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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1684-1695, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981163

ABSTRACT

C-fos is a transcription factor that plays an important role in cell proliferation, differentiation and tumor formation. The aim of this study was to clone the goat c-fos gene, clarify its biological characteristics, and further reveal its regulatory role in the differentiation of goat subcutaneous adipocytes. We cloned the c-fos gene from subcutaneous adipose tissue of Jianzhou big-eared goats by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and analyzed its biological characteristics. Using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), we detected the expression of c-fos gene in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, subcutaneous fat, longissimus dorsi and subcutaneous adipocytes of goat upon induced differentiation for 0 h to 120 h. The goat overexpression vector pEGFP-c-fos was constructed and transfected into the subcutaneous preadipocytes for induced differentiation. The morphological changes of lipid droplet accumulation were observed by oil red O staining and bodipy staining. Furthermore, qPCR was used to test the relative mRNA level of the c-fos overexpression on adipogenic differentiation marker genes. The results showed that the cloned goat c-fos gene was 1 477 bp in length, in which the coding sequence was 1 143 bp, encoding a protein of 380 amino acids. Protein structure analysis showed that goat FOS protein has a basic leucine zipper structure, and subcellular localization prediction suggested that it was mainly distributed in the nucleus. The relative expression level of c-fos was higher in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of goats (P < 0.05), and the expression level of c-fos was significantly increased upon induced differentiation of subcutaneous preadipocyte for 48 h (P < 0.01). Overexpression of c-fos significantly inhibited the lipid droplets formation in goat subcutaneous adipocytes, significantly decreased the relative expression levels of the AP2 and C/EBPβ lipogenic marker genes (P < 0.01). Moreover, AP2 and C/EBPβ promoter are predicted to have multiple binding sites. In conclusion, the results indicated that c-fos gene was a negative regulatory factor of subcutaneous adipocyte differentiation in goats, and it might regulate the expression of AP2 and C/EBPβ gene expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Goats/genetics , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Adipogenesis/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Proteins/genetics , Cloning, Molecular
2.
Clinical Medicine of China ; (12): 246-250, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992498

ABSTRACT

Primary pulmonary mucinous adenocarcinoma is a rare subtype of lung adenocarcinoma. It differs from non-mucinous adenocarcinoma in etiology, pathogenesis, clinical, imaging, histological, immunophenotypic and genotypic features, prognosis and treatment. pulmonary mucinous adenocarcinoma mainly originates from bronchial basal cells and mucous cells. Tumor cells show a goblet and/or columnar cell morphology with abundant intracytoplasmic mucin and basally oriented nuclei, with a typical lepidic-predominant growth, the commonest molecular alterations are KRAS mutations.

3.
Journal of Chinese Physician ; (12): 304-309, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992297

ABSTRACT

Primary lung cancer is a malignant tumor with the highest incidence and mortality in China, and lung rehabilitation for lung cancer has become a research hotspot. Many literature and studies have confirmed the feasibility and safety of pulmonary rehabilitation for lung cancer, but the mechanism of pulmonary rehabilitation for lung cancer is not completely clear. This article will discuss the mechanism of pulmonary rehabilitation for lung cancer, the specific content of pulmonary rehabilitation and remote home pulmonary rehabilitation.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981629

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the mid-term effectiveness of arthroscopic Bankart repair for recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 107 patients with recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation who met the inclusion criteria between January 2017 and June 2021 was retrospectively analyzed, and all patients underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair. There were 88 males and 19 females. The age of the primary dislocation ranged from 13 to 48 years (mean, 23.3 years). The number of preoperative dislocations was 2-160 times (median, 7 times). The duration of preoperative instability was 0.2-240.0 months (median, 36.0 months). The mean age at operation was 28.2 years (range, 16-61 years). There were 43 cases of left shoulder and 64 cases of right shoulder. The proportion of glenoid defects in 63 patients was 1.7%-16.1% (mean, 8.1%). MRI showed that none of the patients had rotator cuff tears or shoulder stiffness. The CT three-dimensional reconstruction was performed at 1 day after operation to evaluate the distribution of implanted anchors and the occurrence of glenoid split fracture and whether there were nails pullout at the implant site. The postoperative complications were observed, and the pain and function of the shoulder were evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS) score, Rowe score, Constant-Murley score, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score. The recurrence of instability, the results of apprehension test, the number of patients who returned to preoperative sports level, and the satisfaction rate of patients were recorded.@*RESULTS@#All patients were successfully operated and were followed up 20-73 months (mean, 41.5 months). All incisions healed by first intention. The CT three-dimensional reconstruction at 1 day after operation showed that the anchors were located at the 2 : 00-5 : 30 positions of the glenoid, and there was no glenoid split fracture or nails pullout at the implant site. At last follow-up, VAS score was significantly lower than that before operation, and Rowe score, Constant-Murley score, and ASES score were significantly higher than those before operation ( P<0.05). Seven patients (6.5%) had recurrence of anterior shoulder dislocation at 23-55 months (mean, 39.9 months) after operation, including 6 cases of dislocation and 1 case of subluxation. At last follow-up, 51 patients (47.7%) returned to preoperative sports level, and 11 patients (10.3%) had a positive apprehension test. The patients' satisfaction rate was 90.7% (97/107). Among the 10 patients who were not satisfied with the surgical effectiveness, 7 patients had postoperative recurrence of instability, and 3 patients felt that they did not return to preoperative sports level.@*CONCLUSION@#Arthroscopic Bankart repair has good mid-term effectiveness in patients with recurrent anterior shoulder dislocations, minimal or no glenohumeral bone defects and low sports need.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Shoulder Dislocation/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Joint Instability/etiology , Arthroscopy/methods , Shoulder Joint/surgery , Recurrence
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986861

ABSTRACT

Placental transmogrification of the lung (PTL) is a very rare benign lung lesion. There are only about 40 cases reported in the literature. The imaging and histological features of PTL cases in the publication are various, most of which are cystic and a few of which are solid. Being extremely rare, the solid PTL is unknown to major pathologists and surgeons. We reported a case of solid PTL in the anterior mediastinum. The patient was a 52-year-old male with no history of smoking and without symptoms. During physical examination, chest CT revealed a circular low-density lesion with a maximum diameter of 2.9 cm beside the spine in the posterior basal segment of the left lower lobe of the lung. The wedge resection was performed by video-assisted thoracoscopy. Grossly, a round nodule was located underneath the visceral pleura. It was about 3.0 cm×3.0 cm×1.6 cm and the cut surface was grey-red, soft and spongy. Microscopically, the nodule was constituted of papillare, which resembled placental villi at low magnification. The axis of papillae was edema, in which some mild round cells with clear cytoplasm and CD10 positive staining aggregated and transitioned to immature adipocytes and amorphous pink materials deposited with a few of inflammatory cells infiltration. The surface of papillae was covered with disconti-nuous alveolar epithelium. Combined with the typical morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics of CD10 positive, the diagnosis was PTL. The patient was followed up for 1 year without recurrence and discomfort. So far, the pathogenesis of PTL is unclear. The major hypotheses include hamartoma, variant of emphysema and clonal hyperplasia of stromal cells. Based on the study of our case and publication, we speculate that the hyperplasia of stromal cells located in the alveolar septa might be the first step to form the solid PTL. With the progression of the disease, a typical unilateral cystic nodule develops as a result of secondary cystic degeneration due to the occlusive valve effect. Surgery is the only option for diagnosis and treatment of PTL. The clinician should make an individualized operation plan according to the clinical manifestations, location and scope of the lesion, and preserve the surrounding normal lung tissue as much as possible while completely removing the lesion. There is a favorable prognosis.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Middle Aged , Hyperplasia/pathology , Placenta/pathology , Lung/pathology , Pulmonary Emphysema/surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986860

ABSTRACT

We explored clinicopathological features and treatment strategies for thoracic SMARCA4-deficient undifferentiated tumor (SMARCA4-UT). Thoracic SMARCA4-UT is a new entity recently acknowledged in the 2021 edition of World Health Organization Classification of Thoracic Tumors, and doctors are relatively unfamiliar with its diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Taking a case of SMARCA4-UT treated in Peking University First Hospital as an example, this multi-disciplinary discussion covered several hot issues on diagnosing and treating thoracic SMARCA4-UT, including histological features, immu- nohistochemical and molecular phenotype, immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy, and pathological assessment of neoadjuvant therapy response. The patient was an older man with a long history of smoking and was admitted due to a rapidly progressing solid tumor in the lower lobe of the right lung. Histologically, tumor cells were epithelioid, undifferentiated, diffusely positive for CD34, and partially positive for SALL4.The expression of BRG1 protein encoded by SMARCA4 gene was lost in all of tumor cells, and next-generation sequencing(NGS)confirmed SMARCA4 gene mutation (c.2196T>G, p.Y732Ter). The pathological diagnosis reached as thoracic SMARCA4-UT, and the preoperative TNM stage was T1N2M0 (ⅢA). Tumor proportion score (TPS) detected by immunohistochemistry of programmed cell death 1-ligand 1 (PD-L1, clone SP263) was 2%. Tumor mutation burden (TMB) detected by NGS of 1 021 genes was 16. 3/Mb. Microsatellite detection showed the tumor was microsatellite stable (MSS). Neo-adjuvant therapy was implemented with the combined regimen of chemotherapy and ICI. Right lower lobectomy was performed through thoracoscopy after the two weeks' neoadjuvant. The pathologic assessment of lung tumor specimens after neoadjuvant therapy revealed a complete pathological response (CPR). The post-neoadjuvant tumor TNM stage was ypT0N0M0. Then, five cycles of adjuvant therapy were completed. Until October 2022, neither tumor recurrence nor metastasis was detected, and minimal residual disease (MRD) detection was negative. At present, it is believed that if BRG1 immunohistochemical staining is negative, regardless of whether SMARCA4 gene mutation is detected, it should be classified as SMARCA4-deficient tumors. SMARCA4-deficient tumors include a variety of carcinomas and sarcomas. The essential criteria for diagnosing SMARCA4-UT includes loss of BRG1 expression, speci-fic histological morphology, and exclude other common thoracic malignant tumors with SMARCA4-deficiency, such as squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. SMARCA4-UT is a very aggressive malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. It has almost no targeted therapy mutations, and little response to chemotherapy, but ICI is currently the only effective drug. The successful diagnosis and treatment for this case of SMARCA4-UT should enlighten significance for various kinds of SMARCA4-deficient tumors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Thoracic Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma , DNA Helicases , Nuclear Proteins , Transcription Factors
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986858

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the consistency of programmed cell death 1-ligand 1 (PD-L1, clone E1L3N, 22C3, SP263) in different immunohistochemical staining methods.@*METHODS@#The first step was to select the optimal process: The PD-L1(clone E1L3N) antibody recommended process, self-built process ①, self-built process ② and self-built process ③ were used to perform immunohistochemical staining in 5 cases of tonsil tissue. The quality of all slides was scored by expert pathologists (0-6 points). The process with the highest score was selected. The second step was to compare the consistency between the optimal procedure and the two standard procedures. Thirty-two cases of lung non-small cell carcinoma diagnosed by pathology in Peking University First Hospital in the past two years were randomly selected. The 32 cases were stained in parallel with the SP263 and 22C3 standard procedures, and all stained slides were scored by specialized pathologists for tumor proportion score (TPS). The scoring results were grouped according to < 1%, ≥1% to < 10%, ≥10% to < 50%, and ≥50%. The consistency of PD-L1 detection antibody clone E1L3N and 22C3, E1L3N and SP263 staining results was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Tonsil stained slides scores (0-6 points) were as follows: The recommended protocol was 5, 5, 5, 5 and 5. The self-built process ① was 5, 6, 6, 5 and 6. The self-built process ② was 4, 4, 4, 4 and 4.The self-built process ③ was 3, 3, 3, 3 and 3. The self-built process ① was the best with the highest score. The TPSs of 32 non small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cases were as follows: Of self-built process ①, 6 cases were lower than 1%, 5 cases were from 1% to 10%, 10 cases were from 10% to 50%, and 11 cases were higher than 50%; of 22C3 standard procedure, 5 cases were lower than 1%, 3 cases were from 1% to 10%, 13 cases were from 10% to 50%, 11 cases were higher than 50%; of SP263 standard procedure, 7 cases were lower than 1%, 4 cases were from 1% to 10%, 11 cases were from 10% to 50%, 10 cases were higher than 50%. The results of the consistency test were as follows: The κ value for self-built process ① and 22C3 standard procedure was 0.736 (P < 0.001), the agreement was good; the κ value for self-built process ① and SP263 standard procedure was 0.914 (P < 0.001), the agreement was very good.@*CONCLUSION@#The immunostaining using PD-L1(E1L3N) with validated self-built staining protocol ① by Ventana Benchmark GX platform can obtain high quality of slides, and the TPSs based on these slides are in good agreement with 22C3 and SP263 standard procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Ligands , Antibodies , Staining and Labeling , Apoptosis
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986844

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the protocol for diagnosing thyroid nodules based on core needle biopsy (CNB) and study the biomarkers' application in distinguishing indeterminate samples.@*METHODS@#Patients with thyroid nodules treated at Peking University First Hospital from 2015 to 2020 were reviewed. In the study, 598 cases with CNB and matched resected specimens were retrieved. According to "diagnostic categories of thyroid CNB" proposed by the Korean Endocrine Pathology Thyroid Core Needle Biopsy Study Group, the CNB samples were diagnosed as follows: Ⅰ, unsatisfactory; Ⅱ, benign; Ⅲ, indeterminate; Ⅳ, follicular neoplasm; Ⅴ, suspicious for malignancy; and Ⅵ, malignant. The samples of CNB Ⅲ were stained by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using antibodies against CK19, Galectin-3, HBME-1, and CD56, and detected by next-generation sequencing (NGS) using an OncoAim® thyroid cancer multigene assay kit (Singlera Genomics) that detected 26 genes. Taking the resected specimens' classification as the gold standard, the predictive value of CNB for determining the malignancy of thyroid nodules and the biomarkers for distinguishing the samples of CNB Ⅲ was calculated.@*RESULTS@#The study included 598 patients, of which none were CNB Ⅰ, 40 cases were CNB Ⅱ, 40 cases were CNB Ⅲ, 32 cases were CNB Ⅳ, 35 cases were CNB Ⅴ, and 451 cases were CNB Ⅵ. The predictive value of CNB Ⅳ for determining follicular neoplasm was sensitivity (Sen) 100.00% and specificity (Sep) 100.00%, CNB Ⅴ-Ⅵ for determining malignancy was Sen 94.55% and Sep 100.00%, CNB Ⅱ for determining benign lesions was Sen 75.00% and Sep 99.80%. The predictive value of biomarkers for determining malignancy in cases of CNB Ⅲ was Sen 96.30% and Sep 92.31% by NGS, and Sen 81.48% and Sep 92.30% by IHC.@*CONCLUSION@#The Korean "diagnostic categories of thyroid CNB", which considers the histological specificity of CNB samples and the habits of clinicians, have strong operability, high diagnosis rate, and high clinical value. Under this framework, the cases of CNB Ⅵ should be treated with surgical operation, the cases of CNB Ⅴ-Ⅵ are recommended to be treated as malignant neoplasms, and the major cases of CNB Ⅱ could be followed up without worrisome except the one considered malignant by ultrasound. The value of biomarkers in distinguishing the cases of CNB Ⅲ is significant.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Biopsy, Large-Core Needle/methods , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Biomarkers
9.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 460-465, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986153

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis type E virus (HEV) is a significant infectious zoonotic disease that causes hepatitis E. The disease is primarily transmitted via the fecal-oral route through contaminated water or food and is transmissible between species and genera. The causative agent for the disease is the hepatitis type E virus, which is a member of the Hepadnaviridae family and a single-stranded RNA virus. Its 7.2 kb genome mainly contains three open reading frames (ORFs): ORF1 encodes a non-structural polyprotein that mediates viral replication and transcription; ORF2 encodes a capsid protein and free antigen that induce neutralizing antibodies; ORF3 partially overlaps with ORF2 and encodes a small multifunctional protein involved in virion formation and release. HEV has a unique dual life cycle: it is excreted into feces in the form of naked virions but circulates in the blood in the form of "quasi-enveloped" particles. The two kinds of virus particles adsorb and penetrate the host cell in distinct ways, then internalize and decapsulate to replicate the genome, thereby producing more virion and releasing it outside the cell to mediate the virus's spread. This paper reviews the morphological characteristics, genome structure, encoded proteins, and function of HEV virus-like particles in order to provide a theoretical basis for basic research and comprehensive disease prevention and control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis E virus/genetics , Hepatitis E
10.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 329-333, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009498

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Different arch structures may cause different foot function injuries. In the past, the arch structure and flexibility of the foot were often defined by the height of the arch, and there was no three-dimensional (3D) structure classification method. In order to form a more complete 3D description, we propose a new classification system of arch volume flexibility (AVF), and then use this new classification system to investigate the relationship between the AVF and arch index (AI), and the arch height flexibility (AHF) and AI, respectively.@*METHODS@#It is proposed to recruit 180 young male adults for the test. We obtained arch volume and AI through 3D scanning and obtained the navicular height through manual measurement. Based on these data, we calculated the AHF and the AVF. Using the quintile method, these arches are divided into very stiff, stiff, neutral, flexible, and very flexible. According to AI value, all arches were divided into cavus, rectus, and planus. The distribution of AVF was compared using χ2 goodness of fit test. The spearman correlation test was used to compare the AHF and AVF. A p < 0.05 indicates that the difference is statistically significant.@*RESULTS@#All participants' plantar data was obtained through 3D scanning, but only 159 of them were complete, so only 318 feet had valid data. The left AHF is (21.23 ± 12.91) mm/kN, and the right AHF is (21.71 ± 12.69) mm/kN. The AVF of the left foot arch is (207.35 ± 118.28) mm3/kg, while the right one is (203.00 ± 117.92) mm3/kg, and the total AVF of the arch was (205.17 ± 117.94) mm3/kg. There was no statistical difference in the AVF between the left and right feet for the same participant (n = 159, p = 0.654). In cavus, the percentage of arch with AVF is 21.4% (very stiff), 21.4% (stiff), 14.3% (neutral), 7.1% (flexible), and 35.7% (very flexible). In rectus, the percentage of arch with AVF is 23.9% (very stiff), 19.6% (stiff), 14.7% (neutral), 24.5% (flexible), and 17.2% (very flexible). In planus, the percentage of arch with AVF is 14.9% (very stiff), 20.6% (stiff), 27.0% (neutral), 16.3% (flexible), and 21.3% (very flexible). Moreover, the correlation between AHF and AVF is not significant (p = 0.060).@*CONCLUSION@#In cavus, rectus, and planus, different AVF accounts different percentage, but the difference is not statistically significant. AVF is evenly distributed in the arches of the feet at different heights. We further found the relationship between AHF and AVF is not significant. As a 3D index, AVF may be able to describe the flexibility of the arch more comprehensively than AHF.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Foot , Foot Injuries , Biomechanical Phenomena
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982003

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To develop a risk prediction model for severe adenovirus pneumonia (AVP) in children, and to explore the appropriate timing for intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy for severe AVP.@*METHODS@#Medical data of 1 046 children with AVP were retrospectively analyzed, and a risk prediction model for severe AVP was established using multivariate logistic regression. The model was validated with 102 children with AVP. Then, 75 children aged ≤14 years who were considered at risk of developing severe AVP by the model were prospectively enrolled and divided into three groups (A, B and C) in order of visit, with 25 children in each group. Group A received symptomatic supportive therapy only. With the exception of symptomatic supportive therapy, group B received IVIG treatment at a dose of 1g/(kg·d) for 2 consecutive days, before progressing to severe AVP. With the exception of symptomatic supportive therapy, group C received IVIG treatment at a dose of 1 g/(kg·d) for 2 consecutive days after progressing to severe AVP. Efficacy and related laboratory indicators were compared among the three groups after treatment.@*RESULTS@#Age<18.5 months, underlying diseases, fever duration >6.5 days, hemoglobin level <84.5 g/L, alanine transaminase level >113.5 U/L, and co-infection with bacteria were the six variables that entered into the risk prediction model for severe AVP. The model had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.862, sensitivity of 0.878, and specificity of 0.848. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed good consistency between the predicted values and the actual observations (P>0.05). After treatment, group B had the shortest fever duration and hospital stay, the lowest hospitalization costs, the highest effective rate of treatment, the lowest incidence of complications, the lowest white blood cell count and interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 levels, and the highest level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The risk model for severe AVP established in this study has good value in predicting the development of severe AVP. IVIG therapy before progression to severe AVP is more effective in treating AVP in children.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Adenoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenoviridae
12.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 425-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934761

ABSTRACT

Composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA) is a novel transplantation discipline to treat functional tissue or limb defects. Since a majority of CTA grafts were vascularized grafts, it is also known as vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA). The grafts of CTA/VCA consist of two or more types of allogeneic skin, subcutaneous tissue, bone, muscle, nerve and vessel, etc. Most of CTA/VCA grafts contain skin tissues, which possess the highest antigenicity. Acute rejection after transplantation is the primary obstacle leading to CTA/VCA graft failure and primary graft dysfunction. Hence, histopathological characteristics of skin rejection in CTA/VCA grafts have become the primary hotspot. In this article, pathological features of CTA/VCA rejection, Banff classification in 2007 and related research progress were reviewed, aiming to provide reference for the diagnosis and treatment of rejection and other complications of CTA/VCA.

13.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 282-285, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935383

ABSTRACT

The rapid development of sequencing technology brings the explosive growth of pathogen genetic data. The combination of genomic data and phylogenetic method is being used to elaborate the origin and evolution of pathogens, the time and space distribution and parameter changes in the prevalence process, and how phenotypes like antigen, virulence, and resistance change over time. This method is also being used to predict pathogen transmission trends. In this study, we described the aim of phylogeny and the process of the phylogenetic construction method. We elaborated the advantages and disadvantages and scope of application of tree-building methods including distance-based, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and bayesian methods. We have reviewed the application and the estimation methods of major epidemiological parameters of phylodynamics and phylogeography in domestic and foreign studies. We concluded that the time- and location-scaled phylogenetic trees are increasingly used for outbreak investigation and routine surveillance of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bayes Theorem , Communicable Diseases/genetics , Epidemiologic Studies , Genomics , Phylogeny
14.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 693-698, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923004

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To study the sp ectrum-effect relationship of anti-gastric ulcer effect of Shaoyao gancao decoction. METHODS Eleven batches of Shaoyao gancao decoction were prepared ;gastric ulcer model was established by anhydrous ethanol modeling method. Using Weikangling as positive control ,the effects of Shaoyao gancao decoction on the contents of defensive factors [nitric oxide (NO),epidermal growth factor (EGF),superoxide dismutase (SOD)] and attack factor [malondialdehyde (MDA)] in gastric tissue of model rats were investigated. HPLC fingerprints of 11 batches of Shaoyao gancao decoction were established and similarity evaluation was performed with Similarity Evaluation System of Traditional Chinese Medicine Chromatographic Fingerprint (2004A edition ); common peaks were identified by comparing with mixed control. The spectrum-effect relationship of Shaoyao gancao decoction against gastric ulcer was analyzed based on the grey correlation analysis. RESULTS Eleven batches of Shaoyao ganyao decoction could significantly decrease the content of MDA in gastric tissue ,while increased the contents of NO ,EGF and SOD in gastric ulcer model rats (P<0.01),and had a certain inhibitory effect on the gastric ulcer. There were 23 common peaks in chromatograms of 11 batches of samples ,and the similarity with the control fingerprint was not less than 0.9. By comparing with mixed control ,7 common peaks were identified ,namely gallic acid (peak 5),albiflorin(peak 9),paeoniflorin(peak 10),liquiritin(peak 12),isoliquiritin apioside (peak 14),isoliquiritoside(peak 15), glycyrrhizic acid (peak 22). The average correlation degree of 7 identified common peaks and pharmacodynamic indexes were greater than 0.6,of which peak 22(glycyrrhizic acid ),peak 10(paeoniflorin)and peak 12(liquiritin)had the largest correlation , and their values were 0.807,0.772 and 0.770 respectively. RESULTS The anti-gastric ulcer effect of Shaoyao gancao decoction is the result of the synergistic effect of multiple components ,among which glycyrrhizic acid ,paeoniflorin and liquiritin may be the main pharmacodynamic components.

15.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 673-680, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-956491

ABSTRACT

Lateral epicondylitis is a common clinical disease with characteristics of lateral elbow pain, insidious onset and easy recurrence, which can cause forearm pain and decreased wrist strength, seriously affecting patients′ daily life and work. Although there are various treatment methods for lateral epicondylitis with different effects, standard treatments are still lacking nowadays. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has good effects on bone and tendon repair, and is now widely used in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. However, there is a lack of a unified understanding of the technology and specifications of PRP in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Therefore, the Sports Medicine Branch of the Chinese Medical Association and Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Branch of the Chinese Medical Association organized experts in the fields of sports medicine and rehabilitation medicine in China to formulate the "clinical expert consensus on platelet-rich plasma treatment for lateral epicondylitis (2022 version)", and proposed suggestions based on evidence-based medicine mainly from the concept, epidemiology and pathophysiology of lateral epicondylitis, symptoms, signs and imaging manifestations of lateral epicondylitis, PRP concept and application component requirements, quality control of PRP preparation technology, indications and contraindications of PRP in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis, PRP injection in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis, application of PRP in the operation of lateral epicondylitis, related problems after PRP treatment of lateral epicondylitis, evaluation of the results after PRP treatment of lateral epicondylitis, and health and economic evaluation of PRP treatment of lateral epicondylitis, so as to provide guidance for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

16.
Clinical Medicine of China ; (12): 289-293, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-956367

ABSTRACT

Adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) of the lung is a unique type of lung cancer. The pathological definition is a carcinoma showing components of both squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma, with each accounting for ≥10% of the tumor. Definitive diagnosis requires a resection specimen sampled appropriately. Biopsy and cytology can not make the diagnosis of adenosquamous carcinoma. The research by applying microdissection and next-generation sequencing showed that the genotype of adenocarcinoma component and SCC component in ASC are similar, which is very close to the pure adenocarcinoma and significantly different from the pure SCC. So far, the theory of common precursor stem cell differentiating to adenocarcinoma and SCC is the most accepted among the hypotheses about adenocarcinoma origin.

17.
Chinese Herbal Medicines ; (4): 154-165, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-953611

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Compound Huangdai Tablets (Realgar-Indigo Naturalis formula, RIF) combined with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Methods: This study was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42018108118). The relevant literatures on RIF treatment of APL were systematically searched in the following databases: China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, VIP Medical Information System, Chinese Biomedical Database, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and PubMed. The quality of the included studies was evaluated and Review Manager 5.3 software and Stata 13.0 software were used to perform the Meta-analysis. In addition, this study used the method of network pharmacology to conduct a preliminary exploration of the mechanism of RIF on APL. Results: The study included 12 studies involving 775 APL patients. The Meta-analysis showed that there was no significant difference (P 0.05) between the RIF group and the arsenic trioxide (ATO) group for primary outcomes, secondary outcomes apart from liver dysfunction. The incidence of liver dysfunction (P = 0.006) in the RIF group were significantly lower than those in the ATO group. In addition, the cost of maintenance therapy in the RIF group was significantly lower (P 0.05) than the ATO group. Besides, the active ingredients in RIF mainly act on targets proteins such as ACHE, NCOA2, RXRA, and then play a role in the treatment of APL through regulating multiple molecular mechanisms, such as TP53 regulates transcription of cell cycle genes, nuclear receptor transcription pathway. Conclusion: There was no significant difference in efficacy of oral RIF combined with ATRA compared with intravenous ATO combined with ATRA for the treatment of APL. The oral RIF exposed patients to less risk, offered more convenience and had lower prices. RIF can treat APL by multi-target and multi-pathway interventions that inducing apoptosis of APL cells and inhibiting the proliferation of APL cells, and so on. Therefore, oral RIF in the treatment of APL is worthy of further research and development.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879381

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare therapeutic efficacy of modified single-needle arthroscopic repair technique and Fast-Fix technique in repairing longitudinal meniscus injuries.@*METHODS@#From July 2016 to July 2017, patients with longitudinal meniscus injuries who underwent meniscal repair surgery were retrospectively analyzed. Ninety-one patients treated with modified single-needle technique and 77 patients were treated with Fast-Fix technique, the average age were (26.7±7.6) and (27.9±6.1) years old respectively, the average lengths of follow-up were (32.5±9.2) and (33.2±11.9) months, respectively. Operation cost, suture time, intraoperative failure rate and postoperative failure rate were used as clinical outcomes, MRI of knee joint was used as main diagnosis and evaluation basis; 2000 IKDC subjective score, Lysholm score and Tegner activity scale were compared between two groups preoperatively, 12 months after operation and at the latest follow-up. Intraoperative and postopertaive complications were observed.@*RESULTS@#Compared with Fast-Fix group, patients in modified single-needle technique group had lower operation costs [(645.7±133.1 vs.(12 184.8±4 709.8), @*CONCLUSION@#Modified single-needle arthrscopicrepair technique could achieve the similar therapeutic efficacy as Fast-Fix technique, and it has advantageds of simple opertion and more economical. This study recommends clinical application of modified single-needle arthrscopic repair technique in treating meniscus injuries.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Young Adult , Arthroscopy , Knee Injuries/surgery , Menisci, Tibial/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Suture Techniques , Tibial Meniscus Injuries/surgery , Treatment Outcome
19.
Clinical Medicine of China ; (12): 391-394, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909764

ABSTRACT

Organizing pneumonia (OP), as a special response of the lung to the tissue damage, is pathologically defined as the presence of granulation tissue in the distal airways (bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli). The organic nodule is composed of fibroblasts and mucopolysaccharide-rich matrix.The boundary is clear and smooth.They extend in the airway like polypoid plugs with a smooth border.They are easy to be recognized under the microscope, so the pathological diagnosis of OP is not difficult.The difficulty is to explore the hidden causes.In this process, the first step is to distinguish cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) from secondary OP.The diagnosis of COP must be based on strict criteria and sufficient multidisciplinary discussion.The investigation of the cause of secondary OP is a very challenging task.Pathologists need to carefully observe the characteristics of various pathological changes associated with OP, then analyze all of the features logistically.On this basis, discuss with the clinician and finally, find out the cause that can make a reasonable explanation for the morphological changes.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-884179

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the epidemic trend and risk change of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) complicated with malignant tumors after combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).Methods:The types of malignant tumors in patients with AIDS at different stages of cART were analyzed among anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive population in Hubei Province screened in National AIDS/HIV prevention and control information system from 1st January, 2004 to 31st December, 2018. The standardized incidence ratios(SIR) of malignant tumors in AIDS patients was analyzed based on the incidence of malignant tumors in the general population in Hubei Province or China in 2013. The changes in risks for development of malignant tumors in AIDS patients at different cART stages from 2004 to 2013 and 2014 to 2018 were compared.Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis.Results:Three hundred and twenty-three out of 22 994 AIDS patients were diagnosed with malignant tumors. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma(NHL) and cervical cancer were most common types in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining cancers (ADC), while liver cancers and lung cancers were the most common types in non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining cancers (NADC). The overall risk of malignancy in AIDS patients was similar to that in the general population (SIR=1.06, χ2=0.62, P=0.426). However, the risks of Kaposi sarcoma, NHL, Hodgkin lymphoma, cervical cancer, and head and face cancers (excepting nasopharyngeal cancer) in AIDS patients were significantly higher than those in the general population (SIR=834.09, 9.65, 13.33, 5.22 and 2.94, respectively, χ2=11 747.27, 625.54, 56.65, 184.21 and 13.66, respectively, all P<0.01). The risks of lung cancer, colorectal anal cancer, stomach cancer and breast cancer in AIDS patients were significantly lower than those in the general population (SIR=0.33, 0.36, 0.43 and 0.45, respectively, χ2=33.43, 12.84, 9.01 and 7.21, respectively, all P<0.05). The SIR of cervical cancer, liver cancer and colorectal anal cancer from 2014 to 2018 were 4.06, 0.43 and 0.10, respectively, which were significantly lower than those from 2004 to 2013 (7.42, 1.96 and 0.84, respectively). The differences were all statistically significant ( χ2=5.39, 19.52 and 10.86, respectively, all P<0.05). Conclusions:At present, there are no significant differences of the incidences of malignant tumors between AIDS patients and general population, but the tumor types are different. The most common malignant tumors in this region are NHL and cervical cancer, which should be noted that HIV screening among patients with such tumors is conducive to comprehensive treatment to improve the efficacy.

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