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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942358

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the morphological variation of Oncomelania hupensis shells in Yunnan Province, so as to provide insights into the understanding of O. hupensis genetic evolution and control. Methods According to the O. hupensis density, geographical location, altitude, water system and environmental type, 12 administrative villages were sampled from 10 schistosomiasis-endemic counties (districts) in 3 prefectures (cities) of Yunnan Province as snail collection sites. From December 2021 to January 2022, about 200 snails were collected from each collection site, among which thirty adult snails (6 to 7 spirals) were randomly selected from each site, and the 11 morphological indexes of snail shells were measured and subjected to cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Results Of O. hupensis snails from 12 localities of Yunnan Province, the longest shell (7.33 mm) was detected in snails from Yongle Village, Eryuan County, with the shortest (4.68 mm) in Dongyuan Village, Gucheng District, and the largest angle of apex (59.47°) was measured in snails from Caizhuang Village, Midu County, with the smallest (41.40°) in Qiandian Village, Eryuan County. The mean coefficient of variation was 9.075% among O. hupensis snails from 12 localities of Yunnan Province, with the largest coefficient of variation seen in the thickness of the labra brim (29.809%). Among O. hupensis snails from 12 localities of Yunnan Province, the mean Euclidean distance was 2.26, with the shortest Euclidean distance seen between O. hupensis snails from Qiandian Village of Eryuan County and Wuxing Village of Dali City (0.26), and the largest found between O. hupensis snails from Caizhuang Village of Midu County and Cangling Village of Chuxiong County (8.17). Cluster analysis and principal component analysis classified O. hupensis snails from 12 localities of Yunnan Province into three categories, including the O. hupensis snail samples from Caizhuang Village of Midu County, O. hupensis snail samples from Cangling Village of Chuxiong County, and O. hupensis snail samples from Qiandian Village of Eryuan County, Wuxing Village of Dali City, Yangwu Village of Yongsheng County, Xiaoqiao Village of Xiangyun County, Yongle Village of Eryuan County, Xiaocen Village of Dali City, Anding Village of Nanjian County, Dongyuan Village of Gucheng District, Lianyi Village of Heqing County, and Dianzhong Village of Weishan County. The variations in these three categories of snail samples were mainly measured in the principal component 2 related to the angle of apex and the thickness of the labra brim. Conclusions The variations in the Euclidean distance and morphological features of shells of O. hupensis from 12 localities of Yunnan Province gradually rise with the decrease in the latitude of the collection sites. The angle of apex is an indicator for the growth of O. hupensis whorl.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940942

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that seriously hinders socioeconomic developments and threatens public health security. To achieve the global elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem by 2030, WHO released the guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis on February, 2022, with aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for schistosomiasis morbidity control, elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem, and ultimate interruption of schistosomiasis transmission in disease-endemic countries. Following concerted efforts for decades, great achievements have been obtained for schistosomiasis control in China where the disease was historically highly prevalent, and the country is moving towards schistosomiasis elimination. This article reviews the successful experiences from the national schistosmiasis control program in China, and summarizes their contributions to the formulation and implementation of the WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis. With the progress of the "Belt and Road" initiative, the world is looking forward to more China's solutions on schistosomiasis control.


Subject(s)
China/epidemiology , Disease Eradication , Humans , Public Health , Schistosomiasis/prevention & control , World Health Organization
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940941

ABSTRACT

Preventive chemotherapy is one of the pivotal interventions for the control and elimination of schistosomiasis, which is effective to reduce the morbidity and prevalence of schistosomiasis. In order to promote the United Nations' sustainable development goals and the targets set for schistosomiasis control in the Ending the neglect to attain the Sustainable Development Goals: a road map for neglected tropical diseases 2021-2030, WHO released the guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis in 2022, with major evidence-based updates of the current preventive chemotherapy strategy for schistosomiasis. In China where great success has been achieved in schistosomiasis control, the preventive chemotherapy strategy for schistosomiasis has been updated several times during the past seven decades. This article reviews the evolution of the WHO guidelines on preventive chemotherapy and Chinese national preventive chemotherapy schemes, compares the current Chinese national preventive chemotherapy scheme and the recommendations for preventive chemotherapy proposed in the 2022 WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis, and proposes recommendations for preventive chemotherapy during the future implementation of the 2022 WHO guideline, so as to provide insights into schistosomiasis control among public health professionals engaging in healthcare foreign aid.


Subject(s)
China/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , Public Health , Schistosomiasis/prevention & control , World Health Organization
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940940

ABSTRACT

On February 2022, WHO released the evidence-based guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis, with aims to guide the elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem in disease-endemic countries by 2030 and promote the interruption of schistosomiasis transmission across the world. Based on the One Health concept, six evidence-based recommendations were proposed in this guideline. This article aims to analyze the feasibility of key aspects of this guideline in Chinese national schistosomiasis control program and illustrate the significance to guide the future actions for Chinese national schistosomiasis control program. Currently, the One Health concept has been embodied in the Chinese national schistosomiasis control program. Based on this new WHO guideline, the following recommendations are proposed for the national schistosomiasis control program of China: (1) improving the systematic framework building, facilitating the agreement of the cross-sectoral consensus, and building a high-level leadership group; (2) optimizing the current human and livestock treatments in the national schistosomiasis control program of China; (3) developing highly sensitive and specific diagnostics and the framework for verifying elimination of schistosomiasis; (4) accelerating the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis and other parasitic diseases through integrating the national control programs for other parasitic diseases.


Subject(s)
China/epidemiology , Disease Eradication , Humans , Public Health , Schistosomiasis/prevention & control , World Health Organization
5.
Journal of Stroke ; : 236-244, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938175

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose To explore the causal relationships of elements of the exposome with ischemic stroke and its subtypes at the omics level and to provide evidence for stroke prevention. Methods We conducted a Mendelian randomization study between exposure and any ischemic stroke (AIS) and its subtypes (large-artery atherosclerotic disease [LAD], cardioembolic stroke [CE], and small vessel disease [SVD]). The exposure dataset was the UK Biobank involving 361,194 subjects, and the outcome dataset was the MEGASTROKE consortium including 52,000 participants. @*Results@#We found that higher blood pressure (BP) (systolic BP: odds ratio [OR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.04; diastolic BP: OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.05; pulse pressure: OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.06), atrial fibrillation (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.25), and diabetes (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.18) were significantly associated with ischemic stroke. Importantly, higher education (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.79) decreased the risk of ischemic stroke. Higher systolic BP (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.10), pulse pressure (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.14), diabetes (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.45), and coronary artery disease (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.25 to 2.00) could cause LAD. Atrial fibrillation could cause CE (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.71 to 2.11). For SVD, higher systolic BP (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.07), diastolic BP (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.12), and diabetes (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.36) were causal factors. @*Conclusions@#The study revealed elements of the exposome causally linked to ischemic stroke and its subtypes, including conventional causal risk factors and novel protective factors such as higher education.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931893

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effects of foraging exercise (FE) on depressive-like behaviors and expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in hippocampus of rats with ischemic stroke after chronic stress.Methods:The right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was used in 30 male adult clean grade SD rats by suture method.According to the body weight, rats were evenly divided into stroke group ( n=10) and chronic unpredictable mild stimulation (CUMS) group ( n=20). Rats of CUMS group received stress induction 1 week after operation and lasted for 3 weeks. Then, according to random number generator of SPSS 24.0 software, the depression rats were divided into post-stroke depression (PSD) group( n=10) and FE groups ( n=10). The FE group received free FE intervention for 4 weeks. Body weight, water maze test, novelty inhibition feeding test (NSFT) and sucrose preference test (SPT) were performed at the end of the 1st, 4th and 8th week, respectively. The expression of TGF-β1 in hippocampus was detected by Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot (WB), and the levels of TGF-β1 and TNF-α in serum were detected by ELISA. SPSS 24.0 software was used for statistical analysis. The behavioral data were compared by two factor repeated measurement analysis of variance. One way ANOVA was used for comparison among groups, and LSD test was used for further pairwise comparison. Results:(1) The interaction between group and time had statistical significance on body weight, latency and food intake of NSFT and sucrose preference index(SPI) ( F=2.936-12.098, all P<0.05). After 4 weeks, compared with the stroke group((343.80±19.34)g, (12.10±6.97)s, (0.75±0.09)%), the body weight((307.80±17.23)g, (305.30±24.39)g), and SPI((0.52±0.06)%, (0.53±0.07)%) of PSD group and FE group were lower and the NSFT latency((21.70±7.02)s, (22.40±0.84)s) was longer (all P<0.05). After 8 weeks, SPI in FE group was higher than that in PSD group ( P=0.045). There were significant differences in body weight of three groups, NSFT latency and SPI of PSD group and FE group, and food intake of stroke and FE group ( F=8.478-196.548, all P<0.05). There was no interaction between group and time in the water maze test. Main effect of time ( P=0.034) and main effect of group ( P<0.01) had statistical significance on escape latency. The escape latency after 4 weeks was longer than that after 1 week ( P=0.003). The latency of PSD group was longer than that of stroke group ( P=0.005), and latency of FE group was shorter than that of the PSD group ( P<0.01). The main effect of group had statistical significance in the number of crossing quadrant ( P<0.01). The number of crossing quadrant of FE group was less than that of PSD group ( P<0.01). (2) Immunohistoche mistry staining showed that compared with the stroke group, the expression of TGF-β1 was down-regulated in 3 areas of hippocampus of PSD group (CA1, CA3 and DG) ( t=5.449-9.353, all P<0.01). Compared with stroke group, the expression of TGF-β1 of CA1 ( t=7.433, P<0.01) in FE group was down-regulated, but was up-regulated in CA3 ( t=3.342, P<0.05) of FE group. Compared with the PSD group, the expression of TGF-β1 was up-regulated in CA3 and DG of FE group ( t=7.811, 8.790, both P<0.01). (3) Western blot results: Compared with stroke group, the expression of TGF-β1 in hippocampus of PSD group was down-regulated ( t=3.255, P<0.01). Compared with the PSD group, the expression of TGF-β1 in hippocampus of FE group was up-regulated ( t=2.906, P<0.05). (4) ELISA detection showed that compared with the stroke group, the levels of TGF-β1 decreased ( t=2.224, P<0.05), but TNF-α increased ( t=6.127, P<0.01) in PSD group.Compared with the PSD group, the expression of TGF-β1 in FE group increased significantly ( t=4.417, P<0.01). Conclusion:Foraging exercise can improve the depressive behavior symptoms of ischemic stroke rats after chronic stress, and its mechanism may be related to the increasing expression of TGF-β1, which can alleviate the inflammatory reaction in hippocampus.

7.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 389-392, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931557

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the cause of death of 2 suspected Yunnan sudden unexplained death (YNSUD) cases in Dayao County, Yunnan Province.Methods:The field epidemiological investigation and autopsy of 2 cases of YNSUD in Dayao County from June 15 to 20, 2020 were conducted; and blood and tissue samples were collected for qualitative analysis of common poisons and drugs.Results:The areas where the two cases were located were all seriously ill villages with a history of YNSUD, and the time of death occurred in the onset season of YNSUD. There was no blood relationship between the 2 cases, no obvious abnormal symptoms before death, no special diet, no history of exposure to pesticides and other toxic chemicals, and the test results of common poisons were all negative. Autopsy pathological examination results showed that case 1 died of acute cardiac dysfunction caused by sudden acute myocardial infarction of coronary heart disease, and case 2 died of central respiratory and circulatory failure caused by spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.Conclusions:The two cases are excluded from YNSUD through autopsy, and the cause of death is determined. It is suggested that emergency response should be taken as soon as possible for YNSUD cases, and autopsy should be actively carried out to clarify the cause of death from a pathological point of view.

8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 774-786, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929326

ABSTRACT

Glioblastoma is carcinogenesis of glial cells in central nervous system and has the highest incidence among primary brain tumors. Brain metastasis, such as breast cancer and lung cancer, also leads to high mortality. The available medicines are limited due to blood-brain barrier. Abnormal activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K) signaling pathway is prevalent in glioblastoma and metastatic tumors. Here, we characterized a 2-amino-4-methylquinazoline derivative XH30 as a potent PI3K inhibitor with excellent anti-tumor activity against human glioblastoma. XH30 significantly repressed the proliferation of various brain cancer cells and decreased the phosphorylation of key proteins of PI3K signaling pathway, induced cell cycle arrest in G1 phase as well. Additionally, XH30 inhibited the migration of glioma cells and blocked the activation of PI3K pathway by interleukin-17A (IL-17A), which increased the migration of U87MG. Oral administration of XH30 significantly suppressed the tumor growth in both subcutaneous and orthotopic tumor models. XH30 also repressed tumor growth in brain metastasis models of lung cancers. Moreover, XH30 reduced IL-17A and its receptor IL-17RA in vivo. These results indicate that XH30 might be a potential therapeutic drug candidate for glioblastoma migration and brain metastasis.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928724

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To establish an animal model of acute B lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) with minimal residual disease.@*METHODS@#The transplanted tumor was formed by subcutaneous injection of 2×107 Nalm-6 cells, and the body weight, activity status and tumor formation status of nude mice were observed. Peripheral blood, bone marrow, liver and spleen and other tissues of nude mice were taken for pathological examination to understand whether the success of subcutaneous modeling was accompanied by systemic metastasis.@*RESULTS@#There were 2×107 Nalm-6 cells injected subcutaneously in nude mice, (11.0±2.5) days later, the tumors of (3-4) × (3-4) mm were observed, the body weight of the nude mice was reduced and activity showed no limited. Infiltration of tumor cells in liver, spleen and bone marrow were observed in pathological sections.@*CONCLUSION@#The animal model of subcutaneous tumor of B-ALL was successfully established in nude mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , Mice, Nude , Neoplasm Transplantation , Neoplasm, Residual , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936365

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the impact of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on clinical outcomes of patients receiving anti-PD-1 immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.@*METHODS@#We conducted a retrospective study among 215 patients with primary liver cancer receiving immunotherapy between June, 2018 and October, 2020. The patients with balanced baseline characteristics were selected based on propensity matching scores, and among them 33 patients who used NSAIDs were matched at the ratio of 1∶3 with 78 patients who did not use NSAIDs. We compared the overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and disease control rate (DCR) between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in OS between the patients using NSAIDs (29.7%) and those who did not use NSAIDs (70.2%). Univariate and multivariate analyses did not show an a correlation of NSAIDs use with DCR (univariate analysis: OR=0.602, 95% CI: 0.299-1.213, P=0.156; multivariate analysis: OR=0.693, 95% CI: 0.330-1.458, P=0.334), PFS (univariate analysis: HR=1.230, 95% CI: 0.789-1.916, P=0.361; multivariate analysis: HR=1.151, 95% CI: 0.732-1.810, P=9.544), or OS (univariate analysis: HR=0.552, 95% CI: 0.208-1.463, P=0.232; multivariate analysis: HR=1.085, 95% CI: 0.685-1.717, P=0.729).@*CONCLUSION@#Our results show no favorable effect of NSAIDs on the efficacy of immunotherapy in patients with advanced primary liver cancer, but this finding still needs to be verified by future prospective studies of large cohorts.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
11.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 564-571, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941319

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To analyze the incidence, blood lipid levels and cardiovascular disease of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in dyslipidemia patients receiving lipid-lowing therapy from the DYSIS-China. Methods: Dyslipidemia International Study-China (DYSIS-China) database was re-analyzed according to the criteria of "Chinese guidelines for prevention and treatment of dyslipidemia in adults-2016 version". DYSIS-China database included 25 317 dyslipidemia out-patients who received at least one lipid-lowering drug for at least three months. All the patients were divided into three groups: unlikely HF, possible FH and definite FH according to the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network diagnostic criteria. Age, gender, lipids levels, drug use and complications were compared among the three groups. Factors were compared between Possible FH group and definite FH group in terms of age stratification. Results: A total of 23 973 patients with dyslipidemia were included. The average age was (64.8±9.9) years, 11 757 patients were females (49.0%). The proportion of unlikely FH in the total population was 20 561 (85.7%), possible FH was 3294 (13.7%), and the definite FH was 118(0.5%). Patients in the definite FH group (58.3±8.5 years) was younger than in unlikely HF(65.3±9.8 years) and possible FH(61.8±9.9 years) group. LDL-C ((5.6±1.9) mmol/L) levels were significantly higher in definite FH group than in unlikely HF ((2.5±0.9) mmol/L) and possible FH ((4.3±1.0) mmol/L) group. TC ((7.4±1.8) mmol/L) levels were also significantly higher in definite FH group than in unlikely HF ((4.3±1.0) mmol/L) and possible FH ((6.0±1.0) mmol/L) group. Percent of female sex, sedentary lifestyle and systolic blood pressure value were significantly higher in definite FH group than in other two groups (all P<0.05). Statin use was similar among the 3 groups. Prevalence of ischemic cardiomyopathy (70(59.3%)) was significantly higher in the definite FH group than in unlikely FH group7519 (36.6%) and possible FH group1149 (34.9%). The rate of hypertension (82 (69.5%)) was also significantly higher in the definite FH group than in unlikely FH group (2 063 (62.6%) and in possible FH group (13 928 (67.7%)). The possible FH group had the highest proportion of patients aged 55-64 years (1 146 (34.8%)), and the prevalence of hypertension 358 (76.8%), diabetes 189 (40.6%), ischemic heart disease 186 (39.9%), cerebrovascular disease 149 (32.0%) and heart failure 28 (6.0%) was the highest in patients over 75 years old. The definite FH group had the highest proportion of patients aged 55-64 years (49 (41.52%)), and the prevalence of ischemic heart disease (70 (59.3%)) was the highest in patients aged 45-54 years old group, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of diabetes,hypertension,heart failure,peripheral artery disease and cerebrovascular disease among different age groups. Conclusion: The detection rate of FH in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia is not low, the blood lipid level is poorly controlled, and the risk of cardiovascular disease is high in Chinses FH patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Cholesterol, LDL , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/epidemiology , Lipids , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934550

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the physical geography and social and economic geography of Huairou District, Beijing, from the perspective of health geography and based on the science of health policy, and study the implementation effects and existing problems of village-level health resource allocation policy based on household registration system and population number, then put forward relevant countermeasures.Methods:From December 2020 to May 2021, 14 rural townships in Huairou district of Beijing were investigated on the basis of literature review, on the basis of information saturation, through typical case analysis, semi-structured interview and other methods. According to the distribution of physical geography and social economic geography, 15 administrative villages of 3 townships were selected to carry out field observation and in-depth interviews with key insiders on the basic information of village clinics and rural doctors, basic medical and health services, management system and operation mechanism.Results:The characteristics of geographical environment, population change and population density of village-level health institutions in Huairou district made the current situation of village-level health resources allocation highlight the current situation of insufficient policy coordination and supervision, and showed the reality of unbalanced distribution of village-level health institutions. There was a big gap between the geographical distribution of villager health institutions and the allocation of health human resources and the health needs of villagers, and the current situation was worrying. The lack of analysis of health geographical factors in the policy formulation and implementation was an important factor.Conclusions:To realize village-level health allocation, it is necessary to fully consider health geographic factors, break institutional boundaries through policy coordination and differentiation, and gradually optimize village-level health resource allocation starting from optimizing the layout of village-level health institutions.

13.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 971-975, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931471

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the relationship between arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) desmosomal protein gene mutations and Yunnan unexplained sudden death (hereinafter referred to as Yunnan sudden death) by detecting 5 common ARVC desmosomal protein gene mutations of Yunnan sudden death cases and their relatives in Heqing County, Yunnan Province.Methods:In January 2021, the autopsy heart cavity blood was collected from Yunnan sudden death cases in 8 villages in Heqing County, and peripheral venous blood samples of relatives of the cases were collected. Blood samples' DNA was extracted, after PCR amplification, 97 exons of 5 desmosomal protein genes [desmoplakin (DSP), desmoglein-2 (DSG2), plakophilin-2 (PKP2), junction plakoglobin (JUP) and desmocollin-2 (DSC2)] were sequenced by Sanger method to analyze gene mutations.Results:Three blood samples of Yunnan sudden death cases and 36 blood samples of relatives were collected. A total of 26 gene mutation sites were detected in 39 blood samples, with a total mutation rate of 26.80% (26/97). There were 13, 5, 3, 3 and 2 mutation sites in DSP, DSG2, PKP2, JUP and DSC2 genes, respectively. Among them, 19 were reported mutations and 7 were new mutations: DSP gene exon 3 c.372G>A, exon 15 c.2090A>G, exon 17 c.2371C>A, exon 24-I c.8458T>G; DSG2 gene exon 8 c.861C>T; PKP2 gene exon 3 c.892C>A, exon 8 c.1725G>T. Three Yunnan sudden death cases and 36 relatives were all carriers of compound gene mutation, and the same person carried 3 - 9 gene mutation sites at the same time.Conclusion:Mutations of ARVC desmosomal protein genes DSP, DSG2, PKP2, JUP and DSC2 exist in Yunnan sudden death cases and their relatives, which may be the genetic background factors of some Yunnan sudden death.

14.
Journal of Stroke ; : 1-11, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874960

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose The present study aimed to compare the efficacy and tolerability of different blood pressure (BP)-lowering strategies. @*Methods@#Randomized controlled trials that compared various antihypertensive treatments and stroke outcomes were included. Eligible trials were categorized into three scenarios: single or combination antihypertensive agents against placebos; single or combination agents against other agents; and different BP-lowering targets. The primary efficacy outcome was the risk reduction pertaining to strokes. The tolerability outcome was the withdrawal of drugs, owing to drug-related side effects (PROSPERO registration number CRD42018118454 [20/12/2018]). @*Results@#The present study included 93 trials (average follow-up duration, 3.3 years). In the pairwise analysis, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) and beta-blockers (BBs) were inferior to calcium channel blockers (CCBs) (odds ratio [OR], 1.123; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.008 to 1.252) (OR, 1.261; 95% CI, 1.116 to 1.425) for stroke prevention, BB was inferior to angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) (OR, 1.361; 95% CI, 1.142 to 1.622), and diuretics were superior to ACEi (OR, 0.871; 95% CI, 0.771 to 0.984). The combination of ACEi+CCB was superior to ACEi+diuretic (OR, 0.892; 95% CI, 0.823 to 0.966). The network meta-analysis confirmed that diuretics were superior to BB (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.58), ACEi+diuretic (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.08), BB+CCB (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.05 to 3.79), and renin inhibitors (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.25 to 2.75) for stroke prevention. Regarding the tolerability profile, the pairwise analysis revealed that ACEi was inferior to CCB and less tolerable, compared to the other treatments. @*Conclusions@#Monotherapy using diuretics, CCB, or ARB, and their combinations could be employed as first-line treatments for stroke prevention in terms of efficacy and tolerability.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873741

ABSTRACT

Since 2015 when the transmission of schistosomiasis was controlled in China, the country has been moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis, with the surveillance-response as the main interventions for schistosomiasis control. During the period of the 13th Five-Year Plan, the transmission of schistosomiasis had been interrupted in four provinces of Sichuan, Jiangsu, Yunnan and Hubei and the prevalence of schistosomiasis has been at the historically lowest level in China. As a consequence, the goal set in The 13th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China is almost achieved. However, there are multiple challenges during the stage moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China, including the widespread distribution of intermediate host snails and complicated snail habitats, many types of sources of Schistosoma japonicum infections and difficulty in management of bovines and sheep, unmet requirements for the current schistosomiasis control program with the currently available tools, and vulnerable control achievements. During the 14th Five-Year period, it is crucial to consolidate the schistosomiasis control achievements and gradually solve the above difficulties, and critical to provide the basis for achieving the ultimate goal of elimination of schistosomiasis in China. Based on the past experiences from the national schistosomiasis control program and the challenges for schistosomiasis elimination in China, an expert consensus has been reached pertaining to the objectives, control strategy and measures for The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China, so as to provide insights in to the development of The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910140

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the clinical feasibility of three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound (3D-CEUS) in the quantitative assessment of blood perfusion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Methods:Between January 2020 and August 2021, 36 HCC patients (39 lesions in total) confirmed by pathology and clinical diagnosis without any treatment from Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University were enrolled and underwent both 2D-CEUS and 3D-CEUS examinations. Each examination last for 150 s and all images were recorded, and then the data were analyzed. A region of interest was manually drawn along the margin of the whole tumor and then the time-intensity curve (TIC) generated. The following perfusion parameters were extracted: peak intensity (PI), peak time (TTP), ascending slope (AS), mean transit time (MTT) and area under the curve (AUC). After calculating the quality of fit (QOF) of the curve, the intraobserver agreement of the 3D-CEUS quantitative parameters obtained by the same doctor between two times were assessed, and the consistency of the 3D-CEUS and 2D-CEUS quantitative parameters was evaluated when QOF>75%. The differences of the quantitative parameters between different groups (divided by depth of 8 cm and necrosis rate of 50%, respectively) in 3D-CEUS were compared.Results:There were 38 lesions (97.4%, 38/39) with QOF>75% in 3D-CEUS. The intraobserver agreement was excellent, the intraclass correlation efficient(ICC) values was 0.85-0.99. The consistency of the time quantitative parameters (TTP and MTT) were high (the ICC values of 0.87 and 0.91), and the correlation of intensity quantitative parameters were substantial, the rs values were 0.71, 0.72 and 0.71. The differences in 3D-CEUS quantitative parameters of the two groups of lesions with different depths were statistically significant (all P<0.05); but there were no significant differences in quantitative parameters between the two groups with different necrosis rate (all P>0.05). Conclusions:Quantitative 3D-CEUS is an useful and creditable tool in evaluating the blood perfusion of HCC, especially when the depth of lesion was less than 8 cm.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910132

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the diagnostic performance of ultrasound attenuation imaging (ATI) in grading the degree of hepatic steatosis in metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD).Methods:The liver gray-scale ultrasound and ATI examinations were performed on 212 subjects who were treated in Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University from August 2020 to March 2021. The attenuation coefficient(AC) values among different degrees of hepatic steatosis were analyzed and the diagnostic performance of ATI was evaluated. Relationships between AC values and clinical characteristics were assessed by Pearson′s correlation analysis.Results:The AC values for normal liver, mild, moderate and severe fatty liver were (0.56±0.05)dB·cm -1·MHz -1, (0.68±0.09)dB·cm -1·MHz -1, (0.82±0.09)dB·cm -1·MHz -1, (0.94±0.09)dB·cm -1·MHz -1, respectively. There were significant differences in AC values among different hepatic steatosis divisions( P<0.008). There was highly significant correlation between AC values and the degree of hepatic steatosis( r=0.860, P<0.01), moderate correlation between AC values and BMI( r=0.425, P<0.01), weak correlation between AC values and HDL-C( r=-0.237, P=0.029), no correlations between AC values and age, TC, TG, LDL-C ( r=0.083, 0.055, 0.133, -0.039, all P>0.05) .The areas under the receiver operating characteristics curve of ATI for mild fatty liver and above, moderate fatty liver and above, severe fatty liver and above were 0.958, 0.962, 0.918; the sensitivity were 90.1%, 95.8%, 94.9%, the specificity were 96.1%, 87.1%, 73.9%, and the cut-off values were 0.666 dB·cm -1·MHz -1, 0.719 dB·cm -1·MHz -1, 0.803 dB·cm -1·MHz -1, respectively. Conclusions:ATI is a reliable and convenient method for evaluating the degree of hepatic steatosis in MAFLD.

18.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 605-609, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909062

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the mutation of desmosomal protein gene of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) in people from Yunnan unexplained sudden death (YUSD) area in Xiangyun County, Dali Prefecture, Yunnan Province, and to explore the etiological relationship between the mutation of ARVC desmosomal protein gene and YUSD.Methods:The autopsy cardiac blood sample of YUSD case ( n = 1) and the peripheral venous blood samples of the same time case ( n = 1) and relatives of YUSD case ( n = 16) were collected in Xiangyun County. Blood DNA was extracted for PCR amplification and sequencing of a total of 97 exons of the ARVC desmosomal protein genes [plakophilin 2 (PKP2), junction plakoglobin (JUP), desmoplakin (DSP), desmoglein 2 (DSG2) and desmocollin 2 (DSC2)] were conducted by Sanger method. At the same time, basic information and genetic family of YUSD case, the same time case and relatives of YUSD case were investigated, and gene mutations were comprehensively analyzed. Results:The YUSD case and the same time case carried JUP, DSP and DSG2 gene mutations. Among the relatives of YUSD case, 2, 14, 16, 15 and 4 cases had mutations in PKP2, JUP, DSP, DSG2 and DSC2 genes, respectively. The YUSD case, the same time case and the relatives of YUSD case carried 6 identical mutation sites: JUP gene exon 3 c.213 T>C synonymous mutation, exon 14 c.2089 A>T missense mutation; DSP gene exon 19 c.2631 G>A synonymous mutation, exon 24 c.8472 G>C synonymous mutation; DSG2 gene exon 8 c.861 C>T synonymous mutation, and exon 15 c.3321 T>C synonymous mutation.Conclusion:In Xiangyun County, six identical mutation sites (JUP gene c.213 T>C and c.2089 A>T, DSP gene c.2631 G>A and c.8472 G>C, DSG2 gene c.861 C>T and c.3321 T>C) carried by YUSD case, the same time case and the relatives of YUSD case may be related to the incidence of some YUSD cases.

19.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 400-408, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888440

ABSTRACT

Although localized prostate cancer (PCa) can be cured by prostatectomy and radiotherapy, the development of effective therapeutic approaches for advanced prostate cancer, including castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) and neuroendocrine PCa (NEPC), is lagging far behind. Identifying a novel prognostic and diagnostic biomarker for early diagnosis and intervention is an urgent clinical need. Here, we report that apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), the major component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), is upregulated in PCa based on both bioinformatics and experimental evidence. The fact that advanced PCa shows strong ApoA-I expression reflects its potential role in driving therapeutic resistance and disease progression by reprogramming the lipid metabolic network of tumor cells. Molecularly, ApoA-I is regulated by MYC, a frequently amplified oncogene in late-stage PCa. Altogether, our findings have revealed a novel indicator to predict prognosis and recurrence, which would benefit patients who are prone to progress to metastasis or even NEPC, which is the lethal subtype of PCa.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887861

ABSTRACT

Objective To discuss the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound(CEUS)parameters in evaluating the formation of Kimmelstiel-Wilson(K-W)nodules in diabetic nephropathy(DN).Methods Sixty-two patients pathologically diagnosed with DN and undergoing CEUS in the First Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital from March 2017 to January 2020 were assigned into two groups according to whether K-W nodules were formed.The cortical CEUS parameters and the ratios of cortical to medullary CEUS parameters were compared between the two groups.Results The 62 patients included 19 patients without K-W nodules(group A)and 43 patients with K-W nodules(group B).The median rise time(


Subject(s)
Contrast Media , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Nephropathies/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Ultrasonography
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