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1.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 303-309, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969778

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the influence of blood pressure control after discharge on prognosis of patients with acute aortic syndrome (AAS) complicated with hypertension who underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). Methods: This is a retrospective case analysis. Patients diagnosed with AAS complicated with hypertension and undergoing TEVAR in Northern Theater Command General Hospital from June 2002 to December 2021 were consecutively enrolled. Average systolic blood pressure (SBP) and the occurrence of endpoint events were recorded at one month, one year and every 2 years after TEVAR. According to the patients' average SBP, patients with average SBP<140 mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) or<150 mmHg were divided into the target blood pressure achievement group, and the others were divided into target blood pressure non-achievement group. Endpoint events included all-cause death, aortic death, stroke, renal insufficiency, aortic related adverse events and a composite of these events (overall clinical adverse events), and re-accepting TEVAR. The incidence of endpoint events was compared between the two groups at each follow-up period. Results: A total of 987 patients were included, aged (55.7±11.7) years, including 779 male (78.9%). When the cutoff value was 140 mmHg, the rate of average target SBP achievement was 71.2% (703/987) at one month, 66.7% (618/927) during 1st to 12th month and 65.1% (542/832) from the first year to the third year after TEVAR. The proportion of patients taking≥2 antihypertensive agents was higher in the group of target blood pressure non-achievement group than the target blood pressure achievement group after TEVAR at 1 month (74.3% (211/284) vs.65.9% (463/703), P=0.010) and during 1st to 12th month (71.5% (221/309) vs. 63.6% (393/618), P=0.016). There were no statistical differences in the all-cause deaths, stroke, aortic related adverse events, and repeat TEVAR between the two groups (All P>0.05) during above follow-up periods. When the cutoff value was 150 mmHg, the rate of target SBP achievement was 89.3% (881/987) at one month, 85.2% (790/927) during 1st to 12th month and 85.6%(712/832) from the first year to the third year after TEVAR. The incidence of clinical total adverse events (8.8% (12/137) vs. 4.2% (33/790), P=0.021) and repeat TEVAR (4.4% (6/137) vs. 1.0% (8/790), P=0.003) in target blood pressure non-achievement group were significantly higher than the target blood pressure achievement group during 1st to 12th month after TEVAR. The incidence of all-cause deaths (5.8% (7/120) vs. 2.4% (17/712), P=0.037) in the target blood pressure non-achievement group was significantly higher than the target blood pressure achievement group from the first year to the third year follow-up period, but there were no statistical differences in the incidence of clinical total adverse events between the two group (P>0.05). Conclusion: Among TEVAR treated AAS patients complicated with hypertension, the average SBP more than 150 mmHg post discharge is associated with increased risk of adverse events. Ideal blood pressure control should be encouraged to improve the outcome of these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Blood Pressure , Acute Aortic Syndrome , Retrospective Studies , Aftercare , Treatment Outcome , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , Aortic Dissection , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/surgery , Endovascular Procedures/adverse effects , Patient Discharge , Hypertension , Prognosis , Stroke , Hospitals
2.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 172-179, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969760

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of female patients with Stanford type B aortic dissection. Methods: This is a single-centre retrospective study. Consecutive patients diagnosed with Stanford type B aortic dissection in General Hospital of Northern Theater Command from June 2002 to August 2021 were enrolled, and grouped based on sex. According to the general clinical conditions and complications of aortic dissection tear, patients were treated with thoracic endovascular aortic repair, surgery, or optimal medication. The clinical characteristics and aortic imaging data of the patients at different stages were collected, adverse events including all-cause deaths, stroke, and occurrence of aortic-related adverse events were obtained during hospitalization and within 30 days and at 1 and 5 years after discharge. According to the time of death, death was classified as in-hospital death, out-of-hospital death, and in-hospital death was divided into preoperative death, intraoperative death and postoperative death. According to the cause of death, death was classified as aortic death, cardiac death and other causes of death. Aortic-related adverse events within 30 days after discharge included new paraplegia, post-luminal repair syndrome, and aortic death; long-term (≥1 year after discharge) aortic-related adverse events included aortic death, recurrent aortic dissection, endoleak and distal ulcer events. The clinical characteristics, short-term and long-term prognosis was compared between the groups. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between different clinical factors and all-cause mortality within 30 days in female and male groups separately. Results: A total of 1 094 patients with Stanford type B aortic dissection were enrolled, mean age was (53.9±12.1) years, and 861 (78.7%) were male and 233 (21.3%) were female. (1) Clinical characteristics: compared with male patients, female patients were featured with older average age, higher proportion of aged≥60 years old, back pain, anemia, optimal medication treatment, and higher cholesterol level; while lower proportion of smoking and drinking history, body mass index, calcium antagonists use, creatine kinase level, and white blood cell count (all P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in dissection tear and clinical stage, history of coronary heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, and cerebrovascular disease between female and male patients (all P>0.05). (2) Follow-up result: compared with male patients, female patients had a higher rate of 30-day death [6.9% (16/233) vs. 3.8% (33/861), P=0.047], in-hospital death (5.6% (13/233) vs. 2.7% (23/861), P=0.027), preoperative death (3.9% (9/233) vs. 1.5% (12/861), P=0.023) and aorta death (6.0% (14/233) vs. 3.1% (27/861), P=0.041). The 1-year and 5-year follow-up results demonstrated that there were no significant differences in death, cerebrovascular disease, and aorta-related adverse events between the two groups (all P>0.05). (3) Prognostic factors: the results of the univariate logistic regression analysis showed that body mass index>24 kg/m2 (HR=1.087, 95%CI 1.029-1.149, P=0.013), history of anemia (HR=2.987, 95%CI 1.054-8.468, P=0.032), hypertension (HR=1.094, 95%CI 1.047-1.143, P=0.040) and troponin-T>0.05 μg/L (HR=5.818, 95%CI 1.611-21.018, P=0.003)were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality within 30 days in female patients. Conclusions: Female patients with Stanford type B aortic dissection have specific clinical characteristics, such as older age at presentation, higher rates of anemia and combined back pain, and higher total cholesterol levels. The risk of death within 1 month is higher in female patients than in male patients, which may be associated with body mass index, hypertension, anemia and troponin-T, but the long-term prognosis for both female and male patients is comparable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Prognosis , Hospital Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Troponin T , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/surgery , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Endovascular Procedures/adverse effects , Aortic Dissection , Hypertension/complications , Cholesterol , Risk Factors
3.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 158-163, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969758

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the risk factors of coronary artery occlusion in female patients with ischemic angina pectoris. Methods: Clinical data of 1 600 patients (666 females and 934 males) who underwent coronary angiography from January 2013 to December 2015 due to angina pectoris in 6 major coronary intervention centers in China were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical characteristics were compared between the female and male groups, and between the non-obstructive coronary artery disease (INOCA) and ischemic obstructive coronary artery disease (IOCA) subgroups of female subjects with angina pectoris. The risk factors related to the degree of coronary artery occlusion in female patients were analyzed. Results: In the enrolled patients who underwent coronary angiography for angina pectoris, female group was older than the male group, and the proportion of patients with hypertension, diabetes and ischemia accompanied by IOCA was significantly higher than that of the male group (P<0.05). Univariate analysis showed that age≥65 years, hypertension, diabetes, and typical angina symptoms were associated with an increased risk of IOCA in female patients with angina pectoris. Multivariate regression analysis showed that age≥65 years old (OR=1.784, 95%CI: 1.146-2.776, P=0.010), hypertension (OR=1.782, 95%CI: 1.201-2.644, P=0.004) and typical angina symptoms (OR=1.642, 95%CI: 1.127-2.393, P=0.010) were independent risk factors for female patients with angina pectoris diagnosed as IOCA. The correlation analysis between the number of risk factors and the type of coronary artery disease obstruction showed that the incidence of INOCA decreased significantly with the increase of the number of risk factors, from 45.5% to 14.2%. The incidence of IOCA increased significantly with the number of risk factors, from 54.5% to 85.8% (P for trend<0.001). Conclusion: The incidence of INOCA in female patients with angina pectoris suspected of coronary heart disease is higher than that of male. The incidence of IOCA increased significantly, and the incidence of INOCA decreased significantly in proportion to the increase of the number of combined risk factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Retrospective Studies , Angina Pectoris/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Coronary Angiography , Hypertension/complications , Coronary Occlusion/complications , Ischemia/complications
4.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 121-127, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941247

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the five-year safety and efficacy of the second generation biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent (EXCROSSAL) in treating patients with de novo coronary artery diseases. Methods: Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD)who were implanted with EXTROSSAL stents in CREDIT Ⅱ and CREDIT Ⅲ study were included. CREDIT Ⅱ was a randomized trial, and CREDIT Ⅲ was a single-arm study. From November 2013 to December 2014, 833 CAD patients with de novo coronary lesions implanted with EXTROSSAL stents were selected from 33 centers in China. The primary outcome was 5-year target lesion failure (TLF), a composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction and clinically indicated target lesion revascularization. Secondary endpoints was patient-oriented composite endpoint (PoCE), including all-cause death, all myocardial infarction, or any revascularization within 5 years post stenting and stent thrombosis according to Academic Research Consortium's (ARC) definition. Kaplan Meier method was used to calculate the incidence of TLF and PoCE within 5 years after operation. Univariate Cox regression analysis was used to analyze the impacts of diabetes, small vessel disease (vessel diameter ≤ 2.74 mm), lesion length ≥ 16.7 mm and multivessel disease on the incidence of TLF within 5 years after operation. Results: A total of 833 patients were included in this study including 579 males (69.5%), the age was (59.3±9.1) years. And 832 (99.9%) patients completed 5-year clinical follow-up. The incidence of TLF and PoCE in the 5-year follow-up were 10.6%(86/811) and 15.5%(126/811), respectively. Stent thrombosis occurred in 1.0%(8/811) of patients. Univariate Cox regression analysis showed that vessel diameter ≤ 2.74 mm (HR=3.20,95%CI 1.90-5.39,P<0.001), lesion length ≥ 16.7 mm (HR=1.88,95%CI 1.18-2.99,P=0.007) and multivessel disease (HR=2.44,95%CI 1.60-3.72,P<0.001) were related factors of TLF within 5 years after operation. Conclusion: EXCROSSAL stent is effective and safe in treating CAD patients with de novo coronary lesions, with low incidence of TLF and PoCE within 5 years after operation.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Agents , China , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Drug-Eluting Stents , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Polymers , Risk Factors , Sirolimus/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
5.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 1053-1059, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941219

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of femoral approach versus radial approach on the incidence of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) in patients with coronary heart disease, who received twice contrast agents within a short interval. Methods: A total of 322 patients with coronary heart disease, who admitted to the General Hospital of Northern Theater Command from January 2010 to January 2015, were included in this retrospective analysis. All patients exposed to contrast agents twice within 30 days. The patients were divided into two groups according to the approach of interventional operation: radial artery group (n=235) and femoral artery group (n=87). Serum creatinine (SCr) values were detected at 48 and 72 hours post procedure. Endpoint events were CI-AKI, which was defined as SCr increased>0.5 mg/dl (44.2 μmol/L) or relative ratio ((postoperative SCr-preoperative SCr)/preoperative SCr×100%>25%) within 72 hours after contrast agent use after excluding other causes. Clinical characteristics and the incidence of CI-AKI were compared between the two groups, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to detect the risk factors of postoperative CI-AKI in these patients. Results: The proportion of smoking, PCI history, STEMI patients and levels of fibrinogen, fasting blood glucose, troponin T was significantly higher in femoral artery group than in radial artery group (all P<0.05). The interval between two procedure sessions was significantly longer in the femoral artery group than in the radial artery group (P=0.001). The incidence of CI-AKI tended to be higher in femoral artery group than in radial artery group after the first operation (18.6% (16/87) vs. 11.9% (28/235), P=0.133). CI-AKI incidence after the second operation was similar between the two groups (P>0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that interventional approach was not an independent risk factor for postoperative CI-AKI in patients with coronary heart disease undergoing interventional procedures twice within 30 days (P>0.05);STEMI (OR=2.854, 95%CI 1.100-7.404, P=0.031) and diuretics use (OR=4.002, 95%CI 1.470-10.893, P=0.007) were independent risk factors for CI-AKI after the first operation. Conclusion: There is no correlation between the risk of CI-AKI and interventional approaches in patients with coronary heart disease who undergo interventional surgery twice within 30 days.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Contrast Media/adverse effects , Coronary Disease , Femoral Artery/surgery , Incidence , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Radial Artery , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-744557

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the characteristics in clinical, angiographic and percutaneous intervention (PCI) aspects of patients with chronic total occlusion (CTO) across different age groups, especially in young patients. Methods This study retrospectively analyzed 195 cases of CTO lesions admitted to the Department of Cardiology, General Hospital of Northern Theater Command from 2009 to 2014. These 1951 patients with CTO had undergone PCI and were divided into the young CTO group (≤44 years), the middle-aged CTO group (45-59 years) and the senior CTO group (≥60 years) according to their age. All patients had objective evidence of angina pectoris or myocardial ischemia before PCI. All the clinical features, coronary angiographic results, PCI related data and hospitalization outcome were all derived from our hospital PCI archives. Results There were significant differences in male ratio, body mass index, smoking and, drinking habit, creatinine clearance, triglyceride and LDL levels across the three groups (all P<0.05), and the highest values were found in the young patient group. The prevalence of unstable angina pectoris, hypertension and stroke were lowest in the young patient group (all P<0.05). The number of stenotic vessels and CTO occlusion time were less in young patients (all P <0.05). There was no significant difference among the three groups in CTO vascular distribution, coronary collateral Rentrop degree, CTO lesion length, CTO lesion diameter and CTO lesion characteristics (blunt CTO, CTO with bridging collateral and proximal branch of CTO lesion). There were no significant differences among the three groups in the volume of contrast agent used, CTO operation time, average stent number and average stent length (P>0.05). The procedural success rate of target vessels, races complete revascularization and mean stent diameter were highest in the young patient group (P<0.001).Conclusions Young CTO patients had typical risk factors of coronary heart disease with higher PCI success rate to target vessels and complete revascularization rate, which may be related to the short history of CTO.

7.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2292-2299, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802999

ABSTRACT

Background@#The dose and time point for switching from clopidogrel to ticagrelor remain controversial, especially for Chinese acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with complicated coronary artery disease (CAD). Hence, the purpose of this study was to further explore the optimal dose and time point for the switching strategy to balance the increase in platelet inhibition and the decrease in adverse events in Chinese ACS patients with complicated CAD managed by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).@*Methods@#From July 2017 to December 2017, the prospective, randomized, open-label study (the SwitcHIng from clopidogrel to ticagrelor study) assigned the eligible Chinese ACS patients with complicated CAD managed by PCI (n = 102) for 90 mg of ticagrelor at 12 h (T-90 mg-12 h), 90 mg of ticagrelor at 24 h (T-90 mg-24h) or 180 mg ticagrelor at 24 h (T-180 mg-24 h) after the last dose of clopidogrel. The primary endpoint was the comparison of maximal platelet aggregation (MPA) values at 2 h after switching strategies among the three groups. In addition, the MPA values at baseline, 8 h and before discharge and the rates of high ontreatment platelet reactivity were evaluated, the incidences of bleeding episodes and dyspnea during hospitalization and at 30-day follow-up in our study were also recorded. The MPA was measured by light transmittance aggregometry in our study. A repeatedmeasures analysis of variance (ANOVA) model and one-way ANOVA were used to compare data for the primary endpoint.@*Results@#The MPA values were significantly decreased in the T-180 mg-24 h group compared with the T-90 mg-12 h group (P = 0.017) and decreased numerically compared with the T-90 mg-24 h group (P = 0.072) at 2 h. In particular, the MPA values were markedly reduced in the T-90 mg-24 h group compared with the T-90 mg-12 h group at 8 h after switching treatment (P = 0.002). There was no significant difference among the three groups in all bleedings and dyspnea events.@*Conclusions@#The optimal treatment strategy recommended in this study for Chinese ACS patients with complicated CAD managed by PCI is 180 or 90 mg of ticagrelor at 24 h after the last dose of clopidogrel. In addition, a negative interaction was detected in this study between the overlap for clopidogrel and ticagrelor at 12 h after the last dose of clopidogrel.@*Trial Registration@#ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03577652; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03577652.

8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2292-2299, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774622

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The dose and time point for switching from clopidogrel to ticagrelor remain controversial, especially for Chinese acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with complicated coronary artery disease (CAD). Hence, the purpose of this study was to further explore the optimal dose and time point for the switching strategy to balance the increase in platelet inhibition and the decrease in adverse events in Chinese ACS patients with complicated CAD managed by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).@*METHODS@#From July 2017 to December 2017, the prospective, randomized, open-label study (the SwitcHIng from clopidogrel to ticagrelor study) assigned the eligible Chinese ACS patients with complicated CAD managed by PCI (n = 102) for 90 mg of ticagrelor at 12 h (T-90 mg-12 h), 90 mg of ticagrelor at 24 h (T-90 mg-24h) or 180 mg ticagrelor at 24 h (T-180 mg-24 h) after the last dose of clopidogrel. The primary endpoint was the comparison of maximal platelet aggregation (MPA) values at 2 h after switching strategies among the three groups. In addition, the MPA values at baseline, 8 h and before discharge and the rates of high on-treatment platelet reactivity were evaluated, the incidences of bleeding episodes and dyspnea during hospitalization and at 30-day follow-up in our study were also recorded. The MPA was measured by light transmittance aggregometry in our study. A repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) model and one-way ANOVA were used to compare data for the primary endpoint.@*RESULTS@#The MPA values were significantly decreased in the T-180 mg-24 h group compared with the T-90 mg-12 h group (P = 0.017) and decreased numerically compared with the T-90 mg-24 h group (P = 0.072) at 2 h. In particular, the MPA values were markedly reduced in the T-90 mg-24 h group compared with the T-90 mg-12 h group at 8 h after switching treatment (P = 0.002). There was no significant difference among the three groups in all bleedings and dyspnea events.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The optimal treatment strategy recommended in this study for Chinese ACS patients with complicated CAD managed by PCI is 180 or 90 mg of ticagrelor at 24 h after the last dose of clopidogrel. In addition, a negative interaction was detected in this study between the overlap for clopidogrel and ticagrelor at 12 h after the last dose of clopidogrel.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03577652; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03577652.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-815983

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to introduce the experience in treatment of acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction(STEMI), saphenous vein graft(SVG), Chronic total occlusion(CTO),In-stent restenosis(ISR)and diffuse calcification lesions by excimer laser coronary atherectomy(ELCA). METHODS: Twenty-two patients were enrolled through our center from November 2016 to May 2017 and ELCA was performed on 22 lesions.The clinical and procedure endpoints were recorded. RESULTS: All the lesions were successfully crossed with laser catheterand and finally were performed by ELCA. Five cases(22.7%)with STEMI, ten cases(45.5%) with SVG lesions,five cases with ISR and other cases were CTO(4.5%) and Calcification(4.5%) lesions.Seventeen patients underwent balloon dilatation and successful implantation of drug-eluting stents(DES) and one patients was treated with drug-eluting balloon(DEB).the procedual and clinical success rates were 100%. At 6.6±2.7 months follow-up, there were no major adverse cardiac events(MACEs) and ELCA relatedcomplications recorded. Conclution This limited evdiences showed that treatment of complex coronary lesions by excimer laser coronary atherectomy may be a Safe and effective choice.It can be further popularized in complex coronary artery disease.

10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1412-1419, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-688103

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b>Very few data have been reported for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) caused by unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) occlusion, and very little is known about the results of this subgroup of patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The aim of this study was to determine the clinical features and outcomes of patients with STEMI who underwent primary PCI for acute ULMCA occlusion.</p><p><b>Methods</b>From January 2000 to February 2014, 372 patients with STEMI caused by ULMCA acute occlusion (ULMCA-STEMI) who underwent primary PCI at one of two centers were enrolled. The 230 patients with non-ST-segment elevation MI (NSTEMI) caused by ULMCA lesion (ULMCA-NSTEMI) who underwent emergency PCI were designated the control group. The main indexes were the major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in-hospital, at 1 month, and at 1 year.</p><p><b>Results</b>Compared to the NSTEMI patients, the patients with STEMI had significantly higher rates of Killip class≥III (21.2% vs. 3.5%, χ = 36.253, P < 0.001) and cardiac arrest (8.3% vs. 3.5%, χ = 5.529, P = 0.019). For both groups, the proportions of one-year cardiac death in the patients with a post-procedure thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow grade<3 were significantly higher than those in the patients with a TIMI flow grade of 3 (STEMI group: 51.7% [15/29] vs. 4.1% [14/343], P < 0.001; NSTEMI group: 33.3% [3/9] vs. 13.6% [3/221], P = 0.001; respectively]. Landmark analysis showed that the patients in STEMI group were associated with higher risks of MACE (16.7% vs. 9.1%, P = 0.009) and cardiac death (5.4% vs. 1.3%, P = 0.011) compared with NSTEMI patients at 1 month. Meanwhile, in patients with ULMCA, the landmark analysis for incidences of MACE and cardiac death was similar between the STEMI and NSTEMI (all P = 0.72) in the intervals of 1-12 months. However, patients who were diagnosed with STEMI or NSTEMI had no significant difference in reinfarction (all P > 0.05) and TVR (all P > 0.05) in the intervals of 0-1 month as well as 1 month to 1 year. The results of Cox regression analysis showed that the differences in the independent predictors for MACE included the variables of Killip class ≥ III and intra-aortic balloon pump support for the STEMI patients and the variables of previous MI, ULMCA distal bifurcation, and 2-stent for distal ULMCA lesions for the NSTEMI patients.</p><p><b>Conclusions</b>Compared to the NSTEMI patients, the patients with STEMI and ULMCA lesions still remain at a much higher risk for adverse events at 1 year, especially on 1 month. If a successful PCI procedure is performed, the 1-year outcomes in those patients might improve.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Coronary Occlusion , Pathology , General Surgery , Coronary Vessels , Pathology , General Surgery , Myocardial Infarction , Pathology , General Surgery , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Methods , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Pathology , General Surgery , Treatment Outcome
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1420-1429, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-688102

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b>Females with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have higher in-hospital and short-term mortality rates compared with males in China, suggesting that a sex disparity exists. The age of onset of STEMI is ahead of time and tends to be younger. However, there are relatively little data on the significance of sex on prognosis for long-term outcomes for adult patients with STEMI after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in China. This study sought to analyze the sex differences in 30-day, 1-year, and long-term net adverse clinical events (NACEs) in Chinese adult patients with STEMI after PCI.</p><p><b>Methods</b>This study retrospectively analyzed 1920 consecutive STEMI patients (age ≤60 years) treated with PCI from January 01, 2006, to December 31, 2012. A propensity score analysis between males and females was performed to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics and comorbidities. The primary endpoint was the incidence of 3-year NACE. Survival curves were constructed with Kaplan-Meier estimates and compared by log-rank tests between the two groups. Multivariate analysis was performed using a Cox proportional hazards model for 3-year NACE.</p><p><b>Results</b>Compared with males, females had higher risk profiles associated with old age, longer prehospital delay at the onset of STEMI, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease, and a higher Killip class (≥3), with more multivessel diseases (P < 0.05). The female group had a higher levels of low-density lipoprotein (2.72 [2.27, 3.29] vs. 2.53 [2.12, 3.00], P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein (1.43 [1.23, 1.71] vs. 1.36 [1.11, 1.63], P = 0.003), total cholesterol (4.98 ± 1.10 vs. 4.70 ± 1.15, t = -3.508, P < 0.001), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (103.12 ± 22.22 vs. 87.55 ± 18.03, t = -11.834, P < 0.001) than the male group. In the propensity-matched analysis, being female was associated with a higher risk for 3-year NACE and major adverse cardiac or cerebral events compared with males. In the multivariate model, female gender (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.557, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.415-4.620, P = 0.002), hypertension (HR: 2.017, 95% CI: 1.138-3.576, P = 0.016), and family history of coronary heart disease (HR: 2.256, 95% CI: 1.115-4.566, P = 0.024) were independent risk factors for NACE. The number of stents (HR: 0.625, 95% CI: 0.437-0.894, P = 0.010) was independent protective factors of NACE.</p><p><b>Conclusions</b>Females with STEMI undergoing PCI have a significantly higher risk for 3-year NACE compared with males in this population. Sex differences appear to be a risk factor and present diagnostic challenges for clinicians.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , China , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Myocardial Infarction , Pathology , General Surgery , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Methods , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Pathology , General Surgery , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1430-1435, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-688101

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b>The prevalence, presentation, management, and prognosis of coronary heart disease differ according to sex. Greater understanding on the differences between men and women with acute aortic dissection (AAD) is needed. We aimed to investigate whether sex disparities are found in patients with AAD, and to study sex differences in complications, mortality in-hospital, and long-term.</p><p><b>Methods</b>We included 884 patients enrolled in our institute between June 2002 and May 2016. Considering psychosocial factors, treatments, and the outcomes in men versus those in women with AAD, we explored the association of sex with psychosocial characteristics and mortality risk. For categorical variables, significant differences between groups were assessed with the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test, and continuous parameters were assessed with Student's t-test. Univariate and stratified survival statistics were computed using Kaplan-Meier analysis.</p><p><b>Results</b>A total of 884 patients (76.1% male, mean age 51.4 ± 11.8 years) were included in this study. There were fewer current smokers in female compared with male (17.5% vs. 67.2%, χ = 160.06, P < 0.05). The percentage of men who reported regular alcohol consumption was significantly higher than that in women (40.6% vs. 3.8%, χ = 100.18, P < 0.05). About 6.2% (55 of 884) of patients with AAD died before vascular or endovascular surgery was performed, 34.4% (304 of 884) of patients underwent surgical procedures, and 52.7% (466 of 884) and 12.8% (113 of 884) of patients received endovascular treatment and medication. Postoperative mortality similar (6.0% vs. 5.6%, respectively, χ = 0.03, P = 0.91) between men and women. Follow-up was completed in 653 of 829 patients (78.8%). Adjustment for age, history of coronary disease, hypertension, smoking and drinking, Type A and use of beta-blocker, angiotensin II receptor blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, calcium-channel blockers and statins by multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that age (odds ratios [OR s], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.07; P < 0.05), using of calcium-channel blockers (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.18-0.74; P < 0.05), at discharge were independent predictors of late mortality, ACE inhibitors (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.03-3.54; P = 0.04) was independent risk factor of late mortality.</p><p><b>Conclusions</b>In Chinese with AAD, sex is not independently associated with long-term clinical outcomes. Age, the intake of calcium-channel blockers at discharge might help to improve long-term outcomes.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Age Factors , Aortic Dissection , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Therapeutic Uses , Calcium Channel Blockers , Therapeutic Uses , Hypertension , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Treatment Outcome
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-702329

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the infl uence of iodixanol on Chinese patients who had chronic kidney disease(CKD) and received percutaneous coronary intervention complicated with major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events(MACCE) and contrast-induced acute kidney injury(CIAKI). Methods From 30th October 2013 to 7th October 2015, 3042 patients were enrolled in 30 centers in China. Patients were monitored in the hospital for 3 days and followed-up at 1 month. Patients were divided into chronic kidney disease group(n=105)and non chronic kidney disease group (n=2937) according to whether the patient has chronic nephropathy or not.The primary end point was the incidence rate of MACCE (re-revascularization of target lesions, stroke, stent thrombosis,cardiac death and myocardial infarction) and CIAKI in hospital 72 hours after PCI. The secondary end point was the incidence rate from 72 hours to 30 days post-PCI. Resuits (1)There were obvious differences between the two groups in baseline demographic date including age,BMI,comorbidities of hypertension,congestive heart failure, dyslipidemia,diabetes mellitus,peptic ulcer,ischemic stroke,previous use of antihypertensive drugs, diuretics,lipid-regulating drugs,hypoglycemic drugs,antiplatelet drugs and anticoagulants(all P<0.05).(2) There were obvious differences the CKD and non-CKD groups in perioperative date including operative route,preoperative hydration volume,postoperative hydration volume,total hydration volume,degree of postoporation lesion stenosis, contrast media used and machine injection rate(all P<0.05).(3)There were signifi cant diff erences between the two groups in the percentage of prescription of β-blocker,lipid-regulating drugs and antiplatelet drugs after PCI(all P<0.05).(4)There was not statistical diff erences between two groups in MACCE incidence in hospital and from 72 hours to 30 days post-PCI(P>0.05). (5)There was not statistical diff erences between two the groups in CIAKI incidence in hospital (P>0.05). Conclusions Iodixanol had no signifi cant eff ect on the incidence of MACCE and CIAKI in Chinese chronic kidney disease patients and non-CKD patients who received PCI.

14.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 508-515, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-342004

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b>High platelet reactivity (HPR) during clopidogrel treatment predicts postpercutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) ischemic events strongly and independently. Tongxinluo capsules (TCs) are a traditional Chinese medicine formulation used as antiplatelet treatment. However, its efficacy against HPR is not known. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of TCs in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with HPR.</p><p><b>Methods</b>This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study prospectively analyzed 136 ACS patients with HPR who underwent PCI. The patients were enrolled from November 2013 to May 2014 and randomized to receive placebo or TCs in addition to standard dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and clopidogrel. The primary end points were the prevalence of HPR at 30 days and the mean change in P2Yreaction units (PRUs) between baseline and 30 days. Survival curves were constructed with Kaplan-Meier estimates and compared by log-rank tests between the two groups.</p><p><b>Results</b>Both groups had a significantly reduced prevalence of HPR at 30 days versus baseline, but the TC group, compared with the placebo group, had greater reduction (15.8% vs. 24.8%, P = 0.013), especially among patients with one cytochrome P450 2C19 loss of function (LOF) allele (χ= 2.931, P = 0.047). The TC group also had a lower prevalence of HPR (33.3% vs. 54.2%, t = 5.284, P = 0.022) and superior performance in light transmittance aggregometry and higher levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), but the composite prevalence of ischemic events did not differ significantly (χ= 1.587, P = 0.208).</p><p><b>Conclusions</b>In addition to standard DAPT with aspirin and clopidogrel, TCs further reduce PRU and hsCRP levels, especially in patients carrying only one LOF allele. The data suggest that TCs could be used in combination therapy for ACS patients with HPR undergoing PCI.</p>

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-694061

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the risk factors of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) in patients with coronary heart disease.Method Six hundred and seventy-seven patients with suspected or certainly diagnosed as coronary heart disease consecutively underwent selective coronary angiography and non-selective renal artery angiography during May to Sep.2016 in the Department of Cardiology of General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region.According to the degree of renal artery stenosis,the subjects were divided into renal artery normal group,renal artery slight stenosis group (renal artery stenosis <50%) and renal artery obvious stenosis group (renal artery stenosis >50%).Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to study the independent risk predictors of ARAS.Results By analysis of clinical data,it was found that age,systolic blood pressure,pulse pressure and creatinine level were higher in patients with different degrees of renal artery stenosis than in renal artery normal group (P<0.05).There were significant differences in different degrees of renal artery stenosis groups in female,hypertension,left main coronary artery (P<0.05).The proportion of coronary double vessel lesions was higher in renal artery slight stenosis group than in renal artery normal group (P<0.05).Age,pulse pressure and creatinine level were significantly higher in renal artery obvious stenosis group than in the other two groups (P<0.05).Peripheral vascular disease,left main coronary artery disease,single coronary artery and three vessel disease were significantly higher than that in other two groups (P<0.05).The incidence of renal artery obvious stenosis was 18.9% in patients with renal artery obvious stenosis,and was 16.7% in renal arteries slight stenosis group.By univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analysis,age,female,peripheral vascular disease,and multivessel coronary artery disease were independent risk factors for ARAS.Conclusion Renal artery angiography should be routinely performed for patients with coronary artery disease undergoing coronary angiography to identify ARAS,especially for elderly and female patients associated with peripheral vascular disease.

16.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2321-2325, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-248989

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Acute aortic dissection is known as the most dangerous aortic disease, with management and prognosis determined as the disruption of the medial layer provoked by intramural bleeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and necessity of antiplatelet therapy on patients with Stanford Type B aortic dissection (TBAD) who underwent endovascular aortic repair (EVAR).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The present study retrospectively analyzed 388 patients with TBAD who underwent EVAR and coronary angiography. The primary outcomes were hemorrhage, death, endoleak, recurrent dissection, myocardial infarction, and cerebral infarction in patients with and without aspirin antiplatelet therapy at 1 month and 12 months.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Of those 388 patients, 139 (35.8%) patients were treated with aspirin and 249 (64.2%) patients were not treated with aspirin. Patients in the aspirin group were elderly (57.0 ± 10.3 years vs. 52.5 ± 11.9 years, respectively, χ2 = 3.812, P < 0.001) and had more hypertension (92.1% vs. 83.9%, respectively, χ2 = 5.191, P = 0.023) and diabetes (7.2% vs. 2.8%, respectively, χ2 = 4.090, P = 0.043) than in the no-aspirin group. Twelve patients (aspirin group vs. no-aspirin group; 3.6% vs. 2.8%, respectively, χ2 = 0.184, P = 0.668) died at 1-month follow-up, while the number was 18 (4.6% vs. 5.0%, respectively, χ2 = 0.027, P = 0.870) at 12-month follow-up. Hemorrhage occurred in 1 patient (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium [BARC] Type 2) of the aspirin group, and 3 patients (1 BARC Type 2 and 2 BARC Type 5) in the no-aspirin group at 1-month follow-up (χ2 = 0.005, P = 0.944). New hemorrhage occurred in five patients in the no-aspirin group at 12-month follow-up. Three patients in the aspirin group while five patients in the no-aspirin group had recurrent dissection for endoleak at 1-month follow-up (2.3% vs. 2.2%, respectively, χ2 = 0.074, P = 0.816). Four patients had new dissection in the no-aspirin group at 12-month follow-up (2.3% vs. 3.8%, respectively, χ2 = 0.194, P = 0.660). Each group had one patient with myocardial infarction at 1-month follow-up (0.8% vs. 0.4%, respectively, χ2 = 0.102, P = 0.749) and one more patient in the no-aspirin group at 12-month follow-up. No one had cerebral infarction in both groups during the 12-month follow-up. In the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) subgroup, 44 (31.7%) patients had taken dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT, aspirin + clopidogrel) and the other 95 (68.3%) patients had taken only aspirin. There was no significant difference in hemorrhage (0% vs. 1.1%, respectively, χ2 = 0.144, P = 0.704), death (4.8% vs. 4.5%, respectively, χ2 = 0.154, P = 0.695), myocardial infarction (2.4% vs. 0%, respectively, χ2 = 0.144, P = 0.704), endoleak, and recurrent dissection (0% vs. 3.4%, respectively, χ2 = 0.344, P = 0.558) between the two groups at 12-month follow-up.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The present study indicated that long-term oral low-dose aspirin was safe for patients with both TBAD and coronary heart disease who underwent EVAR. For the patients who underwent both EVAR and PCI, DAPT also showed no increase in hemorrhage, endoleak, recurrent dissection, death, and myocardial infarction.</p>

17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 721-726, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350414

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Recent studies reported that percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation was safe and feasible for the treatment of left main coronary artery (LMCA) disease in select patients. However, it is unclear whether drug-eluting stents (DESs) have better outcomes in patients with LMCA disease compared with bare-metal stent (BMS) during long-term follow-up in Chinese populations.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>From a perspective multicenter registry, 1136 consecutive patients, who underwent BMS or DES implantation for unprotected LMCA stenosis, were divided into two groups: 1007 underwent DES implantation, and 129 underwent BMS implantation. The primary outcome was the rate of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), including cardiovascular (CV) death, myocardial infarction (MI), and target lesion revascularization (TLR) at 5 years postimplantation.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Patients in the DES group were older and more likely to have hyperlipidemia and bifurcation lesions. They had smaller vessels and longer lesions than patients in the BMS group. In the adjusted cohort of patients, the DES group had significantly lower 5 years rates of MACE (19.4% vs. 31.8%, P = 0.022), CV death (7.0% vs. 14.7%, P = 0.045), and MI (5.4% vs. 12.4%, P = 0.049) than the BMS group. There were no significant differences in the rate of TLR (10.9% vs. 17.8%, P = 0.110) and stent thrombosis (4.7% vs. 3.9%, P = 0.758). The rates of MACE (80.6% vs. 68.2%, P = 0.023), CV death (93.0% vs. 85.3%, P = 0.045), TLR (84.5% vs. 72.1%, P = 0.014), and MI (89.9% vs. 80.6%, P = 0.029) free survival were significantly higher in the DES group than in the BMS group. When the propensity score was included as a covariate in the Cox model, the adjusted hazard ratios for the risk of CV death and MI were 0.41 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.21-0.63, P = 0.029) and 0.29 (95% CI: 0.08-0.92, P = 0.037), respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>DES implantation was associated with more favorable clinical outcomes than BMS implantation for the treatment of LMCA disease even though there was no significant difference in the rate of TLR between the two groups.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Coronary Artery Disease , General Surgery , Drug-Eluting Stents , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Methods , Prospective Studies , Stents , Treatment Outcome
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 784-789, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350403

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Current randomized trials have demonstrated the effects of short-term rosuvastatin therapy in preventing contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI). However, the consistency of these effects on patients administered different volumes of contrast media is unknown.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In the TRACK-D trial, 2998 patients with type 2 diabetes and concomitant chronic kidney disease (CKD) who underwent coronary/peripheral arterial angiography with or without percutaneous intervention were randomized to short-term (2 days before and 3 days after procedure) rosuvastatin therapy or standard-of-care. This prespecified analysis compared the effects of rosuvastatin versus standard therapy in patients exposed to (moderate contrast volume [MCV], 200-300 ml, n = 712) or (high contrast volume [HCV], ≥ 300 ml, n = 220). The primary outcome was the incidence of CIAKI. The secondary outcome was a composite of death, dialysis/hemofiltration or worsened heart failure at 30 days.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Rosuvastatin treatment was associated with a significant reduction in CIAKI compared with the controls (2.1% vs. 4.4%, P = 0.050) in the overall cohort and in patients with MCV (1.7% vs. 4.5%, P = 0.029), whereas no benefit was observed in patients with HCV (3.4% vs. 3.9%, P = 0.834). The incidence of secondary outcomes was significantly lower in the rosuvastatin group compared with control group (2.7% vs. 5.3%, P = 0.049) in the overall cohort, but it was similar between the patients with MCV (2.0% vs. 4.2%, P = 0.081) or HCV (5.1% vs. 8.8%, P = 0.273).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Periprocedural short-term rosuvastatin treatment is effective in reducing CIAKI and adverse clinical events for patients with diabetes and CKD after their exposure to a moderate volume of contrast medium.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acute Kidney Injury , Contrast Media , Fluorobenzenes , Therapeutic Uses , Pyrimidines , Therapeutic Uses , Rosuvastatin Calcium , Sulfonamides , Therapeutic Uses , Treatment Outcome
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 995-999, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-269310

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Natural disasters have been frequent in recent years. Effective treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease following natural disasters is an unsolved problem. We aimed to develop a novel miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory (Mini Mobile Cath Lab) to provide emergency interventional services for patients with critical cardiovascular disease following natural disasters. A feasibility study was performed by testing the Mini Mobile Cath Lab on dogs with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) model in a hypothetical natural-disaster-stricken area.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The Mini Mobile Cath Lab was transported to the hypothetical natural-disaster-stricken area by truck. Coronary angiography and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were performed on six dogs with STEMI model. The transportation and transformation of the Mini Mobile Cath Lab were monitored and its functioning was evaluated through the results of animal experiments.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The Mini Mobile Cath Lab could be transported by truck at an average speed of 80 km/h on mountain roads during daytime in the winter, under conditions of light snow (-15°C to -20°C/-68°F to -59°F). The average time required to prepare the Mini Mobile Cath Lab after transportation, in a wetland area, was 30 minutes. Coronary angiography, and primary PCI were performed successfully.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>This preliminary feasibility study of the use of the Mini Mobile Cath Lab for emergency interventional treatment of dogs with STEMI indicated that it may perform well in the rescue of critical cardiovascular disease following natural disasters.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary , Cardiac Catheterization , Cardiovascular Diseases , Therapeutics , Coronary Angiography , Disasters , Electrocardiography , Feasibility Studies , Laboratories , Myocardial Infarction , Therapeutics
20.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1547-1551, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-324938

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Coronary stents are widely used in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures. We aimed to explore the incidence, predictors and characteristics of stent thrombosis (ST) after coronary stent implantation in routine clinical practice.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>From data of 18 063 consecutive patients who underwent successful stent implantation in Shenyang Northern Hospital from 2004 to 2010, we identified patients with definite ST (n = 140) and control patients (n = 280) matched on age, diagnosis, sex, current antiplatelet medication and stent type. The incidence, predictors and characteristics of ST after coronary stent implantation were investigated.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The incidence of angiographically confirmed ST was 0.78% (140/18 063). The time distribution of ST was acute in 43 (30.7%), subacute in 50 (35.7%), and late in 47 (33.6%) patients. Binary Logistic regression analysis identied the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) (odds ratio (OR) = 0.472, 95%CI: 0.276 - 0.807, P = 0.006) and heparin (OR = 0.477, 95%CI: 0.278 - 0.819, P = 0.007) were associated with an reduced risk of cumulative ST. Stent length (OR = 1.042, 95%CI: 1.026 - 1.058, P < 0.001), serum creatinine total (OR = 1.020, 95%CI: 1.004 - 1.035, P = 0.04), cholesterol (OR = 1.267, 95%CI: 1.021 - 1.573, P = 0.032), glucose (OR = 1.086, 95%CI: 1.002 - 1.176, P = 0.044), and platelet aggregation (OR = 1.113, 95%CI: 1.075 - 1.154, P < 0.001) were associated with an increased risk of cumulative ST.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>ST is associated with longer stent length and higher level of total cholesterol, glucose and platelet aggregation.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Metabolism , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Thrombosis , Epidemiology , Metabolism , Drug-Eluting Stents , Heparin , Metabolism , Logistic Models , Myocardial Infarction , Diagnostic Imaging , Therapeutics
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