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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942371

ABSTRACT

Biological category is effective to indicate the evolution of organism populations between past and present. Conventional taxonomy of human parasites mainly depends on important morphological features, which suffers from a problem of categorizing related-genera species with similar morphological characteristics. With recent advances in molecular biological technologies, the effective applications of mitochondrial and ribosomal biomarkers and sequencing greatly improve the development of the taxonomic rank of human parasites. Worldwide, the classification of human parasites have been continuously revised and improved. Hereby, we re-categorize parasitic Protozoa, Trematoda, Cestoda and Nematoda, so as to provide insights into the researches on molecular systematics and genetic evolution of human parasites.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940943

ABSTRACT

Currently, the national schistosomiasis control program of China is moving from transmission interruption to elimination, and there are multiple challenges during the stage moving towards the progression of schistosomiasis elimination, including a high difficulty in shrinking snail-infested areas, unstable achievements for infectious source control, imperfect surveillance system and a reduction in schistosomiasis control and administration. Based on the core suggestions proposed in the 2022 WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis, recommendations on schistosomiasis surveillance system building, development of novel diagnostics, adjustment of the schistosomiasis control strategy and maintaining and improvements of the schistosomiasis control capability are proposed for the national schistosomiasis control program of China in the new era according to the actual status of schistosomiasis control in China. Formulation of the national schistosomiasis control strategy and goal from One Health perspective, verification of transmission interruption and elimination of schistosomiasis, precision implementation of schistosomiasis control interventions with adaptations to local circumstances, development and application of highly sensitive and specific diagnostics are recommended for elimination of schistosomiasis in China. In addition, the implementation of the 2022 WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis may guide the elimination of schistosomiasis in China.


Subject(s)
Animals , China/epidemiology , Goals , Humans , Schistosomiasis/prevention & control , Snails , World Health Organization
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940942

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that seriously hinders socioeconomic developments and threatens public health security. To achieve the global elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem by 2030, WHO released the guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis on February, 2022, with aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for schistosomiasis morbidity control, elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem, and ultimate interruption of schistosomiasis transmission in disease-endemic countries. Following concerted efforts for decades, great achievements have been obtained for schistosomiasis control in China where the disease was historically highly prevalent, and the country is moving towards schistosomiasis elimination. This article reviews the successful experiences from the national schistosmiasis control program in China, and summarizes their contributions to the formulation and implementation of the WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis. With the progress of the "Belt and Road" initiative, the world is looking forward to more China's solutions on schistosomiasis control.


Subject(s)
China/epidemiology , Disease Eradication , Humans , Public Health , Schistosomiasis/prevention & control , World Health Organization
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940940

ABSTRACT

On February 2022, WHO released the evidence-based guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis, with aims to guide the elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem in disease-endemic countries by 2030 and promote the interruption of schistosomiasis transmission across the world. Based on the One Health concept, six evidence-based recommendations were proposed in this guideline. This article aims to analyze the feasibility of key aspects of this guideline in Chinese national schistosomiasis control program and illustrate the significance to guide the future actions for Chinese national schistosomiasis control program. Currently, the One Health concept has been embodied in the Chinese national schistosomiasis control program. Based on this new WHO guideline, the following recommendations are proposed for the national schistosomiasis control program of China: (1) improving the systematic framework building, facilitating the agreement of the cross-sectoral consensus, and building a high-level leadership group; (2) optimizing the current human and livestock treatments in the national schistosomiasis control program of China; (3) developing highly sensitive and specific diagnostics and the framework for verifying elimination of schistosomiasis; (4) accelerating the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis and other parasitic diseases through integrating the national control programs for other parasitic diseases.


Subject(s)
China/epidemiology , Disease Eradication , Humans , Public Health , Schistosomiasis/prevention & control , World Health Organization
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873741

ABSTRACT

Since 2015 when the transmission of schistosomiasis was controlled in China, the country has been moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis, with the surveillance-response as the main interventions for schistosomiasis control. During the period of the 13th Five-Year Plan, the transmission of schistosomiasis had been interrupted in four provinces of Sichuan, Jiangsu, Yunnan and Hubei and the prevalence of schistosomiasis has been at the historically lowest level in China. As a consequence, the goal set in The 13th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China is almost achieved. However, there are multiple challenges during the stage moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China, including the widespread distribution of intermediate host snails and complicated snail habitats, many types of sources of Schistosoma japonicum infections and difficulty in management of bovines and sheep, unmet requirements for the current schistosomiasis control program with the currently available tools, and vulnerable control achievements. During the 14th Five-Year period, it is crucial to consolidate the schistosomiasis control achievements and gradually solve the above difficulties, and critical to provide the basis for achieving the ultimate goal of elimination of schistosomiasis in China. Based on the past experiences from the national schistosomiasis control program and the challenges for schistosomiasis elimination in China, an expert consensus has been reached pertaining to the objectives, control strategy and measures for The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China, so as to provide insights in to the development of The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904621

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the impact of water pollutants, water levels and meteorological factors on the Oncomelania hupensis density in Eastern Dongting Lake regions, so as to provide insights into schistosomiasis control. Methods O. hupensis snails were surveyed using a systematic sampling method in snail-infested marshlands in Eastern Dongting Lake regions from 2007 to 2014, and data pertaining to water pollutants, water levels and meteorological factors were collected. The duration of submergence and the date of the start of submergence were calculated. The snail density and its influencing factors were descriptively analyzed, and a linear mixed model was generated to examine the impacts of variables on the snail density. In addition, smooth curves were fitted to investigate the relationship between snail density and variables. Results The snail density appeared a fluctuation in Eastern Dongting Lake regions during the period from 2007 to 2014, with the highest density on October, 2010 (52.79 snails/0.1 m2) and the lowest density on January 2009 (2.15 snails/0.1 m2). Linear mixed-model analysis showed that permanganate index, total phosphorus and the date of the start of submergence affected the snail density (t = 6.386, −2.920 and −3.892, all P values < 0.01). Smooth curve analysis revealed that the associations of the snail density with the permanganate index and total phosphorus appeared an approximately quadratic curve. After the end of April, the earlier date of the start of submergence resulted in a higher snail density. Conclusion Permenganate index, total phosphorus and the date of the start of submergence affect the O. hupensis snail density in Eastern Dongting Lake regions.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876301

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the epidemical characteristics and analyze the incidence trend of novel coronavirus pneumonia(NCP) in Shanghai. Methods The epidemical data on NCP in Shanghai from January 20 to February 3, 2020 were collected for epidemiological descriptive analysis. Results The number of cumulative confirmed and suspected cases increased first and then decreased from January 20 to February 3, with the peak date being January 30 and January 29 respectively.The day-on-day growth rate of the suspected cases and the cumulative confirmed cases declined after January 27.Among the confirmed cases, the proportion of the exposure history of relevant confirmed cases was on the rise.The total number of confirmed cases of the resident population exceeded that of the population from other places to Shanghai, and Pudong new area had the largest number of confirmed cases. Conclusion The incidence of NCP shows a slowdown trend in shanghai, but it also faces the pressure of the peak of population returning to city, which should be paid enough attention to.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876283

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the epidemical characteristics and analyze the incidence trend of novel coronavirus pneumonia(NCP) in Shanghai. Methods The epidemical data on NCP in Shanghai from January 20 to February 3, 2020 were collected for epidemiological descriptive analysis. Results The number of cumulative confirmed and suspected cases increased first and then decreased from January 20 to February 3, with the peak date being January 30 and January 29 respectively.The day-on-day growth rate of the suspected cases and the cumulative confirmed cases declined after January 27.Among the confirmed cases, the proportion of the exposure history of relevant confirmed cases was on the rise.The total number of confirmed cases of the resident population exceeded that of the population from other places to Shanghai, and Pudong new area had the largest number of confirmed cases. Conclusion The incidence of NCP shows a slowdown trend in shanghai, but it also faces the pressure of the peak of population returning to city, which should be paid enough attention to.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876236

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the spatial-temporal distribution characteristics of varicella outbreak in Jiading District in Shanghai from 2015 to 2018. Methods Varicella epidemic report data was collected from the national system of disease control and prevention and analyzed by spatial-temporal scanning statistic methods. Results There were 5 889 varicella cases reported from the year 2015 to 2018, and the annual average incidence rate was 91.68 per 100 000.The incidence rate for children below 3 years old was found to be the highest, reaching 621.45 per 100 000, which was significantly higher than that for the group of 18 years old and above (χ2=16 616.788, P < 0.001).There were 5.41% and 5.31% of the cases in September and February, respectively, which were lower than other months, and the peak incidence occurred in December and November, accounting for 13.41% and 11.95%, respectively.The highest and lowest incidence rates were 151.80 per 100 000 occurring in central urban area and 59.89 per 100 000 in rural area, respectively.The spatial-temporal scanning showed that the low population density area had a wide cluster range and a low effect value.The high population density area has small cluster range and high effect value. Conclusion The incidence of vanicella presents a trend of population, seasonal and regional clustering.Therefore, targeted measure should be taken to prevent varicella in focus population.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788955

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the epidemical characteristics and analyze the incidence trend of novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) in Shanghai. Methods The epidemical data on NCP in Shanghai from January 20 to February 3, 2020 were collected for epidemiological descriptive analysis. Results The number of cumulative confirmed and suspected cases increased first and then decreased from January 20 to February 3, with the peak date being January 30 and January 29 respectively. The day-on-day growth rate of the suspected cases and the cumulative confirmed cases declined after January 27. Among the confirmed cases, the proportion of the exposure history of relevant confirmed cases was on the rise. The total number of confirmed cases of the resident population exceeded that of the population from other places to Shanghai, and Pudong new area had the largest number of confirmed cases. Conclusion The incidence of NCP showed a slowdown trend in shanghai, but it also faces the pressure of the peak of population returning to city, which should be paid enough attention to.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821661

ABSTRACT

As an ancient parasitic disease, schistosomiasis has been endemic in Dongting Lake areas for more than 2 100 years. In the early 20th century, the first human case of schistosomiasis in China was reported in Dongting Lake areas, which was paid extensive attention. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, large-scale schistosomiasis control activities were launched promptly in Dongting Lake areas, and great successes have been achieved following the three stages of control efforts, including the snail control-based stage, synchronous chemotherapy for humans and livestock-based control stage and infectious source control-based control stage. In 2015, transmission control of schistosomiasis was achieved in Hunan Province. This paper comprehensively describes the discovery and control of schistosomiasis, analyzes the challenges for the current schistosomiasis control programs and proposes the emphasis for future control activities in Dongting Lake areas, so as to provide insights into the schistosomiasis control program in this area.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821642

ABSTRACT

This paper describes the current epidemic characteristics and endemic status of schistosomiasis, analyzes the main challenges of schistosomiasis control and proposes the emphasis and interventions for future schistosomiasis control activities in Hunan Province, so as to provide insights into the elimination of schistosomiasis in Hunan Province.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821641

ABSTRACT

The culture of schistosomiasis control is specific in the history of Chinese culture. Broadly speaking, the culture of schistosomiasis control is a summary of specific social mood, social consciousness and material culture created by Chinese populations during the progress of schistosomiasis control since the founding of the People’s Republic of China. Narrowly speaking, the culture of schistosomiasis control is the spiritual culture that is jointly created and nurtured by schistosomiasis control workers since the founding of the People’s Republic of China. The spiritual features of Chinese schistosomiasis control culture are characterized by the patriotism and care about the people, the matter-to-fact attitude, the pioneering and enterprising spirit, and the spirit of sacrifice and dedication. The ultimate goal of the research on the culture of schistosomiasis control is to facilitate the achievement of the strategic goal of Healthy China 2030 as scheduled, accelerate the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis, and to promote the sustainable development of schistosomiasis control in China.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821623

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effects of water body environments on the microbial community of Oncomelania hupensis snails in marshlands of the eastern Dongting Lake where natural extinction of O. hupensis snails are found, so as to explore the correlation between the natural extinction of O. hupensis snails and the microbial community in snails. Methods Snails were caged water bodies in the Qianliang Lake marshland (Qianliang Lake regions) where natural extinction of snails was found and in the Junshan Park marshland (Junshan Park regions) in the eastern Dongting Lake for 30 days, and then all snails were collected and identified for survival or death. DNA sequencing of the fungi and bacteria was performed in snails before and after immersion in waters, and the biodiversity and abundance were analyzed. Results The survival rates of O. hupensis snails were 28.0% (70/250) and 64.8% (162/250) in Qianliang Lake regions and Junshan Park regions 30 days after immersion in waters, respectively (χ2 = 81.365, P < 0.01). The number of the fungal community and the biodiversity of the bacterial community were both greater in snails caged in Qianliang Lake regions post-immersion than pre-immersion, and there was a significant difference in the structure of the fungal and bacterial communities. The microbial community with a significant difference included Flavobacteriaceae,which was harmful to O. hupensis snails. Conclusion The water body environment affects the composition of the microbial community in O. hupensis snails in marshlands with natural snail distinction around the eastern Dongting Lake; however, further studies are required to investigate whether the natural distinction of snails is caused by water body environments-induced changes of the microbial spectrum in O. hupensis snails.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818947

ABSTRACT

Spatial epidemiology is a new branch of epidemiology, and is a subject that mainly analyzes the geographical distribution and changes of population health or diseases and its related impact factors. Recently, spatial epidemiology has been extensively applied in the prevention and control of parasitic diseases in China, and delightful results have been achieved. However, the research and application of theories and methods of spatial epidemiology are still needed to protect the people’s health in China.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818914

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis is a modern disease name, but it has been widespread in ancient China and exists in a specific form in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) . The purpose of the paper is to make clear the existing form of schistosomiasis in TCM and infer the prevalence of schistosomiasis in ancient China. The paper focuses on the period when great progress was made on schistosomiasis by TCM, and sums up the understanding of TCM toward schistosomiasis in this period. By studying and analyzing the literature of schistosomiasis in this period, the paper tries to find out the representative Chinese medicine symptom description and TCM "other name" of schistosomiasis, so as to accurately judge whether the relevant description in ancient TCM books and historical documents can provide scientific basis for schistosomiasis. It is important to understand the prevalence and cognition of schistosomiasis in ancient China.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818891

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the reasons of natural extinction of Oncomelania hupensis snails by comparing the difference of the water chemical properties between the snail-breeding marshland and non-snail marshland in Eastern Dongting Lake areas. Methods Three adjoining marshlands in Eastern Dongting Lake areas were selected, one was a snail-breeding marshland, the second was a non-snail marshland, and the third was a boundary zone between them. During the periods of water-rising season, wet season and water-falling season, the water samples from the bottom of 0.5 m were collected by the systematic random sampling method (200 m × 200 m grid method). In addition, the water samples below the surface of 0.5 m were also collected in the wet season. The physicochemical indexes of the sampling water were detected. Results According to the Surface Water Environmental Quality Standard (GB 3838–2002), the water quality indicators which were less than the detection limit were Cr, Cd, Zn, Hg, Cu, S- and CN- during the three sampling seasons. The pollutants which were slightly higher than Grade III but lower than Grade IV (Hg ≤ 1 μg/L, TP ≤ 0.1 mg/L) were Hg and TP. The pollutants below the Grade III included As and F-. The temperature and pH values were within the Grade III. The oxygen consumption indicators covering DO, COD and BOD in the water-rising season and wet season were within the Grade III, while the value of BOD was beyond the scope of Grade III but was between Grade Ⅳ (≤ 6 mg/L) and Grade V (≤ 10 mg/L) in the water-falling season. The differences of the water pollution indexes between the snail-breeding marshland and non-snail marshland were statistically significant, and these indexes included F-, As and pH in the water-rising season (P < 0.05); pH, BOD and Fat the surface layer in the wet season (P < 0.05); F- at the bottom in the wet season (P < 0.05); TP and F- in the water-falling season. Moreover, the above-mentioned indexes in the non-snail marshland of Qianliang Lake were higher than those in the snail-breeding marshland of Junshan Park. Thus, F- was the only index which had statistical differences in every sampling season, and the concentration of F- at the non-snail marshland was also higher than that at the snail-breeding marshland. In the water-rising season, the pH value at the non-snail marshland exceeded the suitable range for the growth of snails (6.8 to 7.8). Conclusion In the Eastern Dongting Lake area, the high concentration of F- and pH of water may be responsible for the natural extinction of O. hupensis snails.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818769

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the reasons of natural extinction of Oncomelania hupensis snails by comparing the difference of the water chemical properties between the snail-breeding marshland and non-snail marshland in Eastern Dongting Lake areas. Methods Three adjoining marshlands in Eastern Dongting Lake areas were selected, one was a snail-breeding marshland, the second was a non-snail marshland, and the third was a boundary zone between them. During the periods of water-rising season, wet season and water-falling season, the water samples from the bottom of 0.5 m were collected by the systematic random sampling method (200 m × 200 m grid method). In addition, the water samples below the surface of 0.5 m were also collected in the wet season. The physicochemical indexes of the sampling water were detected. Results According to the Surface Water Environmental Quality Standard (GB 3838–2002), the water quality indicators which were less than the detection limit were Cr, Cd, Zn, Hg, Cu, S- and CN- during the three sampling seasons. The pollutants which were slightly higher than Grade III but lower than Grade IV (Hg ≤ 1 μg/L, TP ≤ 0.1 mg/L) were Hg and TP. The pollutants below the Grade III included As and F-. The temperature and pH values were within the Grade III. The oxygen consumption indicators covering DO, COD and BOD in the water-rising season and wet season were within the Grade III, while the value of BOD was beyond the scope of Grade III but was between Grade Ⅳ (≤ 6 mg/L) and Grade V (≤ 10 mg/L) in the water-falling season. The differences of the water pollution indexes between the snail-breeding marshland and non-snail marshland were statistically significant, and these indexes included F-, As and pH in the water-rising season (P < 0.05); pH, BOD and Fat the surface layer in the wet season (P < 0.05); F- at the bottom in the wet season (P < 0.05); TP and F- in the water-falling season. Moreover, the above-mentioned indexes in the non-snail marshland of Qianliang Lake were higher than those in the snail-breeding marshland of Junshan Park. Thus, F- was the only index which had statistical differences in every sampling season, and the concentration of F- at the non-snail marshland was also higher than that at the snail-breeding marshland. In the water-rising season, the pH value at the non-snail marshland exceeded the suitable range for the growth of snails (6.8 to 7.8). Conclusion In the Eastern Dongting Lake area, the high concentration of F- and pH of water may be responsible for the natural extinction of O. hupensis snails.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818495

ABSTRACT

Spatial epidemiology is a new branch of epidemiology, and is a subject that mainly analyzes the geographical distribution and changes of population health or diseases and its related impact factors. Recently, spatial epidemiology has been extensively applied in the prevention and control of parasitic diseases in China, and delightful results have been achieved. However, the research and application of theories and methods of spatial epidemiology are still needed to protect the people’s health in China.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-815895

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis is one of the key diseases of surveillance and prevention in China. The elimination of schistosomiasis is of great significance to people’s health and social economy. With the development of spatial epidemiology, progress has been made in the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis, the prediction of spatial and temporal trends, and analysis of the environmental factors. This paper reviews the application of spatial epidemiology in the control and prevention of schistosomiasis and introduces the spatio-temporal distribution methods, spatial model, and application of remote sensing technology.

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