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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-469399

ABSTRACT

Objective To examine the effect of simvastatin treatment on Parkinson's disease rats induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and its mechanism.Methods The LPS-PD model was established by injection of LPS (5 mg/mL) into the right substantia nigra compacta (SNC),and rats were randomly divided into control group,LPS-model group and simvastatin treatment group with 15 rats in each group.Rats in the simvastatin treatment group was intraperitoneally administered simvastatin (5 mg/kg) before,and daily for 14 days after surgery,while the control group and LPS-model group received same volume normal saline and LPS respectively.Ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1)-positive cells and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH),tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the SNC were detected by immunohistochemistry,Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,respectively.The effect of simvastatin in the PD model was also examined in behavioral tests.Results The LPS-model group exhibited typical animal PD behaviors.Compared with the control group,the LPS-model group exhibited a decreased number of DA neurons,and comparison of the intact side to reduce 81.13% (P<0.01) in the SNC,as well as increases in the Iba-1-positive cell number,iNOS,IL-1β and TNF-α expression (P<0.05).These effects were inhibited by simvastatin treatment (P<0.05).Conclusion Simvastatin mediates a protective effect on dopaminergic neurons in the SNC in the LPS-PD model,possibly by inhibiting glial cells (astrocytes and microglia) activation,and playing an anti-inflammatory role,thus improving substantia nigra function.

2.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 252-256, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-413588

ABSTRACT

Objective To further investigate clinical manifestations and management for thallium poisoning. Methods Clinical data of 6 patients who were hospitalized in Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College in May 2008 with diagnosis of acute or chronic thallium poisoning,were retrospectively analyzed.Results Six patients (4 male and 2 female) ,aged from 12 to 50,came from one family (two sisters with their husbands and sons). Five of them (3 acute and 2 chronic,for the second time in half a year,thallium poisoning) initiated with peripheral neuritis,represented with severe burning pain,numbness,paresthesia in the lower limbs,accompanied with or without gastrointestinal symptoms. A 12 year-old boy with obviously elevated urinary thallium concentration was asymptomatic. Blood and urinary thallium concentrations of the patients were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and were all significantly elevated.Treatment was initiated using potassium supplementation,diuresis,oral laxatives,Prussian blue and intramuscular injection of dimercaptopropansulfonate sodium.Meanwhile two of them were treated with hemoperfusion. Finally,two of them recovered,another two were transferred to a specialized hospital for continuous treatment,and the rest two deteriorated rapidly with occurrence of unconsciousness and died of multiple organ failure. Conclusions The main clinical manifestations of thallium poisoning are multiple peripheral neuritis,gastrointestinal symptoms and dermatological changes. In order to avoid missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis,a high suspicion should be arose for thallium poisoning when a patient suffering from the above symptoms.Prussian blue was considered traditionally as an effective therapeutic strategy for the condition,and hemoperfusion may be a more effective treatment for acute thallium poisoning.

3.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 771-775, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-392077

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in rotenone-mediated dopaminergic cell damage. Methods Neuronal rat adrenal pheochromecytoma(PC12) cells treated with rotenone were used as the cell model of Parkinson' s disease (PD). Cell viability of PC12 cells after exposure to rotenone was detected by MTT (methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium) method. Immanohistechemistry was used to detect the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in cells exposed to rotenone. Western blotting was used to verify the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and to observe the effect of PD98059, an inhibitor of the upstream mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) that phosphorylates and activates ERK1/2, on rotenone-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and cell viability.Results The viability (represented by A570 of PC12 cells exposed to 5 μmoL/L rotenone) declined with the increase of exposure time from 1 h to 24 h (%, 1 h :75.46±5.47, 2 h : 70.42±1.94, 4 h : 65.23± 0.96, 8 h : 59.04 ± 2.85, 24 h :29.64 ± 1.63, comparison between different time points(F=143.014, P=0.000) ; compared with control groups(100.00±2.89), q value: 17.07, 20.58, 24. 19, 28.50, 48.95 respectively, all P <0.01). After exposure to rotenone, phosphorylated ERK1/2 aggregated in the PC12 cells. Western blotting indicated that rotenone induced a biphasic phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which increased from 30 min after rotenone treatment, reached the peak at 1-2 h, decreased at 4 h, and increased again at 8 h, and disappeared after 16 h; PD98059 significantly inhibited ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by rotenone, and attenuated cell injury examined at 1, 2 and 8 h. Conclusions Our study suggested that ERK1/2 activation plays a detrimental role in rotenone toxicity, and raised the possibility that abnormal patterns of ERK1/2 activation may contribute to dopaminergic neuronal cell death in PD.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-635366

ABSTRACT

In order to study neurotransmitter receptor regulation in the basal ganglia involved in the functional changes underlying levodopa-induced motor complications, quantitative autoradiography was used to observe receptor bindings of dopamine D1 and D2, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) and amino butyric acid (GABA) in the basal ganglia of rats that had unilateral nigrostriatal lesions and had been chronically treated with levodopa until motor complications developed. The rats were randomly assigned to three groups: normal, denervated and treatment-complicated groups. The results showed that response duration to levodopa became progressively shorter and abnormal involuntary movement (AIM) score was progressively increased during the course of levodopa treatment. Chronic treatment augmented D1 receptors more than denervation, and reduced D2 receptors that were also increased by dopamine denervation. Striatal NMDA receptors were substantially up-regulated in the treatment-complicated group. Levodopa treatment did not change receptors of nigral AMPA, pallidal GABA, and subthalamic GABA, which remained the same as that in denervation group. However, chronic treatment reversed the increase of nigral GABA receptors caused by the lesion. It was concluded that a shortening of response duration and AIM mimicked levodopa-induced motor complications of Parkinson's patients. These data suggested that up-regulation of dopamine D1 and NMDA receptors in the striatum leads to an imbalance of stimulation through the striatal output pathways, which is associated with levodopa-induced motor complications.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-408227

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mainly pathological changes of Parkinson disease (PD)are related to irreversible degeneration and reduction of dopamine neurons of substantia nigra in midbrain; however, oxidative stress reaction plays an important role in onset of PD. 3-nitropropionie acid (3-NP) is an inhibitor of mitochondria compound I, and it can inhibit oxidative phosphorylation so as to restrain energy metabolism. However, professor Riepe from Germany found that small dose of 3-NP can increase the tolerance of neurons to ischemic hypoxia. It is unclear whether it can also strengthen the tolerance of dopamine neurons to neurotoxin.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible mechanism and prevention of repetitively preconditioning 3-NP for treating PD.DESIGN: Controlled observational animal study. SETTING: Department of Neurology, Union Hospital affiliated to TongjiMedical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology. MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out at the Neurological Lab oratory, Union Hospital affiliated to Tongji Medical College, Huazhong U niversity of Science and Technology from March to July 2004. A total of48 C57BL mice, weighing 18-20 g, aged 2-3 months, of both genders, were randomly divided into 6 groups with 8 in each group. ① Blank con trol group: Mice were not medicated. ② 3-NP single administrationgroup: Mice were intraperitoneally injected with 3-NP once. ③ 3-NPrepetitively administrations group: Mice were intraperitoneally injectedwith 3-NP every 5 days for 5 times in total. ④ Neurotoxin group: Micewere intraperitoneally injected with neurotoxin once every day for 5 timesin total. ⑤ 3-NP single preconditioning group: Mice were intraperitoneal ly injected with 3-NP once, and 3 days later, they were intraperitoneallyinjected with neurotoxin once every day for 5 times in total. ⑥ 3-NPrepetitively preconditionings group: Mice were intraperitoneally injectedwith 3-NP and repetitively every 5 days for 5 times in total; 3 days later, mice were intraperitoneally injected with neurotoxin once every day for5 times in total. Dosages of 3-NP and neurotoxin were 20 mg/kg and30 mg/kg, respectively. METHODS: Motor coordination of mice was scored with pole test andtraction test before experiment and at 3 days after the last injection ofneurotoxin. Three days after complete injection, mice were sacrificed rapid ly to measure the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glu tathione (GSH) in the substantia nigra of midbrain. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Motor and behavior scores; ② con tent of MDA; ③ content of GSH.~ULTS: All 48 mice were involved in the final analysis. ① Scores of pole test and traction test were decreased in neurotoxin group as compared with those in control group (P<0.01); but the scores were increased after 3-NP single/repetitively preconditionings, and there were significant difference (P<0.05, P<0.01). Meanwhile, there was also significant differencebetween 3-NP repetitively preconditionings group and 3-NP single preconditioning group (P<0.05). ② Content of MDA was increased in neurotoxin group as compared with that in control group, and there was significant difference (P<0.01); content of MDA was decreased after 3-NP single preconditioning as compared with that in neurotoxin group, and there was significant difference (P<0.05); content of MDA was remarkably decreased after 3-NP repetitively preconditionings as compared with that in neurotoxin group, and there was greatly significant difference (P<0.01); meanwhile, there was also significant difference between 3-NP repetitively preconditionings group and 3-NP single preconditioning group (P<0.05). ③As compared with that in blank control group, content GSH in 3-NP single administration group was not changed; content of GSH in 3-NP repetitively administrations group was increased (P<0.05); content of GSH in neurotoxin group was decreased as compared with that in blank control group (P<0.01); content of GSH in 3-NP single preconditioning group was not changed as compared with that in neurotoxin group (P>0.05); content of GSH was increased after 3-NP repetitively preconditionings, and there was significant difference (P<0.05); meanwhile, there was significant difference between 3-NP repetitively preconditionings group and 3-NP single preconditioning group (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: 3-NP repetitively preconditionings can activate synthesis of GSH, protect dopamine neurons through decreasing production of MDA.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-313411

ABSTRACT

The effects of antisense FosB and CREB intra-striatum injection on the expression of prodynorphin (PDyn) gene in striatal neurons of Levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID) rats with Parkinson disease (PD) were explored. PD model in rats was established by 6-OHDA microinjection stereotaxically. The rats were treated with chronic intermittent Levodopa celiac injection for 28 days to get the LID rats. Antisense FosB and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) were injected into striatum of all rats respectively. In situ hybridization was used to measure the changes in the expression of PDyn mRNA in striatum and behavior changes were observed. The results showed after administration of antisense FosB, abnormal involuntary movement (AIM) was decreased and the expression of PDyn mRNA in striatum was increased in LID rats as compared with sense FosB group (P<0.01, respectively). As compared with the control group, the expression of PDyn mRNA in striatum was decreased by antisense CREB-treated LID group (P<0.01) and compared with sense CREB treated LID group, antisense CREB-treated LID group showed no changes in AIM scores and the expressions of PDyn mRNA (both P>0.05). In conclusion, FosB protein, which replaced the CREG,could regulate the expression of PDyn mRNA and play critical role in the pathogenesis of LID.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-634412

ABSTRACT

The effects of antisense FosB and CREB intra-striatum injection on the expression of prodynorphin (PDyn) gene in striatal neurons of Levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID) rats with Parkinson disease (PD) were explored. PD model in rats was established by 6-OHDA microinjection stereotaxically. The rats were treated with chronic intermittent Levodopa celiac injection for 28 days to get the LID rats. Antisense FosB and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) were injected into striatum of all rats respectively. In situ hybridization was used to measure the changes in the expression of PDyn mRNA in striatum and behavior changes were observed. The results showed after administration of antisense FosB, abnormal involuntary movement (AIM) was decreased and the expression of PDyn mRNA in striatum was increased in LID rats as compared with sense FosB group (P0.05). In conclusion, FosB protein, which replaced the CREG, could regulate the expression of PDyn mRNA and play critical role in the pathogenesis of LID.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-409485

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: 3-nitropropionic acid(3-NP) can inhibit the process of oxidative phosphorylation and injure the energy metabolism of the cell and thereby induce cell injury. However, small dose of 3-NP can excite intrinsic cellular protective factor to protect neurons and increase the tolerance of neurons to ischemic hypoxia through mild inhibiting the process of oxidative phosphorylation. It is unclear whether it also has the similar effect on dopaminergic neurons.OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether 3-NP preconditioning could enhance the tolerance of dopaminergic neurons to MPP+(1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine)toxicity.DESIGN: A randomized controlled exploring research based on neuroblastoma SH-SYSY cell that could secrete dopamine.SETTING: Department of neurology of a university hospital.MATERIALS: The study was conducted in the Laboratory of Pathophysiology of Tongji Medical College between March 2003 and November 2003. SH-SYSY cell was obtained from the Cell Center of Peking Union Medical University.INTERVENTIONS: Cells were randomly divided into 6 groups. MPP+ was added into the cultured dopaminergic neuron SH-SY5Y cells for the establishment of the cell model for Parkinson disease. Before the admission of MPP+ (0.25 mmol/L), 3-NP(0. 2 mmol/L) was added once or repetitive times to form preconditioning. Microculture tetrozolium(MTT) was used to detect cell survival rate, and[3H] DA uptake rate was used to test the anterior synaptic function of dopaminergic neurons.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Major consequence: Cell survival rate;Minor consequence: [3H] DA uptake rate.RESULTS: Cell survival rate of MPP+ group was 54.3%, which was significantly lower than that of blank control group( P < 0.01) . After 3-NP preconditioning, cell survival rate significantly elevated, which was 71.8%(single) or 85.2% (repetitive) . There was significant difference between single preconditioning and repetitive preconditioning( P < 0.05 ). The results of[3H] DA uptake rate were similar to that of cell survival rate. [3H] DA uptake rate was 65.8% (single) or 80. 3% (repetitive), which was significantly higher than 50. 1% of MPP+ group. And moreover, repetitive preconditioning had more favorable effect than single preconditioning. Simple admission of 3-NP had no impact on cells.CONCLUSION: 3-NP preconditioning can significantly enhance the tolerance of dopaminergic neuron to MPP+ toxicity, which has significant protective effects on dopaminergic neuron. Repetitive preconditioning have more significant protective effects.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-409392

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is recently found that some kinds of antibiotics can aggravate the obstruction of neuromuscular junction(NM J) transmission,exacerbate myasthenia gravis (MG). Hitherto, there are few reports about the effect of antibiotics on transitive function on animal models. Along with the appearance of new antibiotics, the effects of the antibiotics on NMJ transitive function need to be further observed.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of aminoglycoside antibiotics, fluoroquinolone antibiotics and cephalosporin antibiotics on the transitive function of NMJ in MG, and to provide an experimental basis for using those antibiotics securely in clinic and for selecting those antibiotics to treat MG properly.DESIGN: Randomized controlled study based on experimental animals.SETTING: Department of nosocomial infection, neurology and pharmacy in a university hospital.MATERIALS: The experiment was conducted at the Neurological Institute of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology from March 2002 to January 2003. Totally 150 healthy female C57BL/6mice, 6 - 8 weeks old, weighting 18 - 20 g, were divided randomly into 4groups: normal group( n = 10), MG group( n = 10), saline group( n = 10)and antibiotics group( n = 120) . Mice in antibiotics group were divided randomly again into gentamicin group, etimicin group, ciprofloxacin group,fleroxacin group, cefuroxime group and cephradine group, with 20 mice in each group.INTERVENTIONS: C57BL/6 mice were immunized with the acetylcholine receptor(AChR) protein in complete Fruend' s adjuvant(CFA) to establish experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis(EAMG) . Mice in saline group were injected normal saline and mice in antibiotics group were injected antibiotics(10 mg/kg), lasted 14 days. Mice in MG group were without any treatments. On the 7th day after the last immunization and the 14th day after the antibiotics treatments, MG scores was evaluated, repetitive nerve stimulation(RNS) and the levels of acetylcholine receptor antibody(AChRab)were tested at the same time.RESULTS; The mean symptom scores on the 14th day after the antibiotics treatment with gentamicin, etimicin, ciprofloxacin and fleroxacin were higher than that in MG group, and there was no significant difference in the mean symptom scores among cefuroxime group, cephradine group and MG group. The decrement percent of RNS in gentamicin group [ (21.22 ± 4.63)% ], etimicin group[ (19.08 ±4. 25)% ], ciprofloxacin group[ (22.25 ±4.95)% ] and fleroxacin group[ (21.71 ±4.99)% ] were higher than that in MG group[(15.75 ±2.22)% ], but no difference was found in the attenuation rate among cefuroxime group[(15.25 ±2. 87)% ],cephradine group[ ( 15.25 ± 3.30)% ] and MG group. The levels of AChRab in gentamicin, etimicin, ciprofloxacin and fleroxacin groups were also higher than that in MG group, but no difference was found among cefuroxime group, cephradine group and MG group.CONCLUSOIN: Aminoglycoside and fluoroquinolone antibiotics can aggravate the obstruction of NMJ transmission, and cephalosporin antibiotics have no obvious effect on the obstruction of NMJ transmission function in MG.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-322988

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effect of immature dendritic cells (iDCs) on experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (MG), iDCs were generated in low dose of GM-CSF, and then they were pulsed with acetylcholine receptor (AchR) and transferred to allogeneic rats. After 3 weeks, all rats were immunized with AchR and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) and observed for the corresponding indices of MG for 7 weeks. Our results showed that compared with mature DCs (mDCs) generated at high dose of GM-CSF plus additional stimulation by lipopolysaccharide, iDCs expressed significantly lower levels of MHC-Ⅱ , CD80 and CD86, and their ability to uptake FITC-Dextran was stronger but the ability of stimulating proliferation of allogeneic T cells were weaker. Like controls,after immunization, all rats transferred with iDCs, mDCs and AchR-pulsed mDCs showed typical symptoms in 4 to 7 weeks. The amplitude of electromyogram wave dropped obviously, the level of serum AchRab increased and neuromuscular junction showed typical damage of MG. In contrast, no conspicuous changes were noted in rats transferred with AchR-pulsed iDCs. The results suggest that iDCs could be generated by inducing bone marrow precursors in low dose of GM-CSF, AchRpulsed iDCs could induce tolerance of EAMG. The dysfunction of DCs may play an important role in the initiation and maintenance of normal immune response in MG.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-234553

ABSTRACT

To study the effect of PD I administration on dopamine receptors (DR1, DR2 ) mRNAs expression in the lesioned striatum of the PD rat model and confirm if PD I has the effect of dopamine receptor agonist. The PD rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned were administrated with PD I , L-dopa methyl/benserazide, L-dopa methyl/benserazide/ PD I , normal saline respectively for 4 weeks and their behavioral changes were observed. Then the rats were sacrificed and RT-PCR technique was used to detect changes of dopamine receptors (DR1, DR2 ) mRNAs expression in the ipsilateral striatum 1 day after the last treatment. The results showed that treatment with PD I plus L-dopa resulted in a stable contralateral rotation behavior; treatment with L-dopa resulted in a progressively increased contralateral rotation behavior. Rotation behavior induced by anhydromorphine decreased with PD I or PD I plus L-dopa treatment. Treatment With L-dopa or PD I plus L-dopa, up-regulation of DR1 mRNA and down regulation of DR2 mRNA were observed in the ipsilateral striatum which were more obvious than that treated with PD I or vehicle (P<0.05). It was concluded that long-term treatment with PD I could alleviate the behavior of PD rats.PD I had no apparent effect on the dopamine receptors (DR1 , DR2) mRNAs expression in the ipsilateral striatum and the PD I has no agonist effect on dopamine receptors.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330865

ABSTRACT

In order to investigate the neurotoxicity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra and the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease, LPS was stereotaxically infused into substantia nigra (SN). At different dosages and different time points with 5 microg LPS, the damage of the dopaminergic neurons in SN was observed by using tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemical staining. The results showed that 14 days after injection of 0.1 microg to 10 microg LPS into the rat SN, TH-positive (TH+) neurons in the SN were decreased by 5%, 15%, 20%, 45 %, 96% and 99% respectively. After injection of 5 microg LPS, as compared with the control groups, TH+ neurons began to decrease at 3rd day and obviously decrease at 14th day, only 5% of total cells, and almost disappeared 30 days later. The results suggested that LPS could induce the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the SN in a dose- and time-dependent manner.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Dopamine , Metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Lipopolysaccharides , Toxicity , Nerve Degeneration , Neurons , Pathology , Parkinson Disease, Secondary , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Substantia Nigra , Pathology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-634210

ABSTRACT

In order to investigate the neurotoxicity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra and the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease, LPS was stereotaxically infused into substantia nigra (SN). At different dosages and different time points with 5 microg LPS, the damage of the dopaminergic neurons in SN was observed by using tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemical staining. The results showed that 14 days after injection of 0.1 microg to 10 microg LPS into the rat SN, TH-positive (TH+) neurons in the SN were decreased by 5%, 15%, 20%, 45 %, 96% and 99% respectively. After injection of 5 microg LPS, as compared with the control groups, TH+ neurons began to decrease at 3rd day and obviously decrease at 14th day, only 5% of total cells, and almost disappeared 30 days later. The results suggested that LPS could induce the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the SN in a dose- and time-dependent manner.


Subject(s)
Dopamine/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Nerve Degeneration , Neurons/pathology , Parkinson Disease, Secondary/chemically induced , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Substantia Nigra/pathology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-634147

ABSTRACT

Mutations in the parkin gene have recently been identified in familial and isolated patients with early-onset Parkinson disease (PD) and that subregions between exon 2 and 4 of the parkin gene are hot spots of deletive mutations. To study the distribution of deletions in the parkin gene among variant subset patients with PD in China, and to explore the role of parkin gene in the pathogenesis of PD, 63 patients were divided into early onset and later onset groups. Exons 1-12 were amplified by PCR, templated by the genomic DNA of patients, and then the deletion distribution detected by agarose electrophoresis. Four patients were found to be carrier of exon deletions in 63 patients with PD. The location of the deletion was on exon 2 (1 case), exon 3 (2 cases) and exon 4 (1 case). All patients were belong to the group of early onset PD. The results showed that parkin gene deletion on exon 2, exon 3 and exon 4 found in Chinese population contributes partly to early onset PD.


Subject(s)
Exons/genetics , Gene Deletion , Parkinson Disease/genetics , Point Mutation , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-236554

ABSTRACT

Mutations in the parkin gene have recently been identified in familial and isolated patients with early-onset Parkinson disease (PD) and that subregions between exon 2 and 4 of the parkin gene are hot spots of deletive mutations. To study the distribution of deletions in the parkin gene among variant subset patients with PD in China, and to explore the role of parkin gene in the pathogenesis of PD, 63 patients were divided into early onset and later onset groups. Exons 1-12 were amplified by PCR, templated by the genomic DNA of patients, and then the deletion distribution detected by agarose electrophoresis. Four patients were found to be carrier of exon deletions in 63 patients with PD. The location of the deletion was on exon 2 (1 case), exon 3 (2 cases) and exon 4 (1 case). All patients were belong to the group of early onset PD. The results showed that parkin gene deletion on exon 2, exon 3 and exon 4 found in Chinese population contributes partly to early onset PD.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Exons , Genetics , Gene Deletion , Parkinson Disease , Genetics , Point Mutation , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Genetics
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-236553

ABSTRACT

In order to explore the PAR-1 mRNA and protein expression around hemotoma following intracerebral hemorrhage and the relation between the PAR-1 expression and thrombin, collagenase VII was stereotaxically injected into right caudate nucleus in rats. The PAR-1 mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR method and the PAR-1 protein expression by immunohistochemical method respectively. It was found that the PAR-1 mRNA and protein expression around hemotoma was increased at 6 h after intracerebral hemorrhage (P<0.05), peaked at 2 days (P<0.01), and then declined. The change pattern of the PAR-1 mRNA and protein expression was similar to that of intracerebral hemorrhage after thrombin intracerebral injection. The PAR-1 mRNA and protein expression in hirudin group showed no significant difference with control group. These results indicated that the PAR-1 mRNA and protein expression were markedly increased after intracerebral hemorrhage, which may be closely related to thrombin. Upregulation of the PAR-1 expression may involve in neurotoxic injury induced by thrombin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Rats , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Metabolism , Fibrinolytic Agents , Pharmacology , Hematoma , Metabolism , Hirudins , Pharmacology , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptor, PAR-1 , Genetics , Thrombin , Metabolism
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330937

ABSTRACT

To study behavioral character and changes of neuronal activity in the basal ganglia of rat model of levodopa-induced dyskinesia, unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rat model of Parkinson disease (PD) was treated with levodopa/benserazide twice daily for 4 weeks and the behavior observed on the 1st, 3rd, 4th, 7th, 9th, 10th, 14th, 21st and 28th day. The animals were sacrificed and immunohistochemical technique was used to measure the changes of Fos expression in the caudate putamen (CPU), globus pallidus (GP) and sensorimotor area of cerebral cortex 2 h after the last treatment. The results showed that pulsatile treatment with a subthreshold dose of levodopa gradually induced abnormal involuntary movement (AIM), including stereotypy (limb dyskinesia, axial dystonia and masticatory dyskinesia) towards the side contralateral to the dopamine-denervated striatum and increased contraversive rotation. The motor pattern of each subtype was highly stereotypic across individual rats, and the proportion of each subtype was not consistent among individual rats. Fos positive nuclei in the CPU and GP were increased by levodopa acute administration, and more remarkably in the CPU, but not in the cerebral cortex. After repeated levodopa treatment. Fos positive nuclei were reduced remarkably in the CPU, but were increased in the GP and cerebral cortex. It was concluded that the neural mechanisms underlying levodopa induced AIM in rat model of PD was very similar to those seen in levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) in PD patients and MPTP-lesioned monkeys, and increased striatopallidal neuronal activity might be involved in occurrence of LID.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Antiparkinson Agents , Toxicity , Basal Ganglia , Metabolism , Behavior, Animal , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced , Psychology , Levodopa , Toxicity , Parkinson Disease , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Psychology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330900

ABSTRACT

To investigate the changes in the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGFbeta2) in glomus cell grafts of carotid body in the rat model of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinson disease, immunohistochemical staining of bFGF and TGFbeta2 in the sections of striate body was done on the 2nd, 4th and 12th week after transplantation. The results showed that on the 2nd week after transplantation, bFGF and TGFbeta2 were not detectable in the glumous cell grafts. On the 4th week after graft, bFGF and TGFbeta2 immunoreactivity was increased within the grafts and at the graft-host interface but was restricted only to astrocytes. In the striatum surrounding the graft, bFGF was expressed persistently, while TGFbeta2 showed transient expression. It was suggested that the transient expression of TGFbeta2 was likely due more to the trauma imposed by the graft procedure than to an intrinsic. The deficiency in astrocytic bFGF early after graft may be responsible for the poor survival of grafted glomus cells of carotid body.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Carotid Body , Cell Biology , Transplantation , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 , Genetics , Hydroxydopamines , Parkinson Disease , Metabolism , General Surgery , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Genetics , Transforming Growth Factor beta2 , Transplantation, Homologous
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-634060

ABSTRACT

To investigate the distribution of possible novel mutations from parkin gene in variant subset of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) in China and explore whether parkin gene plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PD, 70 patients were divided into early-onset group and late-onset group; 70 healthy subjects were included as controls. Genomic DNA from 70 normal controls and from those of PD patients were extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes by using standard procedures. Mutations of parkin gene (exon 1-12) in all the subjects were screened by PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), and further sequencing was performed in the samples with abnormal SSCP results, in order to confirm the mutation and its location. A new missense mutation Gly284Arg in a patient and 3 abnormal bands in SSCP electrophoresis from samples of another 3 patients were found. All the DNA variants were sourced from the samples of the patients with early-onset PD. It was concluded that Parkin point mutation also partially contributes to the development of early-onset Parkinson's disease in Chinese.


Subject(s)
DNA Mutational Analysis , Exons , Genotype , Parkinson Disease/genetics , Point Mutation , Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/biosynthesis , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-290491

ABSTRACT

To investigate the distribution of possible novel mutations from parkin gene in variant subset of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) in China and explore whether parkin gene plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PD, 70 patients were divided into early-onset group and late-onset group; 70 healthy subjects were included as controls. Genomic DNA from 70 normal controls and from those of PD patients were extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes by using standard procedures. Mutations of parkin gene (exon 1-12) in all the subjects were screened by PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), and further sequencing was performed in the samples with abnormal SSCP results, in order to confirm the mutation and its location. A new missense mutation Gly284Arg in a patient and 3 abnormal bands in SSCP electrophoresis from samples of another 3 patients were found. All the DNA variants were sourced from the samples of the patients with early-onset PD. It was concluded that Parkin point mutation also partially contributes to the development of early-onset Parkinson's disease in Chinese.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , DNA Mutational Analysis , Exons , Genotype , Parkinson Disease , Genetics , Point Mutation , Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Genetics
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