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis, and to promote the sustainable development of schistosomiasis control in China.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821640

ABSTRACT

Hunan Province occupies a particular position in the history of the national schistosomiasis control programme of China. The province is hyperendemic for schistosomiasis, and achieves great successes and many experiences at various stages of the national schistosomiasis control programme of China. Recently, remarkable schistosomiasis control benefits have been achieved in Hunan Province because of the strong political will, increased financial support, intensification of the integrated control strategy and sustainable implementation of the four projects, including management of livestock and humans as sources of Schistosoma japonicum infections, snail control and capability building of schistosomiasis control institutions. In addition, a series of schistosomiasis control models have been created from the schistosomiasis control programme, and the concept of control-research combination and research serving for field control has been achieved, which provides the "Hunan experience" for the natonal schistosomiasis control programme of China. Based on the government-led multisectoralcollaboration principle, further actions are required with scientific control and joint prevention and control, implementation of the integrated strategy with emphases on controlling sources of S. japonicum infections and snails, adequate financial support, improved professional capability building, and innovative medical treatment-prevention combination patterns, so as to achieve the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in Hunan Province as soon as possible.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818580

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis was once hyper-endemic in Jiangsu Province. During the past seven decades, the professionals working in schistosomiasis control from Jiangsu Province insisted on scientific and precision control all the time, created a series of replicable and generalizable “Jiangsu experiences”. These practices have developed a number of tools and approaches that have been employed in schistosomiasis control programs in main endemic foci of China. More importantly, the successful experiences from national schistosomiasis control programs of China have been firstly transferred to Africa by professionals from Jiangsu Province, and remarkable achievements have been obtained for the control of schistosomiasis haematobia in Zanzibar.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812927

ABSTRACT

Following the concerted efforts for nearly 70 years, great successes have been achieved in the national schistosomiasis control programme in China. Currently, the national schistosomiasis control programme in China is facing the challenges to solve the problems during the“final mile”stage towards schistosomiasis elimination, and contribute Chinese experiences, Chinese strategy and Chinese wisdom to the global schistosomiasis control programmes, so as to facilitate the transformation of the joint efforts in the Belt and Road Initiative to a high-quality development, thereby well supporting the activities on global health security. This paper analyzes the current global status of schistosomiasis and the challenges of the global schistosomiasis control programmes, describes the basis for the cooperation on schistosomiasis control among the countries along the Belt and Road Initiative, illustrates the challenges for translation of Chinese experiences and techniques in schistosomiasis control to other diseaseendemic countries, and proposes the patterns and prospects of the South-South cooperation on schistosomiasis control under the Belt and Road Initiative.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837609

ABSTRACT

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2019, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 455 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, Sichuan Province achieved transmission interruption, Jiangsu newly achieved the standard of transmission interruption and 5 provinces of Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan maintained transmission control by the end of 2019. There were 450 endemic counties (cities, districts) endemic for schistosomiasis, including 28 500 endemic villages covering 70 667 800 people at risk of infections. Among the 450 endemic counties (citis, districts), 66.89% (301/450), 28.44% (128/450) and 4.67% (21/450) kept the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2019, a total of 30 170 advanced schistosomiasis cases were documented in China. In 2019, a total of 12 090 712 individuals received inquiry examinations and 1 740 764 were positive; 5 158 369 individuals received serological tests and 89 753 were seropositive. A total of 327 475 individuals received stool examinations and 5 were positive, including one case of acute schistosomiasis. In 2019, snail survey was performed in 19 726 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 322 villages, accounting for 37.12% of all surveyed villages, with 6 villages with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey covered an area of 585 286.24 hm2 and 174 270.42 hm2 snail habitats were found, including emerging snail habitats of 64.20 hm2; however, no infected snails were identified. In 2019, a total of 605 965 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China, and 183 313 received serological examinations, with 1 176 positives detected, while 134 978 bovines received stool examinations, with 7 positives identified. In 2019, there were 28 557 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and expanded chemotherapy was given to 1 008 083 person-times; there were 7 bovines with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 296 053 herd-times expanded chemotherapy was given to bovines. In 2019, snail habitats at an area of 128 754.26 hm2 were given chemical treatment, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 69 605.55 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 2 847.00 hm2. Data from the 455 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean Schistosoma japonicum infection rates were both zero in humans and bovines in 2019, and no infected snails were found. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic situation of schistosomiasis remains at a lower infection level in China; however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission. To achieve the target set in the National Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for Schistosomiasis Control and consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis control, precision control on schistosomiasis still needs to be reinforced in China.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819003

ABSTRACT

In 1980s, Biomphalaria straminea, an intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, was found in Shenzhen City, Guangdong Province, China, and currently, this snail has colonized in Shenzhen City and spread to peripheral cities involving of Dongguan and Huizhou. Since imported cases infected with S. mamoni have been reported from time to time in China, Mainland China is facing the potential risk of transmission of schistosomiasis mansoni. With the deepening of the opening-up policy, notably the implementation of the Belt and Road Initiative, there is an increase in the risk of transmission of schistosomiasis mansoni in Mainland China. Increasing the understanding on schistosomiasis mansoni, improving the awareness toward schistosomiasis mansoni prevention and control, and identifying, reporting and managing imported cases with S. mansoni infection or pathogen carriers, are of particular importance to prevent the development of entire life cycle of S. mansoni and the resultant schistosomiasis mansoni transmission in China. To protect public health, a consensus has been reached pertaining to the surveillance and control strategy of imported schistosomiasis mansoni by Chinese infectious disease experts and parasitologists, with aims to improve the awareness and capability for the diagnosis, treatment and control of imported schistosomiasis mansoni among Chinese disease control and prevention institutions and medical institutions, and decrease and even eliminate the risk of schistosomiasis mansoni transmission in China.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819001

ABSTRACT

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2018, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 453 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, 5 provinces (municipality and autonomous region), including Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi, continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, Sichuan Province achieved transmission interruption and 6 provinces of Yunnan, Jiangsu, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan achieved transmission control by the end of 2018. There were 450 endemic counties (cities, districts) covering 260 million people, specifically including 28 456 endemic villages covering 70.059 7 million people at risk of infection. Among the 450 endemic counties (cities, districts), 58.44% (263/450), 27.56% (124/450) and 14.00% (63/450) reached the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control, respectively. By the end of 2018, a total of 29 214 advanced schistosomiasis cases were documented in China. In 2018, a total of 11.127 6 million individuals received inquiry examinations and 2.062 9 million were positive; 7.191 4 million individuals received serological tests and 138.5 thousand of them were positive, 532.2 thousand individuals received stool examinations and 8 were positive in China. In 2018, snail survey was performed in 19 821 endemic villages and Oncomehania snails were found in 7 321 villages, accounting for 36.94% of all surveyed villages, with 3 newly detected villages with snails in China. Snail survey covered an area of 590 241.01 hm2 and 168 319.41 hm2 snail habitats were found, including emerging snail habitats of 61.28 hm2; however, no infected snails were identified. In 2018, a total of 646 823 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China, and 225 258 received serological examinations, with 2 638 positives detected, while 164 803 bovines received stool examinations, with 2 positives identified. In 2018, there were 90 388 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and expanded chemotherapy was given to 1 490 594 person-times; there were two bovines with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and expanded chemotherapy was given to 352 577 bovine-times; chemical treatment was conducted in an area of 141 660.87 hm2, including an actual mollusciciding area of 75 308.26 hm2, and environmental improvements were performed in an area of 4 738.37 hm2 in China. Data from the 453 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean Schistosoma japonicum infection rates were 0.001 5% and zero in humans and bovines in 2018, respectively, and no infected snails were found. The results demonstrate that the endemic situation of schistosomiasis appears a tendency towards a continuous decline in China; however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission, and challenges remain in achieving the target set in the Thirteenth Five-Year National Plan for Schistosomiasis Control in 2020 in some regions.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819000

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis was once hyper-endemic in Jiangsu Province. During the past seven decades, the professionals working in schistosomiasis control from Jiangsu Province insisted on scientific and precision control all the time, created a series of replicable and generalizable “Jiangsu experiences”. These practices have developed a number of tools and approaches that have been employed in schistosomiasis control programs in main endemic foci of China. More importantly, the successful experiences from national schistosomiasis control programs of China have been firstly transferred to Africa by professionals from Jiangsu Province, and remarkable achievements have been obtained for the control of schistosomiasis haematobia in Zanzibar.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818983

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the epidemic trend of schistosomiasis in China from 2010 to 2017 so as to provide the scientific evidence for schistosomiasis elimination. Methods The information of schistosomiasis control nationwide from 2010 to 2017 was collected, including the endemic of population, status of livestock control, and Oncomelania hupensis snail control. Microsoft Excel was applied for datum management and analysis. Results From 2010 to 2017, the epidemic of schistosomiasis in China dropped significantly. The decreasing amplitude of estimated number of patients nationwide was 88.46%. Seventy-one acute schistosomiasis patients were reported and 12.68% (9/71) of them were imported. The decreasing rate of cultivated cattle was 50.09%, and the accumulative number of schistosome-infected cattle was 17 239, and the average positive rate of stool examinations decreased from 1.04% to 0.000 22%. The area with snails nationwide was 373 596.18 to 363 068.95 hm2, and the new detected area with snails was 46.71 to 1 346.73 hm2. The area with schistosome-infected snails was 171.68 hm2 in 2012 and it was 9.25 hm2 in 2013. In 72 key monitoring points of 7 endemic provinces, there were 17 schistosome positive points of water body in 2010 and 6 points in 2016. There were some high risk-factors related to schistosomiasis transmission including schisto-some-infected cattle, dogs, and field rats, and the field stools, and the pasture in the area with snails in schistosomiasis monitoring points. Conclusions The endemic status of schistosomiasis in China has dropped significantly, and the transmission level is very low. However, the infectious source and risk factors in the endemic environments have not be eliminated. Therefore, the infectious source control, health education, snail control, and transmission monitoring should be strengthened, so as to promote the progress of schistosomiasis elimination.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818946

ABSTRACT

Following the concerted efforts for nearly 70 years, great achievements have been obtained in parasitic diseases control in China, and some important parasitic diseases have been eliminated or moving towards elimination in the country. With the socioeconomic development, the implementation of the “Road and Belt Initiative” and the increase in the international communication and overseas investment, there is a rise in the number of overseas labors, businessmen, students, travelers, visitors and participants in national and international communication activities, resulting in a gradual increase in the number of cases with parasitic diseases imported from endemic to non-endemic areas of China and from foreign countries to China. The increase in the number of imported cases causes new challenges for the elimination of parasitic diseases in China. The paper describes the current status of malaria, schistosomiasis and leishmaniasis, analyzes the challenges for the current control activities, and proposes the control strategies and interventions.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818918

ABSTRACT

In China, the mountainous and hilly schistosomiasis-endemic regions are mainly distributed in 2 provinces of Sichuan and Yunnan. Following the concerted efforts for more than 60 years, great successes have been achieved in schistosomiasis control in mountainous and hilly regions of China. Recently, Sichuan and Yunnan provinces seized the opportunity created in the rural and agriculture development, implemented the integrated strategy with emphasis on infectious source control, utilized modern information techniques, innovated schistosomiasis control models, built sensitive and highly effective surveillance-response systems, and actively tackled the challenges of schistosomiasis elimination, which greatly facilitated the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis in mountainous and hilly regions of China.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818906

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the status and capability of professionals at provincial parasitic diseases control institutions in main clonorchiasis-endemic areas of China. Methods The status and capacity of professionals at four provincial parasitic diseases control institutions were collected using questionnaire surveys, including Guangdong, Guangxi, Heilongjiang and Jilin, and the data were analyzed. Results There were totally 37 professionals working on parasitic diseases control in the four provincial institutions in 2018, including 33 full-time and 4 part-time professionals, and there were 12, 16, 3 and 6 professionals working at Guangdong, Guangxi, Heilongjiang and Jilin provincial institutions, respectively. Of the 37 professionals, there were 24.32%, 37.84% and 37.84% at ages of 35 years and lower, 35 to 45 years, and greater than 45 years. Men consisted of 54.05% of all professionals, and 86.49% had an education of bachelor and above, while 78.38% had a title of moderate or above. Among all professionals, there were 29 responsible for clonorchiasis prevention and control; however, they all participated in the prevention and control of other parasitic diseases; 33 professionals were able to prepare Kato-Katz smears and 34 read the smears; 30 professionals were able to detect metacercaria in fishes, and 24 and 16 professionals were able to perform immunological and mo-lecular tests. In addition, 26 professionals participated in provincial projects, 19 in national projects; however, few professionals participated in international projects or undertook provincial, national or international projects. Furthermore, there were 34 professionals (91.89%) participating in national trainings on parasitic diseases; however, only 12 (32.43%) completed a training for more than one week. Conclusions There are few professionals at provincial parasitic diseases control institutions in main clonorchiasis-endemic areas of China, and they have a relative high capability in parasitic disease control; however, their research capacity is relative weak.

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