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1.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 172-179, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969760

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of female patients with Stanford type B aortic dissection. Methods: This is a single-centre retrospective study. Consecutive patients diagnosed with Stanford type B aortic dissection in General Hospital of Northern Theater Command from June 2002 to August 2021 were enrolled, and grouped based on sex. According to the general clinical conditions and complications of aortic dissection tear, patients were treated with thoracic endovascular aortic repair, surgery, or optimal medication. The clinical characteristics and aortic imaging data of the patients at different stages were collected, adverse events including all-cause deaths, stroke, and occurrence of aortic-related adverse events were obtained during hospitalization and within 30 days and at 1 and 5 years after discharge. According to the time of death, death was classified as in-hospital death, out-of-hospital death, and in-hospital death was divided into preoperative death, intraoperative death and postoperative death. According to the cause of death, death was classified as aortic death, cardiac death and other causes of death. Aortic-related adverse events within 30 days after discharge included new paraplegia, post-luminal repair syndrome, and aortic death; long-term (≥1 year after discharge) aortic-related adverse events included aortic death, recurrent aortic dissection, endoleak and distal ulcer events. The clinical characteristics, short-term and long-term prognosis was compared between the groups. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between different clinical factors and all-cause mortality within 30 days in female and male groups separately. Results: A total of 1 094 patients with Stanford type B aortic dissection were enrolled, mean age was (53.9±12.1) years, and 861 (78.7%) were male and 233 (21.3%) were female. (1) Clinical characteristics: compared with male patients, female patients were featured with older average age, higher proportion of aged≥60 years old, back pain, anemia, optimal medication treatment, and higher cholesterol level; while lower proportion of smoking and drinking history, body mass index, calcium antagonists use, creatine kinase level, and white blood cell count (all P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in dissection tear and clinical stage, history of coronary heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, and cerebrovascular disease between female and male patients (all P>0.05). (2) Follow-up result: compared with male patients, female patients had a higher rate of 30-day death [6.9% (16/233) vs. 3.8% (33/861), P=0.047], in-hospital death (5.6% (13/233) vs. 2.7% (23/861), P=0.027), preoperative death (3.9% (9/233) vs. 1.5% (12/861), P=0.023) and aorta death (6.0% (14/233) vs. 3.1% (27/861), P=0.041). The 1-year and 5-year follow-up results demonstrated that there were no significant differences in death, cerebrovascular disease, and aorta-related adverse events between the two groups (all P>0.05). (3) Prognostic factors: the results of the univariate logistic regression analysis showed that body mass index>24 kg/m2 (HR=1.087, 95%CI 1.029-1.149, P=0.013), history of anemia (HR=2.987, 95%CI 1.054-8.468, P=0.032), hypertension (HR=1.094, 95%CI 1.047-1.143, P=0.040) and troponin-T>0.05 μg/L (HR=5.818, 95%CI 1.611-21.018, P=0.003)were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality within 30 days in female patients. Conclusions: Female patients with Stanford type B aortic dissection have specific clinical characteristics, such as older age at presentation, higher rates of anemia and combined back pain, and higher total cholesterol levels. The risk of death within 1 month is higher in female patients than in male patients, which may be associated with body mass index, hypertension, anemia and troponin-T, but the long-term prognosis for both female and male patients is comparable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Prognosis , Hospital Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Troponin T , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/surgery , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Endovascular Procedures/adverse effects , Aortic Dissection , Hypertension/complications , Cholesterol , Risk Factors
2.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 158-163, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969758

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the risk factors of coronary artery occlusion in female patients with ischemic angina pectoris. Methods: Clinical data of 1 600 patients (666 females and 934 males) who underwent coronary angiography from January 2013 to December 2015 due to angina pectoris in 6 major coronary intervention centers in China were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical characteristics were compared between the female and male groups, and between the non-obstructive coronary artery disease (INOCA) and ischemic obstructive coronary artery disease (IOCA) subgroups of female subjects with angina pectoris. The risk factors related to the degree of coronary artery occlusion in female patients were analyzed. Results: In the enrolled patients who underwent coronary angiography for angina pectoris, female group was older than the male group, and the proportion of patients with hypertension, diabetes and ischemia accompanied by IOCA was significantly higher than that of the male group (P<0.05). Univariate analysis showed that age≥65 years, hypertension, diabetes, and typical angina symptoms were associated with an increased risk of IOCA in female patients with angina pectoris. Multivariate regression analysis showed that age≥65 years old (OR=1.784, 95%CI: 1.146-2.776, P=0.010), hypertension (OR=1.782, 95%CI: 1.201-2.644, P=0.004) and typical angina symptoms (OR=1.642, 95%CI: 1.127-2.393, P=0.010) were independent risk factors for female patients with angina pectoris diagnosed as IOCA. The correlation analysis between the number of risk factors and the type of coronary artery disease obstruction showed that the incidence of INOCA decreased significantly with the increase of the number of risk factors, from 45.5% to 14.2%. The incidence of IOCA increased significantly with the number of risk factors, from 54.5% to 85.8% (P for trend<0.001). Conclusion: The incidence of INOCA in female patients with angina pectoris suspected of coronary heart disease is higher than that of male. The incidence of IOCA increased significantly, and the incidence of INOCA decreased significantly in proportion to the increase of the number of combined risk factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Retrospective Studies , Angina Pectoris/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Coronary Angiography , Hypertension/complications , Coronary Occlusion/complications , Ischemia/complications
3.
Journal of Geriatric Cardiology ; (12): 485-494, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Many studies have demonstrated the benefit of complete multivessel revascularization versus culprit-only intervention in patients of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and multivessel coronary artery disease. However, only a few single-center retrospective studies were performed on small Chinese cohorts. Our study aims to demonstrate the advantage of multivessel percutaneous intervention (PCI) strategy on 30-day in-hospital outcomes to patients with STEMI and multivessel disease in larger Chinese population.@*METHODS@#From the Improving Care for Cardiovascular Disease in China-Acute Coronary Syndrome (CCC-ACS) project, 5935 patients with STEMI and multivessel disease undergoing PCI and hospitalized for fewer than 30 days were analyzed. After 5: 1 propensity score matching, 3577 patients with culprit-only PCI and 877 with in-hospital multivessel PCI were included. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular event (MACCE), defined as a composite of myocardial infarction, all-cause death, stent thrombosis, heart failure, and stroke.@*RESULTS@#Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that in-hospital multivessel PCI was associated with lower risk of 30-day MACCE (adjusted OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.57-0.98, P = 0.032) than culprit-only PCI and conferred no increased risk of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, stroke, or bleeding. Subgroup analysis showed that MACCE reduction was observed more often from patients with trans-femoral access (OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.15-0.74) than with trans-radial access (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.66-1.16, P for interaction = 0.017).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The in-hospital multivessel PCI strategy was associated with a lower risk of 30-day MACCE than culprit-only PCI in patients with STEMI and multivessel coronary artery disease.

4.
Journal of Geriatric Cardiology ; (12): 586-595, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010183

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) requiring complex percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).@*METHODS@#A total of 2403 patients with DM who underwent complex PCI from January to December 2013 were consecutively enrolled in this observational cohort study and divided according to DAPT duration into a standard group (11-13 months, n = 689) and two prolonged groups (13-24 months, n = 1133; > 24 months, n = 581).@*RESULTS@#Baseline characteristics, angiographic findings, and complexity of PCI were comparable regardless of DAPT duration. The incidence of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event was lower when DAPT was 13-24 months than when it was 11-13 months or > 24 months (4.6% vs. 8.1% vs. 6.0%, P = 0.008), as was the incidence of all-cause death (1.9% vs. 4.6% vs. 2.2%, P = 0.002) and cardiac death (1.0% vs. 3.0% vs. 1.2%, P = 0.002). After adjustment for confounders, DAPT for 13-24 months was associated with a lower risk of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.544, 95% CI: 0.373-0.795] and all-cause death (HR = 0.605, 95% CI: 0.387-0.944). DAPT for > 24 months was associated with a lower risk of all-cause death (HR = 0.681, 95% CI: 0.493-0.942) and cardiac death (HR = 0.620, 95% CI: 0.403-0.952). The risk of major bleeding was not increased by prolonging DAPT to 13-24 months (HR = 1.356, 95% CI: 0.766-2.401) or > 24 months (HR = 0.967, 95% CI: 0.682-1.371).@*CONCLUSIONS@#For patients with DM undergoing complex PCI, prolonging DAPT might improve the long-term prognosis by reducing the risk of adverse ischemic events without increasing the bleeding risk.

5.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 543-548, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940886

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the success rate of His-Purkinje system pacing (HPSP) in patients with various sites of atrioventricular block (AVB) and provide clinical evidence for the selection of HPSP in patients with AVB. Methods: This is a retrospective case analysis. 637 patients with AVB who underwent permanent cardiac pacemaker implantation and requiring high proportion of ventricular pacing from March 2016 to September 2021 in the Department of Cardiology, General Hospital of Northern Theater Command were enrolled. The site of AVB was determined by electrophysiological examination. His bundle pacing (HBP) was performed in the first 130 patients (20.4%) who were classified as the HBP group and HPSP included HBP and/or left bundle branch pacing (LBBP) was performed in later 507 patients (79.6%) and these patients were classified as the HPSP group. The basic clinical information such as age and sex of the two groups was compared, and the success rates of HBP or HPSP in patients with different sites of AVB and QRS intervals were analyzed. Results: The age of HBP group was (66.4±15.9) years with 75 males (57.7%). The age of HPSP group was (66.8±13.6) years with 288 (56.8%) males. Among 637 patients, 63.0% (401/637) had atrioventricular node block; 22.9% (146/637) had intra-His block; 14.1% (90/637) had distal or inferior His bundle block. Totally, the success rate of HPSP was higher than that of HBP [93.9% (476/507) vs. 86.9% (113/130), P<0.05]. In each group of patients with various AVB sites, the success rate of HPSP was higher than that of HBP respectively and both success rates of HBP and HPSP showed a declining trend with the distant AVB site. The success rate of HBP in patients with atrioventricular node block and intra-His block was higher than that in patients with distal or inferior His bundle block [95.2% (79/83) vs. 47.1% (8/17), P<0.001; 86.7% (26/30) vs. 47.1% (8/17), P=0.010]. The success rate of HPSP was higher than that of HBP in patients with distal or inferior His bundle block [87.7% (64/73) vs 47.1% (8/17), P=0.001]. In patients with QRS<120 ms, 94.9% (520/548) of AVB sites were in atrioventricular node or intra-His, and HBP had a similar high success rate with HPSP [95.6% (109/114) vs. 96.3% (418/434), P=0.943] in these patients. In patients with QRS ≥ 120 ms, 69.7% (62/89) of AVB sites were at distal or inferior His bundle, and the success rate of HBP was only 25.0% (4/16), while the success rate of HPSP was as high as 79.5% (58/73), P<0.001. Conclusions: In patients with QRS<120 ms and atrioventricular node block or intra-His block, success rates of HBP and HPSP are similarly high and HBP might be considered as the first choice. In patients with QRS ≥ 120 ms and AVB site at distal or inferior His bundle, the success rate of HPSP is higher than that of HBP, suggesting LBBP should be considered as the first-line treatment option.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Atrioventricular Block/therapy , Bundle of His/physiology , Cardiac Pacing, Artificial , Electrocardiography , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
6.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 132-136, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935116

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate whether atrial fibrillation (AF) before transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) will affect the prognosis of patients post TAVI. Methods: This is a single center retrospective study. A total of 115 patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) who were admitted to General Hospital of Northern Theater Command from May 2016 to November 2020 and successfully received TAVI treatment were included. According to absence or accompaniment of AF pre-TAVI, they were divided into AF group (21 cases) and non-AF group (94 cases). The patients were followed up for postoperative antithrombotic treatment and the occurrence of the net adverse clinical and cerebrovascular events (NACCE) at 12 months post TAVI, including cardiogenic death, readmission to hospital for heart failure, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke and severe bleeding (BARC levels 3-5). Univariate logistic regression was used to analyze the related factors of NACCE. Results: Among the 115 selected patients, age was (73.8±6.9) years, there were 63 males. And 21 cases (18.2%) were diagnosed as AFbefore TAVI. In terms of postoperative antithrombotic therapy, 48.9% (46/94) of the patients in the non-AF group received monotherapy and 47.9% (45/94) received dual antiplatelet therapy. In the AF group, 47.6% (10/21) received anticoagulants and 33.3% (7/21) received dual antiplatelet therapy. The proportion of patients in the AF group taking non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) was higher than that in the non-AF group (38.1% (8/21) vs. 2.1% (2/94), P<0.001). Patients in both groups were followed up to 12 months after TAVI. During the 12 months follow-up, the incidence of NACCE after TAVI was 14.3% (3/21) in the AF group, which was numerically higher than that in the non-AF group (6.4% (6/94)), but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.441). The incidence of severe bleeding was significantly higher in the AF group than in the non-AF group (9.5% (2/21) vs. 0, P=0.032). Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that hypertension was associated with the risk of NACCE (OR=8.308, P=0.050), while AF was not associated with the risk of NACCE (P=0.235). Conclusion: The incidence of severe bleeding after TAVI is higher in patients with AF than in patients without AF prior TAVI, and there is a trend of increased risk of NACCE post TAVI in AF patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Anticoagulants , Aortic Valve , Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement , Treatment Outcome
7.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 1117-1123, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941409

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor and clopidogrel in elderly Chinese patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the real world. Methods: This study is a post-hoc analysis of a single center, retrospective cohort study. Between March 2016 and March 2018, elderly (age≥65) ACS patients who underwent PCI in the General Hospital of Northern Theater Command were included in the study. The patients were grouped according to P2Y12 receptor inhibitor. The primary endpoints of this study were ischemic events during the 2-year follow-up, which were defined as the composite of cardiac death, myocardial or stroke. The secondary efficiency endpoints included all-cause death and BARC 2, 3, 5 bleeding events. Results: A total of 4 022 elderly (mean age: (71.5±5.3) years) ACS patients were included in this study. Based on the choice of P2Y12 receptor inhibitor, patients were divided into clopidogrel (n=3 201) and ticagrelor (n=821) groups. Incidences of ischemic events (3.2% (26/821) vs. 5.6% (179/3 201), P=0.005) at 2 years were significantly lower in ticagrelor group compared to clopidogrel group. BARC 2, 3, 5 bleeding events (1.7% (14/821) vs. 1.6% (52/3 201), P=0.818) were comparable between the two groups. The incidence of all-cause death (1.5% (12/821) vs. 4.1% (132/3 201), P=0.005) were also lower in the ticagrelor group compared to the clopidogrel group. Clinical outcomes were consistent after adjusting for confounding factors, the incidence of ischemic events (HR= 0.637, 95%CI 0.409-0.991, P=0.046) and all-cause mortality (HR=0.402, 95%CI 0.213-0.758, P=0.005) was significantly lower in the ticagrelor group compared with the clopidogrel group. Risk of BARC 2, 3, 5 bleeding events were similar between the two groups (HR=0.957, 95%CI 0.496-1.848, P=0.897). Conclusion: In real-world clinical practice, for elderly patients with ACS undergoing PCI, ticagrelor use might reduce the incidence of long-term ischemic events and all-cause death without increasing the risk of bleeding.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Acute Coronary Syndrome/surgery , Clopidogrel/therapeutic use , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Ticagrelor/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
8.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 1082-1088, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941405

ABSTRACT

Objective: To develop a set of data elements and standardized definitions of Coronary Artery Disease and Creative Antithrombotic Clinical Research Collaboration (CardiaCare), aiming to facilitate the exchange of disparate data sources, enhance the abilities to support multicenter researches, and subsequently ensure the databases use under standardized process and criteria. Methods: The Cardiacare writing committee members reviewed data elements and definitions from published guidelines, clinical trials, databases, and standardized documents, then determined the data elements and standardized definitions, which should be included in CardiaCare. The writing committee also considered the specific domestic clinical management strategies during the establishment of Cardiacare. The resulting documents provide a series of key data elements and standardized definitions used in the management of coronary artery disease patients. Key data elements from CardiaCare could be sorted by clinical management flowsheet and outcome from hospitalization to long-term follow-up. Results: The Cardiacare standardized set comprised 864 data elements from admission to post-hospital follow-up visit. There were 8 tables in the documents, including demographic and admission information (23 elements), medical history and risk factors (102 elements), clinical presentations and diagnosis (22 elements), diagnostic and laboratory tests (111 elements), interventional diagnosis and treatment (118 elements), pharmacological therapy (213 elements), clinical outcomes (161 elements), and special subpopulations (114 elements: 87 elements for transcatheter valve replacement and 27 elements with cardiac rehabilitation). Conclusions: The Cardiacare standardized data elements set could provide support for real-world clinical research in consecutive data collection and databases mining. A wider applicability in various settings of CardiaCare needs to be explored further.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents
9.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 764-769, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941350

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the incidence of perioperative severe complications in aortic stenosis (AS) patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVR), and to explore the influence of the accumulated experience of the operators on the incidence of complications. Methods: This is a single-center retrospective study. Patients with AS who underwent TAVR from May 2016 to November 2020 in General Hospital of Northern Theater Command were included. The occurrence of severe complications during perioperative period was recorded. Severe complications included all-cause death, surgical transfer to thoracotomy, coronary artery occlusion, peripheral vascular approach complications, severe cerebrovascular events, moderate or above perivalvular leakage, valve displacement (implanted valve middle valve), pacemaker implantation, etc. In order to observe the influence of the accumulated experience of the operators on the occurrence of postoperative complications, the complications in each stage of the patients were counted and the bar chart was drawn with interval of every 30 patients. Results: A total of 119 patients were included, including 64 males and 55 females, the mean age was (73.9±6.9) years. The valve implantation was unsuccessful in 3 out of 119 patients (2.5%). There were 39 cases of severe complications during perioperative period, including 1 death (0.8%), 2 cases of thoracotomy (1.7%), 2 cases of coronary artery occlusion (1.7%), 8 cases of peripheral vascular approach complications (6.7%), and 1 case of new severe cerebrovascular event (0.8%), 3 cases of moderate or higher perivalvular leakage (2.5%), 8 cases of valve displacement leads to midvalvular implantation (6.7%), 14 cases of permanent pacemaker implantation due to new atrioventricular block (11.8%). The bar chart showed that the incidence of permanent pacemaker implantation and in-valve implantation did not significantly decrease with the accumulation of experience, while the incidence of other complications showed a decreasing trend after 30 cases. Conclusions: Most serious complications occurred in the early stage of TAVR in our center. The incidence of all cause death, coronary artery occlusion and peripheral vascular approach complications in the perioperative period post TAVR could be reduced in the TAVR center in the learning stage through the accumulation of procedure-related experience, but the incidence of pacemaker placement and the implanted valve within the valve dose not significantly decrease over time.

10.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 143-149, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941250

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the medication compliance for secondary prevention drugs and long-term prognosis of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) between hospitals in different regions of China. Methods: The Optimal Antiplatelet Therapy for Chinese Patients with Coronary Artery Disease (OPT-CAD) study was a prospective, multi-center and registered study. Patients diagnosed as ACS and underwent PCI in OPT-CAD study were selected. Taking the Yangtze River as the dividing line between the south and the north of China, these patients were divided into two groups according to the hospitals where the patients visited, namely the southerns region group (n=1 958) and the northerns region group (n=5 091). In order to reduce selection bias and potential confounding factors, the patients in the two groups were matched by the tendency score, and the patients in the two groups were matched by the 1: 1 nearest match method according to the tendency score. The main endpoint of this study was the major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) occurring within 5 years after discharge, namely the composite endpoint of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and/or ischemic stroke. Secondary endpoints were all-cause death, cardiac death, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and type 2, 3, and 5 bleeding events defined by the Academic Research Consortium on Hemorrhage (BARC) within 5 years. The secondary preventive drugs was recorded, including antiplatelet drugs, statins, beta blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensinⅡreceptor blockers (ACEI/ARB), etc. Before and after the matching, the secondary preventive medication and the incidence of clinical events of the two groups were compared. Results: A total of 7 049 ACS patients, including 1 958 patients in the southern region group and 5 091 patients in the northern region group were enrolled in this study. There were 5 319 males (37.9%), and the aged was (60.7±6.7) years. After propensity score matching, there were 1 324 cases in each group. Before matching, in the northern region group, the proportion of smoking, hypertension and diabetes, previous history (myocardial infarction, PCI and stroke) and family history of coronary heart disease were higher (all P<0.05). The proportion of complex lesions, diffuse lesions, small vessel lesions and thrombotic lesions in the northern region group was higher than that in the southern region group (all P<0.05). Sixty months after discharge, the antiplatelet patterns were quite different between patients in the northern and southern region group (P<0.001). The proportion of clopidogrel monotherapy in the southern region group was higher than that in the northern region group (9.8% (130/1324) vs. 1.1% (14/1324)), while the proportion of aspirin monotherapy in the northern region group was higher than that in the southern region group (67.4% (893/1324) vs. 46.5% (616/1324)). As for the use of other secondary prophylactic drugs, the proportion of patients in southern region group receiving beta blockers (24.5% (325/1324) vs. 16.8% (222/1324), P<0.001) and ACEI/ARB (19.4% (257/1324) vs. 10.0% (133/1324), P<0.001) was higher than that in northern region group. After matching, the incidence of MACCE (8.4%(111/1 324) vs.6.2% (82/1 324), P=0.030) and BARC 2, 3 and 5 bleeding (6.0% (80/1 324) vs. 4.0% (53/1 324), P=0.020) was higher in patients in northern region group. Conclusions: ACS patients who undergo PCI in northern area hospital is at higher prevalence of comorbidities and complicated coronary artery lesions compared to patients in the southern area hospital, and the drug compliance is worse than that in southern area, and the prognosis is also relatively poor.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , China , Medication Adherence , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Secondary Prevention , Treatment Outcome
11.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 121-127, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941247

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the five-year safety and efficacy of the second generation biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent (EXCROSSAL) in treating patients with de novo coronary artery diseases. Methods: Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD)who were implanted with EXTROSSAL stents in CREDIT Ⅱ and CREDIT Ⅲ study were included. CREDIT Ⅱ was a randomized trial, and CREDIT Ⅲ was a single-arm study. From November 2013 to December 2014, 833 CAD patients with de novo coronary lesions implanted with EXTROSSAL stents were selected from 33 centers in China. The primary outcome was 5-year target lesion failure (TLF), a composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction and clinically indicated target lesion revascularization. Secondary endpoints was patient-oriented composite endpoint (PoCE), including all-cause death, all myocardial infarction, or any revascularization within 5 years post stenting and stent thrombosis according to Academic Research Consortium's (ARC) definition. Kaplan Meier method was used to calculate the incidence of TLF and PoCE within 5 years after operation. Univariate Cox regression analysis was used to analyze the impacts of diabetes, small vessel disease (vessel diameter ≤ 2.74 mm), lesion length ≥ 16.7 mm and multivessel disease on the incidence of TLF within 5 years after operation. Results: A total of 833 patients were included in this study including 579 males (69.5%), the age was (59.3±9.1) years. And 832 (99.9%) patients completed 5-year clinical follow-up. The incidence of TLF and PoCE in the 5-year follow-up were 10.6%(86/811) and 15.5%(126/811), respectively. Stent thrombosis occurred in 1.0%(8/811) of patients. Univariate Cox regression analysis showed that vessel diameter ≤ 2.74 mm (HR=3.20,95%CI 1.90-5.39,P<0.001), lesion length ≥ 16.7 mm (HR=1.88,95%CI 1.18-2.99,P=0.007) and multivessel disease (HR=2.44,95%CI 1.60-3.72,P<0.001) were related factors of TLF within 5 years after operation. Conclusion: EXCROSSAL stent is effective and safe in treating CAD patients with de novo coronary lesions, with low incidence of TLF and PoCE within 5 years after operation.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Agents , China , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Drug-Eluting Stents , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Polymers , Risk Factors , Sirolimus/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 899-908, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827660

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions remains challenging; a simple strategy has been preferred as of late, but the disadvantage is ostium stenosis or even occlusion of the side branch (SB). Only a few single-center studies investigating the combination of a drug-eluting stent in the main branch followed by a drug-eluting balloon in the SB have been reported. This prospective, multicenter, randomized study aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of a paclitaxel-eluting balloon (PEB) compared with regular balloon angioplasty (BA) in the treatment of non-left main coronary artery bifurcation lesions.@*METHODS@#Between December 2014 and November 2015, a total of 222 consecutive patients with bifurcation lesions were enrolled in this study at ten Chinese centers. Patients were randomly allocated at a 1:1 ratio to a PEB group (n = 113) and a BA group (n = 109). The primary efficacy endpoint was angiographic target lesion stenosis at 9 months. Secondary efficacy and safety endpoints included target lesion revascularization, target vessel revascularization, target lesion failure, major adverse cardiac and cerebral events (MACCEs), all-cause death, cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and thrombosis in target lesions. The main analyses performed in this clinical trial included case shedding analysis, base-value equilibrium analysis, effectiveness analysis, and safety analysis. SAS version 9.4 was used for the statistical analyses.@*RESULTS@#At the 9-month angiographic follow-up, the difference in the primary efficacy endpoint of target lesion stenosis between the PEB (28.7% ± 18.7%) and BA groups (40.0% ± 19.0%) was -11.3% (95% confidence interval: -16.3% to -6.3%, Psuperiority <0.0001) in the intention-to-treat analysis, and similar results were recorded in the per-protocol analysis, demonstrating the superiority of PEB to BA. Late lumen loss was significantly lower in the PEB group than in the BA group (-0.06 ± 0.32 vs. 0.18 ± 0.34 mm, P < 0.0001). For intention-to-treat, there were no significant differences between PEB and BA in the 9-month percentages of MACCEs (0.9% vs. 3.7%, P = 0.16) or non-fatal myocardial infarctions (0 vs. 0.9%, P = 0.49). There were no clinical events of target lesion revascularization, target vessel revascularization, target lesion failure, all-cause death, cardiac death or target lesion thrombosis in either group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In de novo non-left main coronary artery bifurcations treated with provisional T stenting, SB dilation with the PEB group demonstrated better angiographic results than treatment with regular BA at the 9-month follow-up in terms of reduced target lesion stenosis.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02325817; https://clinicaltrials.gov.

13.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 1053-1059, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941219

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of femoral approach versus radial approach on the incidence of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) in patients with coronary heart disease, who received twice contrast agents within a short interval. Methods: A total of 322 patients with coronary heart disease, who admitted to the General Hospital of Northern Theater Command from January 2010 to January 2015, were included in this retrospective analysis. All patients exposed to contrast agents twice within 30 days. The patients were divided into two groups according to the approach of interventional operation: radial artery group (n=235) and femoral artery group (n=87). Serum creatinine (SCr) values were detected at 48 and 72 hours post procedure. Endpoint events were CI-AKI, which was defined as SCr increased>0.5 mg/dl (44.2 μmol/L) or relative ratio ((postoperative SCr-preoperative SCr)/preoperative SCr×100%>25%) within 72 hours after contrast agent use after excluding other causes. Clinical characteristics and the incidence of CI-AKI were compared between the two groups, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to detect the risk factors of postoperative CI-AKI in these patients. Results: The proportion of smoking, PCI history, STEMI patients and levels of fibrinogen, fasting blood glucose, troponin T was significantly higher in femoral artery group than in radial artery group (all P<0.05). The interval between two procedure sessions was significantly longer in the femoral artery group than in the radial artery group (P=0.001). The incidence of CI-AKI tended to be higher in femoral artery group than in radial artery group after the first operation (18.6% (16/87) vs. 11.9% (28/235), P=0.133). CI-AKI incidence after the second operation was similar between the two groups (P>0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that interventional approach was not an independent risk factor for postoperative CI-AKI in patients with coronary heart disease undergoing interventional procedures twice within 30 days (P>0.05);STEMI (OR=2.854, 95%CI 1.100-7.404, P=0.031) and diuretics use (OR=4.002, 95%CI 1.470-10.893, P=0.007) were independent risk factors for CI-AKI after the first operation. Conclusion: There is no correlation between the risk of CI-AKI and interventional approaches in patients with coronary heart disease who undergo interventional surgery twice within 30 days.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Contrast Media/adverse effects , Coronary Disease , Femoral Artery/surgery , Incidence , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Radial Artery , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
14.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 648-654, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941153

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the safety and efficacy of bivalirudin versus unfractionated heparin during perioperative period of percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI) in real-world. Methods: A total of 13 097 serial patients who underwent PCI from January 2016 to November 2018 in the Northern Theater Command were enrolled in the present study. Patients were stratified as the bivalirudin group or the heparin group according to antithrombotic therapy during PCI. The primary efficiency endpoint was 30-day net adverse clinical event(NACE), defined as all-cause death, re-infarction, urgent target lesion revascularization (uTLR), stroke or any bleeding. The second efficiency endpoint was 30-day major cardiac and cerebral events (MACCE), defined as all-cause death, re-infarction, uTLR and stroke. Additional end points included the rates of stent thrombosis at 30 days. Propensity scores included clinical and demographic variables, with 1∶2 matching. Compared the incidence of events above between the two groups before and after matching. Results: Among the 13 097 included patients(age was (61±10) years old), 3 421 (26.1%) were female. And 2 734 patients were divided into the bivalirudin group, and 10 363 patients to the heparin group(5 468 after matching). Before propensity score matching, patients in bivalirudin group were older and received higher levels of CRUSADE score than heparin group. These patients were more likely to have hypertension and more with ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes(all P<0.05). After propensity score matching, the incidence of 30-day NACE(3.8%(103/2 734) vs.5.0%(271/5 468), P=0.015) and any bleeding (2.0%(54/2 734) vs. 2.8%(151/5 468), P=0.032) in the bivalirudin group were lower than that in the heparin group, but the incidence of MACCE (1.9%(51/2 734) vs. 2.3%(127/5 468), P=0.180) and stent thrombosis (0.1%(2/2 734) vs. 0.1%(3/5 468), P=1.000) were comparable between the two groups. Conclusion: The risk of bleeding and the incidence of NACE are significantly lower for patients using bivalirudin during perioperative period of PCI compared to heparin, without significant differences in ischemic events.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Hirudins , Peptide Fragments , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Perioperative Period , Recombinant Proteins , Treatment Outcome
15.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 593-599, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941145

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety profile of alirocumab (PCSK9 inhibitor) versus ezetimibe on top of maximally tolerated statin dose in high cardiovascular risk Chinese patients with hyperlipidemia. Methods: The ODYSSEY EAST study was a randomized, double-blinded, double dummy, active-control, parallel group, multi-centers clinical trial, the Chinese sub-population included 456 patients with hyperlipidemia and high cardiovascular risk on maximally tolerated statin dose. Patients were randomized (2∶1) to receive the subcutaneous injection of alirocumab (75 mg Q2W; with dose up titration to 150 mg Q2W at week 12 if low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was ≥1.81 mmol/L at week 8) or the oral administration of ezetimibe (10 mg daily) for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was percentage change in calculated LDL-C from baseline to week 24. Key secondary efficacy endpoints included percentage change from baseline to week 12 or 24 in LDL-C (week 12) and other lipid parameters, including apolipoprotein (Apo) B, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), TC, lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), HDL-C, fasting triglycerides (TG), and Apo A1, and the proportion of patients reaching LDL-C<1.81 mmol/L at week 24. Safety profile of therapeutic drugs was also assessed during the treatment period. Results: The mean age of 456 Chinese patients was (59.5±10.9) years, 341(74.8%) patients were male, 303 patients (66.4%) in alirocumab group and 153 patients (33.5%) in ezetimibe group. Demographic characteristics, disease characteristics, and lipid parameters at baseline were similar between the two groups. LDL-C was reduced more from baseline to week 12 and 24 in alirocumab group versus ezetimibe group, the difference of their least-squares mean (standard error) percent change were(-35.2±2.2)% and (-36.9±2.5)% (both P<0.001). At 12 weeks, alirocumab had significant reduction on Lp(a), Apo B, total cholesterol and non HDL-C, the difference of their least-squares mean (standard error) percent change were (-40.3±2.8)%, (-27.7±1.8)%, (-19.6±1.5)% and (-27.7±1.9)%, respectively (all P<0.001). At 24 weeks, the percent of patients who reached LDL-C<1.81 mmol/L and LDL-C<1.42 mmol/L was significantly higher in alirocumab group (85.3% and 70.5%) than in ezetimibe group (42.2% and 17.0%, both P<0.001), and alirocumab use was also associated with significant reduction on Lp(a), Apo B, total cholesterol and non HDL-C, the difference of their least-squares mean (standard error) percent change were (-37.2±2.8)%, (-29.1±2.0)%, (-21.6±1.6)% and (-29.6±2.2)%, respectively (all P<0.001). The incidence of treatment related adverse events was similar between the two treatment groups (223/302 patients (73.8%) in alirocumab group and 109/153 patients (71.2%) in ezetimibe group). Respiratory infection, urinary infection, dizziness and local injection-site reactions were the most frequently reported adverse events. Conclusions: In high cardiovascular risk patients with hyperlipidemia from China on maximally tolerated statin dose, the reduction of LDL-C induced by alirocumab is more significant than that induced by ezetimibe. Both treatments were generally safe during the observation period of study.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , China , Double-Blind Method , Ezetimibe/therapeutic use , Hypercholesterolemia , Hyperlipidemias , Proprotein Convertase 9 , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
16.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 111-117, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941069

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the long-term prognosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) by risk stratification with American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) classification of coronary lesions. Methods: Data used in this study derived from the I-LOVE-IT 2 trial. I-LOVE-IT 2 trial was a prospective, multicenter, randomized, assessor-blinded, noninferiority study. A total of 1 255 patients in I-LOVE-IT 2 trial with only one lesion and underwent biodegradable polymer drug-eluting stent implantation were included and grouped according to ACC/AHA classification of coronary lesions, namely type A/B1 lesion group (n=184), type B2 lesion group (n=457) and type C lesion group (n=614). The primary endpoint was 48-month patient-oriented composite endpoint (PoCE), a composite of all-cause mortality, all myocardial infarction, stroke, and/or any revascularization. The secondary endpoints were target lesion failure (TLF), components of PoCE, major bleeding (bleeding academic research consortium(BARC) type 3-5) and definite/probable stent thrombosis within 48 months. The incidences of endpoint events were compared in the three groups. The multivariable Cox hazard ratio model was used to analyze the independent predictors of PoCE and TLF at 48 months. Results: Incidences of PoCE at 48 months were significantly higher in patients with type C lesion compared with patients with type A/B1 (24.43%(150/614) vs. 14.13%(26/184), P<0.05) or B2 lesion (24.43%(150/614) vs. 15.97%(73/457), P<0.05). The multivariable Cox hazard ratio model showed that the type C lesion were the independent predictors of 48-month PoCE (HR=1.59, 95%CI 1.21-2.08, P<0.001) and TLF (HR=2.31, 95%CI 1.53-3.49, P<0.001). After multivariable adjustment, the HRs of PoCE for patients with type C lesion versus type A/B1 and type B2 were 1.91 (95%CI 1.25-2.92, P=0.003) and 1.64 (95%CI 1.23-2.20, P<0.001), respectively. Meanwhile, the HRs of TLF for patients with type C lesion versus type A/B1 and type B2 were 2.45 (95%CI 1.29-4.64, P=0.006) and 2.55 (95%CI 1.62-4.02, P=0.001), respectively. Conclusions: The ACC/AHA classification of coronary lesions has good discrimination with long-term outcomes for CAD patients undergoing PCI. The type C lesion is associated with a worse prognosis, enough attention should be paid in these patients during routine clinical management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Agents , Coronary Artery Disease , Drug-Eluting Stents , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sirolimus , Treatment Outcome
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-744557

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the characteristics in clinical, angiographic and percutaneous intervention (PCI) aspects of patients with chronic total occlusion (CTO) across different age groups, especially in young patients. Methods This study retrospectively analyzed 195 cases of CTO lesions admitted to the Department of Cardiology, General Hospital of Northern Theater Command from 2009 to 2014. These 1951 patients with CTO had undergone PCI and were divided into the young CTO group (≤44 years), the middle-aged CTO group (45-59 years) and the senior CTO group (≥60 years) according to their age. All patients had objective evidence of angina pectoris or myocardial ischemia before PCI. All the clinical features, coronary angiographic results, PCI related data and hospitalization outcome were all derived from our hospital PCI archives. Results There were significant differences in male ratio, body mass index, smoking and, drinking habit, creatinine clearance, triglyceride and LDL levels across the three groups (all P<0.05), and the highest values were found in the young patient group. The prevalence of unstable angina pectoris, hypertension and stroke were lowest in the young patient group (all P<0.05). The number of stenotic vessels and CTO occlusion time were less in young patients (all P <0.05). There was no significant difference among the three groups in CTO vascular distribution, coronary collateral Rentrop degree, CTO lesion length, CTO lesion diameter and CTO lesion characteristics (blunt CTO, CTO with bridging collateral and proximal branch of CTO lesion). There were no significant differences among the three groups in the volume of contrast agent used, CTO operation time, average stent number and average stent length (P>0.05). The procedural success rate of target vessels, races complete revascularization and mean stent diameter were highest in the young patient group (P<0.001).Conclusions Young CTO patients had typical risk factors of coronary heart disease with higher PCI success rate to target vessels and complete revascularization rate, which may be related to the short history of CTO.

18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 197-210, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772857

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor is the cornerstone of treatment in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and in those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In current clinical situation, availability of different oral P2Y12 inhibitors (clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticagrelor) has enabled physicians to switch among therapies owing to specific clinical scenarios. Although optimum time, loading dose and interval of transition between P2Y12 inhibitors is still controversial and needs further evidence, switching between oral inhibitors frequently occurs in clinical practice for several reasons.@*DATA SOURCES@#This review was based on data in articles published in PubMed up to June 2018, with the following keywords "antiplatelet therapy", "ACS", "PCI", "ticagrelor", and "clopidogrel".@*STUDY SELECTION@#Original articles and critical reviews on de-escalation strategy in ACS patients after PCI were selected. References of the retrieved articles were also screened to search for potentially relevant papers.@*RESULTS@#Safety concerns associated with switching between antiplatelet agents, has prompted the use of clopidogrel for patients with ACS especially after PCI as a de-escalation strategy. Practical considerations for de-escalating therapies in patients with ACS such as reducing dose of P2Y12 inhibitors or shortening duration of DAPT (followed by aspirin or P2Y12 receptor inhibitor monotherapy) as potential options are yet to be standardized and validated.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Current review will provide an overview of the pharmacology of common P2Y12 inhibitors, definitions of de-escalation and different de-escalating strategies and its outcomes, along with possible direction to be explored in de-escalation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acute Coronary Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Therapeutics , Aspirin , Therapeutic Uses , Diamines , Therapeutic Uses , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Therapeutic Uses , Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists , Therapeutic Uses , Thiazoles , Therapeutic Uses
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-815983

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to introduce the experience in treatment of acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction(STEMI), saphenous vein graft(SVG), Chronic total occlusion(CTO),In-stent restenosis(ISR)and diffuse calcification lesions by excimer laser coronary atherectomy(ELCA). METHODS: Twenty-two patients were enrolled through our center from November 2016 to May 2017 and ELCA was performed on 22 lesions.The clinical and procedure endpoints were recorded. RESULTS: All the lesions were successfully crossed with laser catheterand and finally were performed by ELCA. Five cases(22.7%)with STEMI, ten cases(45.5%) with SVG lesions,five cases with ISR and other cases were CTO(4.5%) and Calcification(4.5%) lesions.Seventeen patients underwent balloon dilatation and successful implantation of drug-eluting stents(DES) and one patients was treated with drug-eluting balloon(DEB).the procedual and clinical success rates were 100%. At 6.6±2.7 months follow-up, there were no major adverse cardiac events(MACEs) and ELCA relatedcomplications recorded. Conclution This limited evdiences showed that treatment of complex coronary lesions by excimer laser coronary atherectomy may be a Safe and effective choice.It can be further popularized in complex coronary artery disease.

20.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2017-2024, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773931

ABSTRACT

Background@#There was still conflict on the antithrombotic advantage of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel among East Asian population with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We considered that the baseline bleeding risk might be an undetected key factor that significantly affected the efficacy of ticagrelor.@*Methods@#A total of 20,816 serial patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) from October 2011 to August 2014 in the General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region were enrolled in the present study. Patients receiving ticagrelor or clopidogrel were further subdivided according to basic bleeding risk. The primary outcome was net adverse clinical events (NACEs) defined as major adverse cardiac or cerebral events (MACCE, including all-cause death, myocardial infarction, ischemia-driven target vessel revascularization, or stroke) and any bleeding during 1-year follow-up. Comparison between ticagrelor and clopidogrel was adjusted by propensity score matching (PSM).@*Results@#Among the 20,816 eligible PCI patients who were included in this study, there were 1578 and 779 patients in the clopidogrel and ticagrelor groups, respectively, after PSM, their clinical parameters were well matched. Patients receiving ticagrelor showed comparable NACE risk compared with those treated by clopidogrel (5.3% vs. 5.1%, P = 0.842). Furthermore, ticagrelor might reduce the MACCE risk in patients with low bleeding risk but increase MACCE in patients with moderate-to-high bleeding potential (ticagrelor vs. clopidogrel, low bleeding risk: 2.5% vs. 4.9%, P = 0.022; moderate-to-high bleeding risk: 4.8% vs. 3.0%, P = 0.225; interaction P = 0.021), with vast differences in all bleeding (low bleeding risk: 1.5% vs. 0.8%, P = 0.210; moderate-to-high bleeding risk: 4.8% vs. 3.0%, P = 0.002; interaction P = 0.296).@*Conclusion@#Among real-world Chinese patients with ACS treated by PCI, ticagrelor only showed superior efficacy in patients with low bleeding risk but lost its advantage in patients with moderate-to-high bleeding potential.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acute Coronary Syndrome , Therapeutics , Adenosine , Clopidogrel , Therapeutic Uses , Hemorrhage , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Therapeutic Uses , Ticagrelor , Therapeutic Uses , Ticlopidine , Treatment Outcome
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