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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873741

ABSTRACT

Since 2015 when the transmission of schistosomiasis was controlled in China, the country has been moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis, with the surveillance-response as the main interventions for schistosomiasis control. During the period of the 13th Five-Year Plan, the transmission of schistosomiasis had been interrupted in four provinces of Sichuan, Jiangsu, Yunnan and Hubei and the prevalence of schistosomiasis has been at the historically lowest level in China. As a consequence, the goal set in The 13th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China is almost achieved. However, there are multiple challenges during the stage moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China, including the widespread distribution of intermediate host snails and complicated snail habitats, many types of sources of Schistosoma japonicum infections and difficulty in management of bovines and sheep, unmet requirements for the current schistosomiasis control program with the currently available tools, and vulnerable control achievements. During the 14th Five-Year period, it is crucial to consolidate the schistosomiasis control achievements and gradually solve the above difficulties, and critical to provide the basis for achieving the ultimate goal of elimination of schistosomiasis in China. Based on the past experiences from the national schistosomiasis control program and the challenges for schistosomiasis elimination in China, an expert consensus has been reached pertaining to the objectives, control strategy and measures for The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China, so as to provide insights in to the development of The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876301

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the epidemical characteristics and analyze the incidence trend of novel coronavirus pneumonia(NCP) in Shanghai. Methods The epidemical data on NCP in Shanghai from January 20 to February 3, 2020 were collected for epidemiological descriptive analysis. Results The number of cumulative confirmed and suspected cases increased first and then decreased from January 20 to February 3, with the peak date being January 30 and January 29 respectively.The day-on-day growth rate of the suspected cases and the cumulative confirmed cases declined after January 27.Among the confirmed cases, the proportion of the exposure history of relevant confirmed cases was on the rise.The total number of confirmed cases of the resident population exceeded that of the population from other places to Shanghai, and Pudong new area had the largest number of confirmed cases. Conclusion The incidence of NCP shows a slowdown trend in shanghai, but it also faces the pressure of the peak of population returning to city, which should be paid enough attention to.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876283

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the epidemical characteristics and analyze the incidence trend of novel coronavirus pneumonia(NCP) in Shanghai. Methods The epidemical data on NCP in Shanghai from January 20 to February 3, 2020 were collected for epidemiological descriptive analysis. Results The number of cumulative confirmed and suspected cases increased first and then decreased from January 20 to February 3, with the peak date being January 30 and January 29 respectively.The day-on-day growth rate of the suspected cases and the cumulative confirmed cases declined after January 27.Among the confirmed cases, the proportion of the exposure history of relevant confirmed cases was on the rise.The total number of confirmed cases of the resident population exceeded that of the population from other places to Shanghai, and Pudong new area had the largest number of confirmed cases. Conclusion The incidence of NCP shows a slowdown trend in shanghai, but it also faces the pressure of the peak of population returning to city, which should be paid enough attention to.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876236

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the spatial-temporal distribution characteristics of varicella outbreak in Jiading District in Shanghai from 2015 to 2018. Methods Varicella epidemic report data was collected from the national system of disease control and prevention and analyzed by spatial-temporal scanning statistic methods. Results There were 5 889 varicella cases reported from the year 2015 to 2018, and the annual average incidence rate was 91.68 per 100 000.The incidence rate for children below 3 years old was found to be the highest, reaching 621.45 per 100 000, which was significantly higher than that for the group of 18 years old and above (χ2=16 616.788, P < 0.001).There were 5.41% and 5.31% of the cases in September and February, respectively, which were lower than other months, and the peak incidence occurred in December and November, accounting for 13.41% and 11.95%, respectively.The highest and lowest incidence rates were 151.80 per 100 000 occurring in central urban area and 59.89 per 100 000 in rural area, respectively.The spatial-temporal scanning showed that the low population density area had a wide cluster range and a low effect value.The high population density area has small cluster range and high effect value. Conclusion The incidence of vanicella presents a trend of population, seasonal and regional clustering.Therefore, targeted measure should be taken to prevent varicella in focus population.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788955

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the epidemical characteristics and analyze the incidence trend of novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) in Shanghai. Methods The epidemical data on NCP in Shanghai from January 20 to February 3, 2020 were collected for epidemiological descriptive analysis. Results The number of cumulative confirmed and suspected cases increased first and then decreased from January 20 to February 3, with the peak date being January 30 and January 29 respectively. The day-on-day growth rate of the suspected cases and the cumulative confirmed cases declined after January 27. Among the confirmed cases, the proportion of the exposure history of relevant confirmed cases was on the rise. The total number of confirmed cases of the resident population exceeded that of the population from other places to Shanghai, and Pudong new area had the largest number of confirmed cases. Conclusion The incidence of NCP showed a slowdown trend in shanghai, but it also faces the pressure of the peak of population returning to city, which should be paid enough attention to.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821661

ABSTRACT

As an ancient parasitic disease, schistosomiasis has been endemic in Dongting Lake areas for more than 2 100 years. In the early 20th century, the first human case of schistosomiasis in China was reported in Dongting Lake areas, which was paid extensive attention. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, large-scale schistosomiasis control activities were launched promptly in Dongting Lake areas, and great successes have been achieved following the three stages of control efforts, including the snail control-based stage, synchronous chemotherapy for humans and livestock-based control stage and infectious source control-based control stage. In 2015, transmission control of schistosomiasis was achieved in Hunan Province. This paper comprehensively describes the discovery and control of schistosomiasis, analyzes the challenges for the current schistosomiasis control programs and proposes the emphasis for future control activities in Dongting Lake areas, so as to provide insights into the schistosomiasis control program in this area.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821642

ABSTRACT

This paper describes the current epidemic characteristics and endemic status of schistosomiasis, analyzes the main challenges of schistosomiasis control and proposes the emphasis and interventions for future schistosomiasis control activities in Hunan Province, so as to provide insights into the elimination of schistosomiasis in Hunan Province.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821641

ABSTRACT

The culture of schistosomiasis control is specific in the history of Chinese culture. Broadly speaking, the culture of schistosomiasis control is a summary of specific social mood, social consciousness and material culture created by Chinese populations during the progress of schistosomiasis control since the founding of the People’s Republic of China. Narrowly speaking, the culture of schistosomiasis control is the spiritual culture that is jointly created and nurtured by schistosomiasis control workers since the founding of the People’s Republic of China. The spiritual features of Chinese schistosomiasis control culture are characterized by the patriotism and care about the people, the matter-to-fact attitude, the pioneering and enterprising spirit, and the spirit of sacrifice and dedication. The ultimate goal of the research on the culture of schistosomiasis control is to facilitate the achievement of the strategic goal of Healthy China 2030 as scheduled, accelerate the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis, and to promote the sustainable development of schistosomiasis control in China.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821623

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effects of water body environments on the microbial community of Oncomelania hupensis snails in marshlands of the eastern Dongting Lake where natural extinction of O. hupensis snails are found, so as to explore the correlation between the natural extinction of O. hupensis snails and the microbial community in snails. Methods Snails were caged water bodies in the Qianliang Lake marshland (Qianliang Lake regions) where natural extinction of snails was found and in the Junshan Park marshland (Junshan Park regions) in the eastern Dongting Lake for 30 days, and then all snails were collected and identified for survival or death. DNA sequencing of the fungi and bacteria was performed in snails before and after immersion in waters, and the biodiversity and abundance were analyzed. Results The survival rates of O. hupensis snails were 28.0% (70/250) and 64.8% (162/250) in Qianliang Lake regions and Junshan Park regions 30 days after immersion in waters, respectively (χ2 = 81.365, P < 0.01). The number of the fungal community and the biodiversity of the bacterial community were both greater in snails caged in Qianliang Lake regions post-immersion than pre-immersion, and there was a significant difference in the structure of the fungal and bacterial communities. The microbial community with a significant difference included Flavobacteriaceae,which was harmful to O. hupensis snails. Conclusion The water body environment affects the composition of the microbial community in O. hupensis snails in marshlands with natural snail distinction around the eastern Dongting Lake; however, further studies are required to investigate whether the natural distinction of snails is caused by water body environments-induced changes of the microbial spectrum in O. hupensis snails.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818947

ABSTRACT

Spatial epidemiology is a new branch of epidemiology, and is a subject that mainly analyzes the geographical distribution and changes of population health or diseases and its related impact factors. Recently, spatial epidemiology has been extensively applied in the prevention and control of parasitic diseases in China, and delightful results have been achieved. However, the research and application of theories and methods of spatial epidemiology are still needed to protect the people’s health in China.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818914

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis is a modern disease name, but it has been widespread in ancient China and exists in a specific form in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) . The purpose of the paper is to make clear the existing form of schistosomiasis in TCM and infer the prevalence of schistosomiasis in ancient China. The paper focuses on the period when great progress was made on schistosomiasis by TCM, and sums up the understanding of TCM toward schistosomiasis in this period. By studying and analyzing the literature of schistosomiasis in this period, the paper tries to find out the representative Chinese medicine symptom description and TCM "other name" of schistosomiasis, so as to accurately judge whether the relevant description in ancient TCM books and historical documents can provide scientific basis for schistosomiasis. It is important to understand the prevalence and cognition of schistosomiasis in ancient China.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818891

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the reasons of natural extinction of Oncomelania hupensis snails by comparing the difference of the water chemical properties between the snail-breeding marshland and non-snail marshland in Eastern Dongting Lake areas. Methods Three adjoining marshlands in Eastern Dongting Lake areas were selected, one was a snail-breeding marshland, the second was a non-snail marshland, and the third was a boundary zone between them. During the periods of water-rising season, wet season and water-falling season, the water samples from the bottom of 0.5 m were collected by the systematic random sampling method (200 m × 200 m grid method). In addition, the water samples below the surface of 0.5 m were also collected in the wet season. The physicochemical indexes of the sampling water were detected. Results According to the Surface Water Environmental Quality Standard (GB 3838–2002), the water quality indicators which were less than the detection limit were Cr, Cd, Zn, Hg, Cu, S- and CN- during the three sampling seasons. The pollutants which were slightly higher than Grade III but lower than Grade IV (Hg ≤ 1 μg/L, TP ≤ 0.1 mg/L) were Hg and TP. The pollutants below the Grade III included As and F-. The temperature and pH values were within the Grade III. The oxygen consumption indicators covering DO, COD and BOD in the water-rising season and wet season were within the Grade III, while the value of BOD was beyond the scope of Grade III but was between Grade Ⅳ (≤ 6 mg/L) and Grade V (≤ 10 mg/L) in the water-falling season. The differences of the water pollution indexes between the snail-breeding marshland and non-snail marshland were statistically significant, and these indexes included F-, As and pH in the water-rising season (P < 0.05); pH, BOD and Fat the surface layer in the wet season (P < 0.05); F- at the bottom in the wet season (P < 0.05); TP and F- in the water-falling season. Moreover, the above-mentioned indexes in the non-snail marshland of Qianliang Lake were higher than those in the snail-breeding marshland of Junshan Park. Thus, F- was the only index which had statistical differences in every sampling season, and the concentration of F- at the non-snail marshland was also higher than that at the snail-breeding marshland. In the water-rising season, the pH value at the non-snail marshland exceeded the suitable range for the growth of snails (6.8 to 7.8). Conclusion In the Eastern Dongting Lake area, the high concentration of F- and pH of water may be responsible for the natural extinction of O. hupensis snails.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818769

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the reasons of natural extinction of Oncomelania hupensis snails by comparing the difference of the water chemical properties between the snail-breeding marshland and non-snail marshland in Eastern Dongting Lake areas. Methods Three adjoining marshlands in Eastern Dongting Lake areas were selected, one was a snail-breeding marshland, the second was a non-snail marshland, and the third was a boundary zone between them. During the periods of water-rising season, wet season and water-falling season, the water samples from the bottom of 0.5 m were collected by the systematic random sampling method (200 m × 200 m grid method). In addition, the water samples below the surface of 0.5 m were also collected in the wet season. The physicochemical indexes of the sampling water were detected. Results According to the Surface Water Environmental Quality Standard (GB 3838–2002), the water quality indicators which were less than the detection limit were Cr, Cd, Zn, Hg, Cu, S- and CN- during the three sampling seasons. The pollutants which were slightly higher than Grade III but lower than Grade IV (Hg ≤ 1 μg/L, TP ≤ 0.1 mg/L) were Hg and TP. The pollutants below the Grade III included As and F-. The temperature and pH values were within the Grade III. The oxygen consumption indicators covering DO, COD and BOD in the water-rising season and wet season were within the Grade III, while the value of BOD was beyond the scope of Grade III but was between Grade Ⅳ (≤ 6 mg/L) and Grade V (≤ 10 mg/L) in the water-falling season. The differences of the water pollution indexes between the snail-breeding marshland and non-snail marshland were statistically significant, and these indexes included F-, As and pH in the water-rising season (P < 0.05); pH, BOD and Fat the surface layer in the wet season (P < 0.05); F- at the bottom in the wet season (P < 0.05); TP and F- in the water-falling season. Moreover, the above-mentioned indexes in the non-snail marshland of Qianliang Lake were higher than those in the snail-breeding marshland of Junshan Park. Thus, F- was the only index which had statistical differences in every sampling season, and the concentration of F- at the non-snail marshland was also higher than that at the snail-breeding marshland. In the water-rising season, the pH value at the non-snail marshland exceeded the suitable range for the growth of snails (6.8 to 7.8). Conclusion In the Eastern Dongting Lake area, the high concentration of F- and pH of water may be responsible for the natural extinction of O. hupensis snails.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818495

ABSTRACT

Spatial epidemiology is a new branch of epidemiology, and is a subject that mainly analyzes the geographical distribution and changes of population health or diseases and its related impact factors. Recently, spatial epidemiology has been extensively applied in the prevention and control of parasitic diseases in China, and delightful results have been achieved. However, the research and application of theories and methods of spatial epidemiology are still needed to protect the people’s health in China.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-815895

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis is one of the key diseases of surveillance and prevention in China. The elimination of schistosomiasis is of great significance to people’s health and social economy. With the development of spatial epidemiology, progress has been made in the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis, the prediction of spatial and temporal trends, and analysis of the environmental factors. This paper reviews the application of spatial epidemiology in the control and prevention of schistosomiasis and introduces the spatio-temporal distribution methods, spatial model, and application of remote sensing technology.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-704293

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis is one of a few endemic and infectious diseases,which are controlled by the specific prevention and control institutions in China.Through the review of historical data,this paper describes the construction,continuation and changes of schistosomiasis prevention and control institutions in different historical periods and systems,and analyzes and evalu-ates its historical function,contribution and status.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-704217

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the dynamic changes of Oncomelania hupensis snail densities in autumn and winter and the relationship between hydrological and meteorological factors and snail growth and decline.Methods From Octobers to De-cembers of 2007 to 2014,a bottomland close to eastern Dongting Lake was selected as the study field.The snails and elevation of the points were surveyed,and the hydrological and meteorological data were collected.The snail densities and death rates of every month were calculated.The meteorological and hydrological data were described,and the relationship between the snail densities and associated factors were fitted by the multiple regression model.Results The snail density was highest in October 2012(41.88 per 0.1 m2)and lowest in November 2008(1.23 per 0.1 m2).The snail mortality was highest in November 2008 (73.72%)and lowest in October 2012(1.09%).The multiple regression model found a linear relationship between hydrological and meteorological factors and snail densities.The correlation coefficient between the prediction of ln(snail density)and its mea-surements by using this model was 0.927(P=0.001).Conclusion The average minimum temperature in January and time of starting flood have an obvious influence on the snail densities in autumn and winter.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-704216

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of comprehensive schistosomiasis control measures with focus on total removal of cattle and sheep in Juanshan District,Yueyang City.Methods The schistosome infection status of human,cat-tle,sheep and Oncomelania hupensis snails and costs of control measures were gathered during the period of 2006 to 2016.The costs for different periods and cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated.Results The prevalence of schistosome infection in resi-dents in the pilot villages decreased from 3.44% in 2006 to 0 in 2016.The annual costs of schistosomiasis prevention and control were 4 708 500 yuan from 2006 to 2008,5 094 700 yuan from 2009 to 2012 and 9 522 700 yuan from 2013 to 2016.The cost-ef-fectiveness analysis showed that the average annual cost of reduction in the residents'infection rate by 1% were 79 500 yuan from 2006 to 2008,101 200 yuan from 2009 to 2012,and 95 200 yuan from 2013 to 2016,respectively. Conclusion The comprehensive schistosomiasis control strategy with focus on cattle and sheep removal in Junshan District is cost effective, which could be extended to other lake and marshland schistosomiasis endemic areas.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818855

ABSTRACT

This paper reviewed the prevention and control of schistosomiasis in the Yangtze River Basin in three stages, centered on the measures and achievements. It pointed out the key work of prevention and control which are infectious source control and effective surveillance at present stage. It will be beneficial to schistosomiasis control in China.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818792

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis is a modern disease name, but it has been widespread in ancient China and exists in a specific form in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) . The purpose of the paper is to make clear the existing form of schistosomiasis in TCM and infer the prevalence of schistosomiasis in ancient China. The paper focuses on the period when great progress was made on schistosomiasis by TCM, and sums up the understanding of TCM toward schistosomiasis in this period. By studying and analyzing the literature of schistosomiasis in this period, the paper tries to find out the representative Chinese medicine symptom description and TCM "other name" of schistosomiasis, so as to accurately judge whether the relevant description in ancient TCM books and historical documents can provide scientific basis for schistosomiasis. It is important to understand the prevalence and cognition of schistosomiasis in ancient China.

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