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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940942

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that seriously hinders socioeconomic developments and threatens public health security. To achieve the global elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem by 2030, WHO released the guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis on February, 2022, with aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for schistosomiasis morbidity control, elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem, and ultimate interruption of schistosomiasis transmission in disease-endemic countries. Following concerted efforts for decades, great achievements have been obtained for schistosomiasis control in China where the disease was historically highly prevalent, and the country is moving towards schistosomiasis elimination. This article reviews the successful experiences from the national schistosmiasis control program in China, and summarizes their contributions to the formulation and implementation of the WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis. With the progress of the "Belt and Road" initiative, the world is looking forward to more China's solutions on schistosomiasis control.


Subject(s)
China/epidemiology , Disease Eradication , Humans , Public Health , Schistosomiasis/prevention & control , World Health Organization
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904619

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish a deep learning-based visual model for intelligent recognition of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, and evaluate the effects of different training strategies for O. hupensis image recognition. Methods A total of 2 614 datasets of O. hupensis snails and 4 similar snails were generated through field sampling and internet capture, and were divided into training sets and test sets. An intelligent recognition model was created based on deep learning, and was trained and tested. The precision, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, F1 score and Youden index were calculated. In addition, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the model for snail recognition was plotted to evaluate the effects of “new learning”, “transfer learning” and “transfer learning + data enhancement” training strategies on the accuracy of the model for snail recognition. Results Under the “transfer learning + data enhancement” strategy, the precision, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, Youden index and F1 score of the model were 90.10%, 91.00%, 97.50%, 96.20%, 88.50% and 90.51% for snail recognition, which were all higher than those under both “new learning” and “transfer learning” strategies. There were significant differences in the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the model for snail recognition under “new learning”, “transfer learning” and “transfer learning + data enhancement” training strategies (all P values < 0.001). In addition, the area under the ROC curve of the model was highest (0.94) under the “transfer learning + dataenhancement” training strategy. Conclusions This is the first visual model for intelligent recognition of O. hupensis based on deep learning, which shows a high accuracy for snail image recognition. The “transfer learning + data enhancement” training strategy is helpful to improve the accuracy of the model for snail recognition.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876711

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the efficiency of a recombinase-aided amplification (RAA) assay for the detection of Schistosoma japonicum infections in Oncomelania hupensis snails. Methods A group test was employed. Fifty Oncomelania snails were collected as a detection sample. The detection samples without infected snails were designated as negative specimens, while the detection samples that contained different numbers of infected snails were designated as positive specimens. A total of 10 negative specimens, 10 positive specimens containing 1 infected snail, 20 positive specimens containing 2 infected snails and 10 positive specimens containing 3 infected snails were assigned. Following random grouping, 40 specimens were subject to the florescent RAA assay using a blind method. The miradium shedding method served as a gold standard, and the sensitivity, specificity, Youden’s index and coincidence rate of the florescent RAA assay were estimated. In addition, 20 samples consisted of 5 negative specimens and 15 positive specimens with 1, 2 and 3 infected snails respectively were grouped randomly. The same specimens were detected using the crushing method and fluorescent RAA assay with the blind method in a paired-design manner. Then, the test results were compared and analyzed. Results Florescent RAA assay detected 29 positives in the 30 specimens containing different numbers of infected snails, with a sensitivity of 96.67%, and 8 negatives in the 10 detection specimens without infected snails, with a specificity of 80.00%, showing a Youden’s index of 0.77. The coincidence rate was 100% among 10 repeated assays for a detection specimen. In addition, there was no significant difference in the detection of infected snails between the florescent RAA assay and the crushing method (χ2 = 0, P > 0.05), and the actual coincidence rates of the florescent RAA assay and crushing method were 95.00% (19/20) and 90.00% (18/20) with the real results, respectively. Conclusion Fluorescent RAA assay has a favorable efficiency for the detection of S. japonicum infections in Oncomelania snails, which shows a potential in screening of S. japonicum-infected Oncomelania snails.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829571

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of Oncomelania hupensis snail habitats in three cities of Suzhou, Wuxi and Changzhou along the Taihu Lake region, so as to provide technical supports for establishing a sensitive and highly effective surveillance and forecast system for schistosomiasis. Methods Snail distribution data were collected from Suzhou, Wuxi and Changzhou cities from 1950 to 2018, and the changing trend for snail habitats were described over years. In addition, the clusters of snail habitats were detected using Kernel density analysis and SaTScan space-time scan analysis. Results The number of snail habitats appeared a single-peak distribution in Suzhou, Wuxi and Changzhou cities from 1950 to 2018, which peaked in 1970 and then declined rapidly. There were 62.68% of snail habitats eliminated within 10 years after identification, of which 38.24% were eliminated at the year of identification. Kernel density analysis and SaTScan space-time scan analysis revealed that high-density clusters of snail habitats were mainly distributed in Kunshan City, Wuzhong District and Xiangcheng District from 1970 to 1980, and in Yixing City in 1990; since then, the clusters gradually shrank, and overall appeared a move from northeast to west of Taihu Lake. A total of 4 new clusters were detected after 1970, as revealed by space-time scanning of snail habitats. In current snail habitats, emerging snail habitats are mainly identified in Huqiu District (Dongzhu Town), Wuzhong District (Guangfu Town), Taicang City (Shaxi Town) and Jintan District, and re-emerging snail habitats are scattered in 7 districts. Conclusions The distribution of snail habitats are spatio-temporal aggregation in Suzhou, Wuxi and Changzhou cities. The monitoring and prediction of emerging and re-emerging snail habitats are the key points in the future.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812929

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the spatio-temporal characteristics of Oncomelania hupensis snails along the Danyang section of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal and the Danyang-Jintan-Liyang Canal, so as to provide scientific evidence for the dynamic assessment of the risk of snail spread in this region. Methods O. hupensis snail status was collected in the plain regions with waterway networks in the study area from 2012 to 2017. The spatio-temporal variations of snail distribution were investigated along the Danyang section of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal and the Danyang-Jintan-Liyang Canal using buffer zone analysis, spatial autocorrelation, hotspot analysis and standard deviational ellipse with the geographical information system (GIS) tools. Results The number of snail habitats showed a tendency towards a rise in the study area from 2012 to 2017, and snail habitats were predominantly distributed in the 1 000 m long buffer zone of the Danyang-Jintan-Liyang Canal, notably along the Jiuqu River at the junction between the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal and the Danyang-Jintan-Liyang Canal. The distribution of snail habitats appeared spatial autocorrelations in 2014, 2016 and 2017, and the hotspot areas were mainly identified at the junction between the Danyang-Jintan-Liyang Canal and the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal. In addition, the overall distribution of snail habitats was located in the northeastern-southwestern part of the study aera, and gradually shifted to the southern and northern parts with the time. Conclusions The spatial distribution of O. hupensis snails is complex along the Danyang section of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal and the Danyang-Jintan-Liyang Canal, and there is a risk of snail spread from the upper reaches to the lower reaches, where snail control needs to be intensified.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819020

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the status of grass-roots schistosomiasis control professionals in Jiangsu Province, so as to provide scientific evidence for the rational resource allocation and the improvement of capability building. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted by telephone interview and e-mail among city- and county-level disease prevention and control institutions that undertook schistosomiasis control activities in Jiangsu Province, and the age, educational background, major, duration of working, professional title and professional capability were descriptively analyzed. Results There were totally 274 fulltime schistosomiasis control professionals working at grass-roots institutions in Jiangsu Province, with a mean age of (43.19 ± 9.47) years. The least professionals were below 30 years of age (12.77%, 35/274), and the most professionals were aged from 41 to 50 years (36.86%, 101/274). Among the 274 professionals, 43.07% (118/274) had duration of working of less than 10 years, 62.04% (170/274) had a bachelor degree, and 40.88% (112/274) had the medium-level professional title. Conclusions A schistosomiasis control team with a relatively high academic degree and professional title has been built at the grassroot level in Jiangsu Province. However, capability building remains to be improved through the participation of more young professionals and professional training with adaptation to local conditions.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819007

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the total factor productivity (TFP) of schistosomiasis control programs in Jiangsu Province, so as to provide insights into sustainable schistosomiasis control. Methods The data envelopment analysis-Malmquist index method was employed to analyze the human resources and financial investments in schistosomiasis control programs from health sectors in each schistosomiasis-endemic city of Jiangsu Province from 2005 to 2015, and assess the outputs of each schistosomiasis control project. Results The overall productive efficiency of schistosomiasis control programs in Jiangsu Province showed an increasing tendency, and the mean fluctuation of annual TFP was 2.3%. The comprehensive technical efficiency, including pure efficiency and scale efficiency, appeared a steady increase with minor fluctuations, and the mean fluctuation of annual comprehensive technical efficiency was 3.8%. The growth rate of technical progress fluctuated greatly from 2005 to 2011, and showed a steady increase from 2012 to 2015, which became a major contributor to the growth of TFP. A higher growth rate of TFP was seen in Huai ‘ an and Changzhou cities, which showed a greater comprehensive technical efficiency, and a large fluctuation was observed in the growth rate of technical progress in Yancheng, Nanjing, Huai ’ an and Yangzhou cities. Conclusions There is a continuous improvement in the technical level of schistosomiasis control programs in Jiangsu Province, and technical application and supervision and management capacity also show a steady increase. In addition, the application of new techniques and new strategies contributes greatly to TFP growth. In the future, the investment into new techniques and new strategies should be increased to ensure the sustainable schistosomiasis control in Jiangsu Province.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819005

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze and investigate the changing trend of the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in national surveillance sites of Jiangsu Province from 2011 to 2018, so as to provide scientific evidence for formulating strategies for schistosomiasis control. Methods From 2011 to 2014, the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were set in seven schistosomiasis endemic counties (cities, districts) across Jiangsu Province as according to the National Schistosomiasis Surveillance Scheme (2011 version), and from 2015 to 2018, the national surveillance sites were assigned in all 64 counties (cities, districts) endemic for schistosomiasis in Jiangsu Province according to the National Schistosomiasis Surveillance Scheme (2014 version). Schistosoma japonicum infections in local populations, mobile populations and livestock, and snail status were monitored in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Jiangsu Province from 2011 to 2018, and the monitoring data were statistically analyzed. Results The sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections was 1.50% to 4.61% among local populations in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Jiangsu Province from 2011 to 2018, and a higher sero-prevalence was seen in men than in women, with the sero-positives predominantly detected in local populations at ages of over 50 years. The positive rate of stool examinations was 0 to 0.14% among sero-positive local populations in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Jiangsu Province from 2011 to 2018, and no acute case was found in local populations during the study period. The sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections was 0.46% to 15.97% among mobile populations in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Jiangsu Province from 2011 to 2018, and no egg-positives were identified. A total of 1 453 livestock were tested in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Jiangsu Province from 2011 to 2018, and no S. japonicum infections were detected. During the period from 2011 through 2018, snail survey was conducted in an area of 216 million m2 in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Jiangsu Province, and 1 291.01 hm2 snail habitats were identified, with snail densities ranging from 0.01 to 0.47 snails/0.1 m2; however, no S. japonicum infections were identified in snails. Conclusions The overall endemic situation of schistosomiasis appears a tendency towards a decline in Jiangsu Province, and S. japonicum infection remains at a low level in both humans and livestock. No S. japonicum infection has been identified in local populations in Jiangsu Province since 2012. In the future, monitoring and management of imported sources of S. japonicum infections should be intensified in Jiangsu Province, and the capability building of passive surveillance of schistosomiasis should be improved in sentinel hospitals in national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Jiangsu Province. In addition, the examination of schistosomiasis should be strengthened in mobile populations in Jiangsu Province, a sensitive and effective surveillance-response system for schistosomiasis is urgently needed.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818600

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the status of grass-roots schistosomiasis control professionals in Jiangsu Province, so as to provide scientific evidence for the rational resource allocation and the improvement of capability building. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted by telephone interview and e-mail among city- and county-level disease prevention and control institutions that undertook schistosomiasis control activities in Jiangsu Province, and the age, educational background, major, duration of working, professional title and professional capability were descriptively analyzed. Results There were totally 274 fulltime schistosomiasis control professionals working at grass-roots institutions in Jiangsu Province, with a mean age of (43.19 ± 9.47) years. The least professionals were below 30 years of age (12.77%, 35/274), and the most professionals were aged from 41 to 50 years (36.86%, 101/274). Among the 274 professionals, 43.07% (118/274) had duration of working of less than 10 years, 62.04% (170/274) had a bachelor degree, and 40.88% (112/274) had the medium-level professional title. Conclusions A schistosomiasis control team with a relatively high academic degree and professional title has been built at the grassroot level in Jiangsu Province. However, capability building remains to be improved through the participation of more young professionals and professional training with adaptation to local conditions.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818587

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the total factor productivity (TFP) of schistosomiasis control programs in Jiangsu Province, so as to provide insights into sustainable schistosomiasis control. Methods The data envelopment analysis-Malmquist index method was employed to analyze the human resources and financial investments in schistosomiasis control programs from health sectors in each schistosomiasis-endemic city of Jiangsu Province from 2005 to 2015, and assess the outputs of each schistosomiasis control project. Results The overall productive efficiency of schistosomiasis control programs in Jiangsu Province showed an increasing tendency, and the mean fluctuation of annual TFP was 2.3%. The comprehensive technical efficiency, including pure efficiency and scale efficiency, appeared a steady increase with minor fluctuations, and the mean fluctuation of annual comprehensive technical efficiency was 3.8%. The growth rate of technical progress fluctuated greatly from 2005 to 2011, and showed a steady increase from 2012 to 2015, which became a major contributor to the growth of TFP. A higher growth rate of TFP was seen in Huai ‘ an and Changzhou cities, which showed a greater comprehensive technical efficiency, and a large fluctuation was observed in the growth rate of technical progress in Yancheng, Nanjing, Huai ’ an and Yangzhou cities. Conclusions There is a continuous improvement in the technical level of schistosomiasis control programs in Jiangsu Province, and technical application and supervision and management capacity also show a steady increase. In addition, the application of new techniques and new strategies contributes greatly to TFP growth. In the future, the investment into new techniques and new strategies should be increased to ensure the sustainable schistosomiasis control in Jiangsu Province.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818585

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze and investigate the changing trend of the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in national surveillance sites of Jiangsu Province from 2011 to 2018, so as to provide scientific evidence for formulating strategies for schistosomiasis control. Methods From 2011 to 2014, the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were set in seven schistosomiasis endemic counties (cities, districts) across Jiangsu Province as according to the National Schistosomiasis Surveillance Scheme (2011 version), and from 2015 to 2018, the national surveillance sites were assigned in all 64 counties (cities, districts) endemic for schistosomiasis in Jiangsu Province according to the National Schistosomiasis Surveillance Scheme (2014 version). Schistosoma japonicum infections in local populations, mobile populations and livestock, and snail status were monitored in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Jiangsu Province from 2011 to 2018, and the monitoring data were statistically analyzed. Results The sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections was 1.50% to 4.61% among local populations in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Jiangsu Province from 2011 to 2018, and a higher sero-prevalence was seen in men than in women, with the sero-positives predominantly detected in local populations at ages of over 50 years. The positive rate of stool examinations was 0 to 0.14% among sero-positive local populations in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Jiangsu Province from 2011 to 2018, and no acute case was found in local populations during the study period. The sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections was 0.46% to 15.97% among mobile populations in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Jiangsu Province from 2011 to 2018, and no egg-positives were identified. A total of 1 453 livestock were tested in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Jiangsu Province from 2011 to 2018, and no S. japonicum infections were detected. During the period from 2011 through 2018, snail survey was conducted in an area of 216 million m2 in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Jiangsu Province, and 1 291.01 hm2 snail habitats were identified, with snail densities ranging from 0.01 to 0.47 snails/0.1 m2; however, no S. japonicum infections were identified in snails. Conclusions The overall endemic situation of schistosomiasis appears a tendency towards a decline in Jiangsu Province, and S. japonicum infection remains at a low level in both humans and livestock. No S. japonicum infection has been identified in local populations in Jiangsu Province since 2012. In the future, monitoring and management of imported sources of S. japonicum infections should be intensified in Jiangsu Province, and the capability building of passive surveillance of schistosomiasis should be improved in sentinel hospitals in national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Jiangsu Province. In addition, the examination of schistosomiasis should be strengthened in mobile populations in Jiangsu Province, a sensitive and effective surveillance-response system for schistosomiasis is urgently needed.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-704219

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the pathogenic detection capacity of county-level organizations in Jiangsu Province,and to improve the field schistosomiasis detection capacity of professional personnel,thus to provide the technical support for the con-struction of quality control system of schistosomiasis field detection.Method The eggs of Schistosoma japonicum were obtained from rabbit schistosomiasis models and were produced into suspensions at four different concentrations.The county-level workers were invited to hatch the eggs,and the accuracy,detection error rate and omission rate were compared between the detection re-sults and the standard results.The single-blind method was used in the capacity examination. Result A total of 560 suspen-sions were detected by 28 counties(districts,cities),and 283 positive samples and 203 negative samples were detected.The total accuracy was 86.79%,total error rate was 9.38%,and total omission rate was 15.77%.The difference between the detection re-sult and standard result was statistically significant(χ2=12.99,P<0.01).Twenty out of 28 counties(districts,cities)had omis-sion detections,accounting for 71.43%;and 13 had fault detections,accounting for 46.43%.The error rates of workers from the river marshland,hilly areas,water networks,and lake marshland ranged from 4.55% to 43.75%,and the difference was statistical-ly significant(χ2=30.34,P<0.01).The omission rate ranged from 4.17% to 20.45%,and the difference was not statistically sig-nificant(χ2=5.09,P=0.17).The error rates and omission rates of workers from the transmission control areas and transmission interruption areas were 7.50%,13.33% and 10.42%,17.13%,respectively,and the differences were not statistically significant (χ2=0.229,0.575,both P>0.05).The error rates and omission rates of workers from the areas with or without at least ten years history of transmission control were 11.81%,5.00% and 16.67%,14.17%,respectively,and the differences were not statistically significant(χ2=2.804,2.848,both P>0.05).The error rates of workers from the areas with or without at least ten years history of transmission interruption were 11.54% and 10.00%, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant(χ2=0.069,P=0.792),while the correspondent omission rates were 10.90% and 35.00% respectively,and the difference was statisti-cally significant(χ2=17.364,P<0.01).Conclusion The detection error and omission exist in the schistosomiasis examina-tions in the county-level organizations in Jiangsu Province,and therefore,the field pathogen detection capacity of the professional personnel needs to be further improved.

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