Objective@#To explore the relationship between the cognitive impairment and cerebral lesions using 7.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in CADASIL patients. @*Methods@#Thirty five CADASIL patients confirmed by serum NOTCH3 gene detection in Peking University First Hospital from June 2015 to November 2018 were enrolled, including 19 males and 16 females, of which the age of onset was (39.28±8.31) years, the age of admission was (44.61±8.42) years, and the course of disease was (5.29±3.65) years. 7.0 Tesla MRI was performed in all the patients. The numbers of lacunar infarcts and microbleeds were counted and the white matter changes were evaluated with age-related white matter rating scale (ARWMrs). Neuropsychological tests were used to evaluate the global cognition, memory, attention, executive function, visuo-spatial function and language function separately. The z score was calculated to evaluate the impairment extent in different scales. The correlation analysis was performed between image changes and neuropsychological tests. Thirty nine normal controls including 20 males and 19 females with age of (42.54±8.92) years were also enrolled, and the same neuropsychological tests were performed in these subjects. @*Results@#The numbers of microbleeds and lacunar infarcts were 13.71±10.29 and 5.89 (8.74). The ARWMrs score was 11.26±5.31. There were 21 patients (60%) presented with cognitive impairment. In comparison with the controls, the patients presented with global cognitive impairment (MMSE score 26.87±3.95 vs 29.08±0.95), including executive (finishing time of Stroops-c: 80.00 (103.75) s vs 67.79 (16.00) s, correct number of Stroops-c: 48.00 (44.26) vs 50.00 (2.00), time of trail making A test: 55.5 (81.5) s vs 39.0 (5.0) s, time of trail making B test: 171.0 (159.5) s vs 103.0 (54.0) s, false number of trail making B test: 0(2) vs 0(0)), memory (number of register memory: 16.13±5.41 vs 21.1±15.21, number of long term recall: 4.78±2.83 vs 7.41±2.24, number of cue recall memory: 4(6) vs 8(4), number of recognition memory: 10.00 (2.25) vs 11.00 (2.00)), attention (number of digital span: 4.42±1.46 vs 7.89±1.65, correct number of symbol digitalis modality test: 38.47±17.29 vs 51.41±13.00), visuo-spatial (Rey-osterrich: 34 (5) vs 36 (2)) and language function (number of semantic fluency: 14.70±5.54 vs 17.46±5.63) (P<0.05). The z score demonstrated impaired executive function, followed by visuo-spatial dysfunction. The number of lacunar infarcts and microbleeds significantly correlated with short term recall memory (r=-0.404, -0.393), long term recall memory (r=-0.375, -0.395), cue memory (r=-0.395, -0.437), Stroops-c time (r=0.412, 0.503), trails making A test time (r=0.400, 0.434)(P<0.05). The number of lacunar infarcts significantly correlated with symbol digitalis modality test (r=-0.475) (P<0.05). The number of microbleeds significantly correlated with digital span test (r=-0.390), Boston naming test (r=-0.382) and semantic fluency (r=-0.449) (P<0.05). ARWMrs score significantly correlated with MMSE score (r=-0.357), rigister memory (r=-0.342), trails making A finishing time (r=0.425), trails making B finishing time (r=0.463) and correct numbers of trails making B (r=0.392) (P<0.05). @*Conclusions@#CADASIL presented with global cognitive impairment, especially executive function and visuo-spatial function. The white matter changes, lacunar infarcts and microbleeds affected different cognitive function.
Abstract@#Health teacher system in Japan has a history of more than 70 years. At present, it has formed a comprehensive teacher education and certification system at three levels including junior college, bachelor and graduate degree. In 2017, Japan Association of Nursing Programs in University developed competency standard system for school health teachers, which covers 7 major dimensions, 19 core competence indicators and 87 academic standards according to requirements from Ministry of Education. This paper introduces and interprets school health teacher training system in Japan, and the core competence indicators and academic standards of the system, offering some basic reference for the construction of school health teacher training system in China.